兽类学报

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三江源国家公园兽类物种多样性及区系分析

蔡振媛1,2 覃雯1,2 高红梅1,2 吴彤1,2 迟翔文1,2 杨俊东1,2 苗紫燕1,2 张婧捷1,2 宋鹏飞1,2 连新明1,3 苏建平1,3 张同作1,3   

  1.  (1 中国科学院西北高原生物研究所,高原生物适应与进化重点实验室,西宁 810001)
    (2 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049)
    (3 青海省动物生态基因组学重点实验室, 西宁 810001)
  • 出版日期:2019-07-30 发布日期:2019-07-25
  • 通讯作者: 张同作 E-mail: zhangtz@nwipb.cas.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划课题(2017YFC0506405);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA2002030302);中国科学院关键技术人才项目;青海省重点研发与转化计划(2019-SF-150);三江源国家公园建设项目(2016-040-1)

Species diversity and fauna of mammals in Sangjingyuan National Park#br#

CAI Zhenyuan 1,2, QIN Wen 1,2, GAO Hongmei 1,2, WU Tong 1,2, CHI Xiangwen 1,2, YANG Jundong 1,2, MIAO Ziyan 1,2, ZHANG Jingjie 1,2, SONG Pengfei 1,2, LIAN Xinming 1,3, SU Jianping 1,3, ZHANG Tongzuo 1,3
  

  1. (1 Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Adaptation and Evolution of Plateau Biota, Xinning 810001, China)
    (2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijign 100049, China)
    (3 Qinghai Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Ecological Genomics, Xining 810001, China)
  • Online:2019-07-30 Published:2019-07-25

摘要:

为了解三江源国家公园野生兽类的分布现状,2015—2017年对园区进行了实地调查。根据调查结果并参考相关文献资料,三江源国家公园内野生兽类共62种,分别隶属8目19科44属。园区内兽类呈现出物种多样性高,珍稀濒危物种多,特有种多的特点:三江源国家公园内的兽类物种多样性G-F指数为0.77,表明该区域物种多样性处于很高水平。根据中国物种红色名录,20个物种受威胁(极危、濒危和易危),比例为32.26%,远高于国家整体水平;中国或青藏高原特有种29种,占46.77%。三江源国家公园在动物地理区划上属于古北界青藏区,在地理分布型上,以古北界成分为主,东洋界成分为辅,以古北界高山型成分最多,有25种,且资源量大,表明三江源国家公园的兽类以适应高寒气候的特殊种类为主。3个园区的平均动物区系相似性比较结果表明,长江源园区与澜沧江源园区为共同关系,黄河源园区与长江源园区和澜沧江源园区为密切关系。近些年,三江源地区的兽类保护工作取得了很好的效果,并得到国内外认可,本研究结合园区生物多样性和区系特点,根据保护现状,提出了今后的监测保护建议。

关键词: 三江源国家公园, 兽类, 物种多样性, 区系

Abstract:

The Sangjiangyuan National Park, locating in the hinterland of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, is the most concentrated area of plateau biology diversity. From 2015 to 2017, the faunas and distribution of wide mammals in Sangjiangyuan National Park were recorded in the national park. These 62 species belonged to 8 orders, 19 families, and 44 genera. From the classification system, the species of Carnivora, Rodentia, Artiodactyla were rich, and species of Chiroptera, Primates, Perissodactyla were poor. The mammal fauna feature of Sanjiangyuan National Park is high species diversity, existing many endemic species, key protected species and threatened species, which shows the extremely high conservation value. The results of G-F index showed that the species diversity was high in Sanjiangyuan National Park. A total of 28 species of mammals in the national park were included in key protected wildlife, accounting for 45.16% species distributed: 8 and 14 species were class I and II nationally key protected animals, respectively, and six species were listed in the list of key protected animals of Qinghai Province. And 20 species were classified as threatened (including critically endangered, endangered, vulnerable) category of Red List of China’s Vertebrates, accounting for 32.26% species distributed in Sangjingyuan National Park. 29 species were endemic to China or Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, accounting for 46.77%. The wild animal fauna of Sanjiangyuan National Park belongs to the Palearctic realm Qinghai-Tibet region and a total of 9 geographical distribution
pattern were identified, including 25 species of high alpine types which had great population amount. The results showed that the main species in Sanjiangyuan National Park highly adapted the dry-and-cold weather of the plateau. The results of average faunal resemblance analysis suggested that the Yellow River source park was closely related to Yangtze River source park and Lancang River source park, and the Yangtze River source park was consistently related Lancang River source park. In recent years, the work of mammals conservation in Sanjiangyuan area has achieved good results and has been recognized at home and abroad, and some suggestions for monitoring and protection in the future were put forward according to the current situation of the national park.

Key words: Sanjiangyuan National Park, Mammal, Diversity of species, Fauna