兽类学报

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中国猕猴生态学研究进展

路纪琪 田军东 张鹏   

  1. 郑州大学生物多样性与生态学研究所
  • 出版日期:2018-01-30 发布日期:2018-04-09
  • 通讯作者: 路纪琪 E-mail: lujq@zzu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(31472018,31672302)

Advances in ecological research regarding rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in China

LU Jiqi,TIAN Jundong,ZHANG Peng   

  1. Institute of Biodiversity and Ecology, Zhengzhou University
  • Online:2018-01-30 Published:2018-04-09

摘要: 中国的灵长类学研究始于19世纪中期之后,而兴盛于20世纪80年代至今。猕猴(Macaca mulatta)是世界及中国分布最为广泛的一种非人灵长类动物,在中国境内分布于17个省(市、区),已被列为国家二级重点保护野生动物。迄今为止,学者们已对猕猴进行了包括地理分布、种群动态、食性、社会生态、保护生态等多方面的研究。本文拟对国内有关猕猴生态学方面的研究工作进行回顾与综述,以期通过对以往工作的汇总,梳理关于猕猴的研究线索与动态,并对今后的研究有所启示。

关键词: 猕猴, 生态学, 社会, 野生种群

Abstract: Research on primates in China started in the middle of the 19th century, and thrived from the 1980s to date. As a widely distributed non-human primate species worldwide, rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) was listed Grade 2 within Key Protected Wildlife of China. Researchers have published a cluster of works on macaques, including geographical distribution, population dynamics, food habits, social ecology, conservation ecology etc. In this paper, we reviewed the research advances in rhesus macaques in China. (1) geographical distribution and habitats: rhesus macaques occurred in 17 Provinces in China, and their habitats range from about 250 m a.s.l. to about 4000 m a.s.l. (2) populations and population increase: the current total population of rhesus macaques in China is about 96000 individuals. We have limited knowledge for population parameters of rhesus macaques except the Hainan macaques. (3) food habits: rhesus macaques in China feed on variety of food items which is in line with wide-spread distribution in various habitats; (4) activity rhythms: the published works mainly focused on the rhythm of foraging behavior, and showed that rhesus macaques exhibited two daily activity peaks; (5) reproductive ecology: rhesus macaques showed a seasonal reproduction pattern, and differed significantly in birth period, and lengths of pregnancy and lactation period between northernmost and southernmost populations. (6) social ecology: the society of rhesus macaques comprised multi-male and multi-female, based on matrilineal relationships. There were strict lineal dominance ranks among adult males and adult females, respectively. (7) behavior and behavioral ecology: researchers observed behaviors of rhesus macaques including calling, facial expression, and fighting. Ethnograms based on PAE (posture, action, environment) coding system have been established, which include 14 postures, 93 acts, 22 environments, and 121 behaviors that were categorized into 13 behavioral types. (8) conservation biology: researchers analyzed the population genetic diversity of rhesus macaques in China and some local areas, and provided support for local population protection. (9) sleeping site selection: a few studies examined sleeping site selection of rhesus macaques, and the results indicated that sleeping site selection was influenced by forest density, sheltering classes, slope gradients and climate. We put forward suggestions and implications for related studies in the near future.

Key words: Ecology, Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), Society, Wild population