兽类学报

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武陵源世界自然遗产地兽类和鸟类多样性的红外相机初步监测

潘丹 吴炳贤 张冰 崔珊 张志强  胡新华  杨道德   

  1. (1 中南林业科技大学野生动植物保护研究所,长沙 410004)
    (2 武陵源世界自然遗产保护办公室,张家界427400) (3 永州市林业局,永州 425000)
  • 出版日期:2019-03-30 发布日期:2019-03-26
  • 通讯作者: 杨道德 E-mail:csfuyydd@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金面上项目 (31472021) ;武陵源世界自然遗产保护办公室委托项目(WLY-15001)

Preliminary survey on mammal and bird resources using camera traps in Wulingyuan World Natural Heritage Site, Hunan Province, China

PAN Dan, WU Bingxian, ZHANG Bing, CUI Shan, ZHANG Zhiqiang, HU Xinhua, YANG Daode   

  1. (1 Institute of Wildlife Conservation, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004, China)
    (2 Wulingyuan World Natural Heritage Protection Office, Zhangjiajie 427400, China)
    (3 Yongzhou Forestry Bureau, Yongzhou 425000, China)
  • Online:2019-03-30 Published:2019-03-26

摘要: 武陵源世界自然遗产地地处我国生物多样性关键区域之一的武陵山脉,保护优先级别高,但遗产地自建立以来一直未开展系统的野生动植物资源本底调查,这不利于遗产地的有效管理。为了掌握遗产地兽类和鸟类资源现状,促进生物多样性的科学保护,2016年1月至2017年7月,我们利用36台红外相机,在武陵源世界自然遗产地共布设了107 个位点,每个位点工作4个月左右。结果表明:共获得野生兽类独立有效照片607张,隶属于4目8科的14 种;物种相对丰富度指数排前7位的兽类依次是猕猴 (Macaca mulatta)、红腿长吻松鼠 (Dremomys pyrrhomerus)、猪獾 (Arctonyx collaris)、小麂 (Muntiacus reevesi)、鼬獾 (Melogale moschata)、花面狸 (Paguma larvata taivana)、毛冠鹿 (Elaphodus cephalophus)。共获得鸟类独立有效照片907张,隶属于5目10科的37 种;物种相对丰富度指数排前7位的鸟类依次是紫啸鸫 (Myophonus caeruleus)、红腹锦鸡 (Chrysolophus pictus)、虎斑地鸫 (Zoothera dauma)、红嘴蓝鹊 (Urocissa erythrorhyncha)、灰翅鸫 (Turdus boulboul)、黑领噪鹛 (Garrulax pectoralis)、松鸦 (Garrulus glandarius)。白颈长尾雉 (Syrmaticus ellioti) 为国家一级重点保护野生动物;红腹锦鸡、红腹角雉 (Tragopan temminckii)、勺鸡 (Pucrasia macrolopha)、凤头鹰 (Accipiter trivirgatus)、猕猴为国家二级重点保护野生动物。猕猴、红腹锦鸡、紫啸鸫和红腿长吻松鼠为日行性动物,猪獾为夜行性动物。红腹锦鸡、紫啸鸫和红腿长吻松鼠在12:00~14:00活动频率下降,原因可能是这几种动物通过降低活动频率来躲避中午的高温和减少能量消耗。

关键词: 红外相机技术, 生物多样性监测, 鸟类, 兽类, 日活动节律, 武陵源世界自然遗产地

Abstract: Wulingyuan World Natural Heritage Site is located in the Wuling Mountains in Hunan Province, one of the key areas of biodiversity in China, and has high protection priority. However, no systematic biodiversity survey has been carried out since it was established, which could hinder its effective management. To understand the current status of mammal and bird resources and promote the scientific protection of biodiversity in the area, we set up 36 infrared cameras at 107 sites from January 2016 to July 2017, with each site maintained for about 4 months. Among a total of 1514 independent photos, 607 independent photos of mammals belonging to 4 orders, 8 families, and 14 species were recorded. The 7 species with the highest relative abundance index (RAI) among the 14 mammal species were: rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), red-hipped squirrel (Dremomys pyrrhomerus), sand badger (Arctonyx collaris), Reeves’s muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi), Chinese ferret-badger (Melogale moschata), masked palm civet (Paguma larvata taivana), and tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus). There were 907 independent photos of birds belonging to 5 orders, 10 families, and 37 species. Among the 37 bird species, the 7 with the highest RAI were: blue whistling-thrush (Myophonus caeruleus), golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus), scaly thrush (Zoothera dauma), red-billed blue magpie (Urocissa erythrorhyncha), grey-winged blackbird (Turdus boulboul), greater necklaced laughing thrush (Garrulax pectoralis), and Eurasian jay (Garrulus glandarius). Elliot’s pheasant (Syrmaticus ellioti) is a Class I national protected species, while Chrysolophus pictus, Temminck’s tragopan (Tragopan temminckii), koklass pheasant (Pucrasia macrolopha), crested goshawk (Accipiter trivirgatus), and Macaca mulatta are Class II national protected species. Macaca mulatta, Chrysolophus pictus, Dremomys pyrrhomerus, and Myophonus caeruleus are diurnal species, while Arctonyx collaris is nocturnal. The activity frequency of Chrysolophus pictus, Myophonus caeruleus, and Dremomys pyrrhomerus decreased between 12:00 and 14:00. Possibly, these animals avoid high temperatures at noon to reduce the energy consumption associated with activity.

Key words: Biodiversity monitoring, Birds, Daily activity rhythm, Infrared camera traps, Mammals, Wulingyuan World Natural Heritage Site in Hunan Province