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三江源和祁连山国家公园雪豹种群的遗传结构分析

张于光1 Charlotte Hacker2  张宇1  薛亚东1 乌力吉1, 3 代云川1 罗平4 谢然尼玛5 Jan E Janecka2 李迪强1
  

  1. (1 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所,国家林业和草原局生物多样性保护重点实验室,北京 100091)
    (2 美国杜肯大学拜耳自然与环境科学学院生物科学系,匹兹堡,PA 15210)
    (3甘肃盐池湾国家级自然保护区,肃北 736300)
    (4 重庆市武隆区国有白马山林场,重庆 408500)
    (5 青海省治多县索加乡,治多 815499)
  • 出版日期:2019-07-30 发布日期:2019-07-25
  • 通讯作者: 张于光 E-mail: yugzhang@sina.com.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中央公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项资金项目(CAFYBB2019ZE003,CAFYBB2018ZD001);国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFC0506405)

An analysis of genetic structure of snow leopard populations in Sanjiangyuan and Qilianshan National Parks

ZHANG Yuguang1,Charlotte HACKER 2, ZHANG Yu 1, XUE Yadong 1,WU Liji 1,3,DAI Yunchuan 1, LUO Ping 4,NIMA Xieran 5,Jan E JANECKA 2,LI Diqiang 1   

  1. (1 Research Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, and the Key Laboratory of Biodiversity Conservation of National Forestry and
    Grassland Administration, Beijing 100091, China)
    (2 Bayer School of Natural and Environmental Sciences Department of Biological Sciences, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA 15210)
    (3 Yanchiwan National Nature Reserve of Gansu Province, Subei 736300, China)
    (4 Chongqing Wulong County of State-owned Baima Mountain Forest Farm, Chongqing 408500, China)
    (5 Suojia Township of Zhiduo County in Qinghai Province, Zhiduo 815499, China)
  • Online:2019-07-30 Published:2019-07-25

摘要:

掌握遗传信息对濒危物种的保护和管理具有重要意义。本研究在我国雪豹重要分布区祁连山和三江源国家公园分别采集粪便样品,利用mtDNA的cyt b基因、微卫星多态性位点进行了雪豹的物种鉴定、个体识别和种群遗传结构评估。在采集286份疑似雪豹粪便样品中,成功的对86份雪豹样品进行了扩增鉴定,利用微卫星位点进行个体识别获得41只雪豹个体,其中祁连山国家公园26只,三江源国家公园15只。通过等位基因数、有效等位基因数、观测杂合度、期望杂合度、多态信息含量等指标进行种群遗传多样性评估,认为雪豹种群遗传多样性相对较低,但祁连山国家公园雪豹种群遗传多样性相对较高。STRUCTURE进行群体遗传结构分析表明,4个种群可以划分为3个遗传类群,祁连山国家公园的种群(YCW和QLS)与三江源国家种群(DC和SJ)的遗传差异,可能与种群间的地理隔离存在明显的相似性。

关键词: 遗传多样性, 微卫星标记, 线粒体cytb基因, 粪便DNA技术

Abstract:

Understanding the genetic information of endangered species is very important to conservation and management of wildlife. In this study, we collected scats in Qilianshan National Park (QNP) and Sanjiangyuan National Park (SNP) which are important distribution areas for snow leopard in China. Using a molecular panel that included the mtDNA cytb gene, polymorphic microsatellite loci, we identified snow leopard scat, determined the number of individuals observed, and evaluated genetic diversity. A total of 286 scats were collected and 86 of these were from the snow leopard. Among all scats, 41 individual snow leopard were detected based on unique composite microsatellite genotypes, including 26 in QNP and 15 in SNP. The results indicated that the genetic diversity in QNP and SNP was relatively low based on the numbers of alleles and effective alleles, observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity and polymorphism information content. The diversity was higher in QNP than in SNP. Population genetic structure analysis revealed all the snow leopard individuals were divided into 3 genetic clusters and these surveyed populations had moderate levels of differentiation. Two of clusters included individuals from distant areas (QLS and DC) indicating the potential for corridors that link these subpopulations. Our study provides important information on the status and genetic diversity of the endangered snow leopard populations in two critical areas of China.

Key words: Genetic diversity, Microsatellite marker, mtDNA cyt b gene, Scat DNA technology