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基于红外相机技术对帚尾豪猪活动节律和时间分配初步观察

汪国海 施泽攀 李生强 鲁长虎 周岐海   

  1. (1南京林业大学南方现代林业协同创新中心,南京林业大学生物与环境学院,南京 210037)
    (2广西师范大学,广西珍稀濒危动物生态学重点实验室,桂林 541004)
    (3中国医学科学院医学生物学研究所,昆明 650118)
  • 出版日期:2019-01-30 发布日期:2019-01-18
  • 通讯作者: 周岐海E-mail: zhouqh@ioz.ac.cn;鲁长虎E-mail: luchanghu@ njfu. com. cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(31670400, 31360093);广西自然科学基金项目(2015GXNSFDA139013);江苏高校优势学科建设工程项目

Preliminary observation on the activity rhythm and time budget of the Asiatic brush-tailed porcupine (Atherurus macrourus) based on camera-trapping data

WANG Guohai, SHI Zepan, LI Shengqiang, LU Changhu, ZHOU Qihai #br#   

  1. (1 Co-Innovation Center for Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, Nanjing Foresty University,
    College of Biology and the Environment, Nanjing 210037, China)
    (2 Guangxi Key Laboratory of Rare and Endangered Animal Ecology, Guilin 541004, China)
    (3 Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Kunming 650118, China)
  • Online:2019-01-30 Published:2019-01-18

摘要: 2012年8月-2013年7月,采用红外相机技术对广西弄岗国家级自然保护区15hm2森林动态监测样地及其周边区域内的帚尾豪猪(Atherurus macrourus)进行了观察,采用活动强度指数分析其活动节律和时间分配,探讨月相和环境因子对其活动节律和时间分配的影响。结果表明,不同时间段内帚尾豪猪的活动强度存在极显著差异(t=4.666, df=23, P=0.001),活动峰值出现在20:00~21:00和05:00~06:00;夜间主要以移动(63.2%)和觅食(23.6%)为主。帚尾豪猪各月份间的时间分配存在极显著差异(t=8.581, df=11, P=0.001),旱、雨季间的时间分配存在显著差异(Z=-2.166, P=0.03)。各月相间帚尾豪猪出现的频次存在显著差异(χ2=5.00, df=1, P=0.025),以新月期和满月期活动最为频繁,上弦月活动最少。相关性分析表明,活动强度指数与月降雨量、月最高温度及最低温度(R2=0.440,R2=0.435,R2=0. 457)都存在显著的负相关,帚尾豪猪最适的活动温区为10℃~26℃。本研究初步掌握了帚尾豪猪在弄岗保护区的活动节律和时间分配,有助于后期理解栖息地和气候变化对其活动的影响。

关键词: 帚尾豪猪, 红外相机技术, 活动节律, 时间分配, 喀斯特生境

Abstract: Data on the activity rhythms and time budgets of Asiatic brush-tailed porcupines (Atherurus macrourus)were collected by camera traps between August 2012 and July 2013 in the 15-ha Forest Dynamics Plot and its surrounding area in Nonggang National Nature Reserve. We used a relative activity intensity index to explore the influences of moon phase and other environmental factors on the activity rhythms and time budgets of porcupines. Results showed that activity intensity varied significantly over the course of the day (t=4.666, df=23, P=0.001), with two activity peaks: one from 20:00-21:00 and one from 5:00-6:00. Moving (63.2%) and foraging (23.6%) were the main nocturnal activities. There were significant differences in monthly time budgets (t=8.581, df=11, P=0.001), and significant difference between the rainy season and dry season (Z=-2.166, P=0.03). There were also marked variations in activity frequencies of porcupines during different phases of the moon (χ2=5, df=1, P=0.025), with the highest activity during the new moon and full moon phases. There were significant negative correlations between monthly activity intensity and monthly rainfall,maximum temperature,and minimum temperature (R2=0.440、R2=0.435、R2= 0.457, respectively), and we found the optimal temperature to be between 10℃ and 26℃. This research provides preliminary data for the activity rhythms and time budgets of porcupines in Nonggang, and could help us to understand possible effects on their activity due to ongoing habitat modification and climate change in future research.

Key words: Activity rhythm, Asiatic brush-tailed porcupine (Atherurus macrourus), Camera-trapping, Karst habitat, Time budget