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贵州赤水桫椤国家级自然保护区野猪危害特征与居民态度分析

粟海军 胡灿实 张明明 梁盛   

  1. 贵州大学生物多样性与自然保护研究中心
  • 出版日期:2018-07-30 发布日期:2018-07-18
  • 通讯作者: 粟海军 E- mail:hjsu@gzu.edu.cn

A study on the characteristics of crop damage caused by wild boar (Sus scrofa)and the attitudes of local residents in Chishui Alsophila National Nature Reserve, Guizhou Province, China

SU Haijun,HU Canshi,ZHANG Mingming,LIANG Sheng   

  1. Research Centre f or Biodiversity and Nature Conservation,Guizhou University
  • Online:2018-07-30 Published:2018-07-18

摘要:

野猪对农作物的危害是当前人与野生动物冲突的典型案例,分析其危害特征,掌握当地居民对野猪危害与保护管理的态度,对于自然保护区社区共管与野生动物保护管理决策尤为重要。对贵州赤水桫椤国家级自然保护区的调查研究发现,野猪一年四季均危害农作物,危害高峰期在 2-4 月与10-12 月,主要受作物收获期影响;农耕地在保护区的位置、距道路距离及距水源距离显著影响野猪对农耕地的危害,农耕地距道路(< 55 m)和水源越近(< 270 m),遭受危害程度越高。保护区的实验区和周边区域人居活动强烈,但野猪危害较其他区域严重,野猪危害农地时对水源因素较距居民点距离、距林缘距离、隐蔽因素更为敏感。70% 的当地居民认为野猪危害是由于种群数量过多引起。55% 的当地居民不赞同国家保护野猪的政策,62% 的赞同猎杀野猪控制其种群数量增长。受访者年龄与野猪危害程度两因素显著影响居民对野猪的容忍度,50 - 70 岁是当地社区居民的主要人群,也是态度中立及容忍度较高的人群。为有效减少野猪危害损失,调和人与野生动物冲突矛盾,建议保护区管理者根据野猪危害特征,帮助当地居民建立有效防控措施和有效快速的危害评估与损失补偿机制,同时根据当地居民的态度特征,做好保护政策的宣教工作。

关键词: 野猪, 危害特征, 居民态度, 人与野生动物冲突, 赤水桫椤国家级自然保护区

Abstract:

Crop damage caused by wild boars (Sus scrofa) can be currently regarded as a typical case of human-wildlife conflict. Analyzing the characteristics of the crop damage and understanding the attitudes of local residents on the damage and wildlife conservations, is very helpful to community-based management in Nature Reserves and wildlife conservation policy-making. An investigation was conducted in Chishui Alsophila Spinulosa National Nature Reserve (CCNNR), Guizhou province of China, and the results showed that,  wild boars damaged crops during all seasons but more severely during Feb. to Apr. and Oct. to Dec., which was influenced by crops harvest time. Spatially, the factors Locations of Cultivated Fields in the Nature Reserve, the Distance to Pathes, and the Distance to Water significantly contributed to the damage caused by wild boars, the cropland closer to a path (<55m) or to water (<270) were more damaged by wild boars. Although human activities happened frequently in the  Experimental Zone and the peripheral area of CCNNR, wild boar preferred to damage in these areas moreso than in other areas. The factor influencing wild boar preference was the Water Source which more significant than other factors of human disturbance and wildlife cover, such as Distance to Residence and Distance to Forest Edge. 70% of local residents thought the large size of the population of wild boar was the main reason for crop damage. 55% of local residents did not agree on the national policy of protecting wild boar, while 62% people supported hunting wild boar for controlling the population and reducing damage. The tolerance of local residents toward wild boar was significantly influenced both by the Age of Interviewee and Degree of Damage. People whose age ranged from 50 to 70 years old, the main proportion of local residents, bore relatively higher toleraance than did other age groups. In order to reduce economic damage and alleviate conflict, we suggest that the administrator of NR help the local people to apply the more effective measurements, and to build an effective rapid damage assessment and compensation system according to the characteristics of the crop damage, meanwhile, the conservation management on human dimension was also important based on the understanding of the attitudes of local residents.

Key words: Wild boar(Sus scrofa), Characteristics of crop damage, Attitude of local residents, Conflicts between human and wildlife, Chishui Alsophila spinulosa National Nature Reserve