兽类学报

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

东北虎豹国家公园东部的野猪生境利用和活动节律初步研究

赵国静 宫一男 杨海涛 谢冰 王天明 葛剑平 冯利民#br#   

  1. (东北虎豹生物多样性国家野外科学观测研究站, 教育部生物多样性与生态工程重点实验室, 东北虎豹国家公园保护生态学国家林业和草业局重点实验室, 国家林业和草业局东北虎豹监测与研究中心, 北京师范大学生态研究所, 北京 100875)
  • 出版日期:2019-07-30 发布日期:2019-07-25
  • 通讯作者: 冯利民 E - mail: fenglimin@bnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31270537,31270567,31200410,31210103911,31470566);科技部基础性工作专项(2012FY112000)

Study on habitat use and activity rhythms of wild boar in eastern region of Northeast Tiger and Leopard National Park#br#

ZHAO Guojing, GONG Yinan, YANG Haitao, XIE Bing, WANG Tianming, GE Jianping, FENG Limin#br#   

  1. (Northeast Tiger and Leopard Biodiversity National Observation and Research Station, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science an Ecological Engineering, National Forestry and Grassland Administration Key Laboratory for Conservation Ecology of Northeast Tiger and Leopard National Park, National Forestry and Grassland Administration Amur tiger and Amur leopard Monitoring and Research Center, Institute of Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing100875, China)
  • Online:2019-07-30 Published:2019-07-25

摘要:

野猪是世界上分布最广的大型哺乳动物之一,也是东北虎豹国家公园内主要的有蹄类动物,东北虎主要的猎物之一。本文采集了中国虎豹观测网络架设在东北虎豹国家公园东部区域的红外相机完整一年的拍摄数据(2015年5月至2016年4月),通过占域模型和核密度分析,获得不同季节的野猪生境利用情况和日活动节律,探究人为因素、环境因素和生物因素对野猪生境利用的影响。结果显示,野猪偏好于针叶林和针阔混交林,在靠近居民点的区域活动增加。不同物种间的相互作用对野猪的生境利用产生不同影响,受捕食者压力野猪会倾向于躲避东北虎,但东北豹对野猪占域显示为正向影响。梅花鹿和狍对野猪的影响在不同季节呈现相反,梅花鹿对野猪的占域在冬季呈负向影响,而狍对野猪的占域则在夏季呈负向影响。本研究区域内的野猪夏季有2个活动高峰,冬季有1个活动高峰,在不同季节都倾向于白天和晨昏活动,在日落前达到活动最高峰。本研究揭示东北虎豹国家公园东部区域的野猪生境利用和活动节律是受到植被生境、大型食肉动物和人类因素等多种因素相互作用,长期相适应的结果。

关键词: 红外相机技术, 野猪, 占域模型, 生境利用, 日活动节律

Abstract:

Wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely distributed large mammals in the world. It is one of the main ungulates and the main prey of tigers in the Northeastern Tiger and Leopard National Park. In this study, we summarize the variations of habitat selection and daily activity rhythms in different seasons. We collected camera trap data from May 2015 to April 2016. We used the occupancy model to study the effects of human factors, environmental factors and
wild boar habitat selection. The results showed that the wild boar prefers coniferous forests, conifer- broadleaf forests and high-altitude areas, while avoiding human activities, and frequent grazing and settlements areas. Interspecific interactions had an important impact on wild boar: wild boar will avoid the predator, Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica), but the Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) had a positive impact on it. Two potential competitors, roe deer(Capreolus pygargus) and sika deer(Cervus nippon), had opposite effects in different seasons, suchthat the wild boar deviated from sika deer in winter and deviated from roe deer in summer. Moreover, the daily activity rhythms of wild boar had two peaks in summer and one peak in winter. The wild boar was mainly diurnal and crepuscular and reached the highest peak before sunset in this study area.

Key words: Camera trap, Wild boar, Occupancy models, Habitat use, Daily activity rhythms