兽类学报

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中国海兽研究进展

杨光 徐士霞 陈炳耀 单磊   

  1. 南京师范大学生命科学学院
  • 出版日期:2018-11-30 发布日期:2018-11-26
  • 通讯作者: 杨光 E-mail:gyang@njnu.edu.cn

Advances in marine mammal research in China

YANG Guang, XU Shixia, CHEN Bingyao,SHAN Lei   

  1. School of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University
  • Online:2018-11-30 Published:2018-11-26

摘要:

中国是海兽大国,共有46种海兽在中国水域有分布,包括鲸类38种(Cetartiodactyla, Cetacea),海牛目儒艮科(Sirenia, Dugongidae)1种,食肉目鳍足类(Carnivora, Pinnipedia)5种和水獭亚科(Lutrinae)2种。从20世纪20年代开始,中国科学家围绕中国水域海兽的生物学与保护,通过多学科手段开展了一系列研究,特别是在白暨豚(Lipotes vexillifer)、江豚(Neophocaena spp.)和中华白海豚(Sousa chinensis)的生态学与保护、鲸类次生性水生适应的演化历史与适应机制、种群遗传多样性等方面,取得了一系列重要的创新进展,不仅促进了对中国海兽的认识,也推动中国海兽的保护工作取得成效。本文从海兽多样性、生态与保护生物学、形态与解剖学、饲养与繁殖生物学、声行为学、遗传与演化生物学以及基因组学等7个方面,较为系统地综述了中国海兽的研究进展。同时指出,海兽次生性水生适应历史及其演化机制,将是今后值得特别关注和需要深入揭示的重要科学问题;并且通过多学科手段揭示海兽的濒危机制与特点以提出促进其资源保护与管理措施,也具有十分重要的意义。

关键词: 中国水域, 海兽, 保护, 演化, 进展

Abstract:

China is a country with rich marine mammal resources, with a total of 46 species including 38 species of Cetacea, 1 of Dugongidae, 5 of Pinnipedia and 2 of Lutrinae,which provides Chinese scientists with excellent opportunities to study marine mammals. Since 1920s, Chinese scientists have carried out a series of studies on the biology and conservation of marine mammals in Chinese waters through multidisciplinary methods. Especially some important advances were made on the biology and conservation of the baiji (Lipotes vexillifer), finless porpoises (Neophocaena spp.) and Chinese white dolphins (Sousa chinensis), evolutionary history and adaptive mechanism of secondary aquatic adaptation, and population genetic diversity etc, which not only improved our understanding of understandings of marine mammals in China, but promoted their conservation and management. Here we reveiwed the research progresses of marine mammals in China from seven aspects such as diversity, ecology and conservation biology, morphology and anatomy,
breeding and reproductive biology, acoustic behavior, genetic and evolutionary biology, and genomics etc. In the future, some more attention should be paid to the evolutionary history and adaptive mechanism of secondary aquatic adaptation, whereas it is of great importance to reveal the mechanisms underlying the endangerment of marine mammals and provide adaptive strategies for their conservation and management.

Key words: Chinese waters, Marine mammals, Conservation, Evolution, Advances