兽类学报

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大熊猫与同域动物在海拔分布上的生态位分化

罗莲莲 周宏 唐俊峰 韦伟 韩菡 张泽钧 洪明生   

  1. (1西华师范大学生命科学学院,西南野生动植物资源保护教育部重点实验室,南充637009)
  • 出版日期:2020-07-30 发布日期:2020-07-24
  • 通讯作者: 洪明生 E-mail:mingshenghong@cqu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31900337,31670503,31600306);西华师范大学基本科研业务费(17D080,18B025,18Q040)

Niche differentiation between giant pandas and its sympatric species in altitude distribution

LUO Lianlian,ZHOU Hong,TANG Junfeng,WEI Wei,HAN Han,ZHANG Zejun, HONG Mingsheng#br#   

  1. (1 Key Laboratory of Southwest China Wildlife Resources Conservation, China West Normal University, Ministry of Education, Nanchong 637009, China)
  • Online:2020-07-30 Published:2020-07-24

摘要: 大熊猫(Ailuropoda melanoleuca)是中国的特有物种,其成功放归可能受放归地气候、栖息地、同域动物等多种因素的影响。本研究在野外调查的基础上,基于生态位理论等方法,探讨了栗子坪国家级自然保护区大熊猫与其大中型同域动物的空间关系。调查结果表明,该保护区内大熊猫同域动物共20种,分别属于2纲5目,其中东洋型分布物种占优势(30%)。大熊猫同域动物分布海拔显著低于大熊猫的分布海拔(P<0.05),大熊猫分别与灵长目等5个目的动物在海拔分布上均存在显著的生态位分化(P<0.001)。灵长目动物在空间分布上与大熊猫分布相异,而其他目的动物与大熊猫空间分布类似。偶蹄目动物痕迹数量占比最高(54.14 %),而食肉目的小熊猫与大熊猫样线共同遇见率达到了43.75%。本研究结果表明,该地大熊猫同域动物较为丰富,在海拔分布上与大熊猫存在生态位分化。该研究可为圈养大熊猫的放归提供参考依据。

关键词: 栗子坪国家级自然保护区, 大熊猫, 同域动物, 海拔, 空间分布

Abstract: The giant panda(Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is an vulnerable species endemic to China. Captive pandas are sometimes released into the wild for conservation purposes. The success of such reintroductions may be affected by the characteristics of the release site, such as climate, habitat, and the presence of sympatric animals. Based on field investigations and niche theory, this study explored the spatial relationships between giant pandas and other medium-to-large-sized sympatric animals in Liziping National Nature Reserve. Some 20 sympatric species were found in the reserve, belonging to two classes and five orders. Oriental species were predominant (30%). The elevational distributions of sympatric animals were significantly lower than that of giant pandas (P < 0.05). All five orders had significant niche differentiation from giant pandas in terms of altitudinal distribution (P < 0.001). Primates had different spatial distributions to giant pandas, while other orders had similar ones. Artiodactyla comprised the greatest proportion of documented animal traces (54.14%). The transect co-occurrence rate of red panda and giant panda was 43.75%. The results indicate that there are abundant sympatric animals in this reserve and that they have significant altitudinal niche differentiation from giant pandas. This study provides an important reference for programs intending to release captive giant pandas into the wild.

Key words: Liziping National Nature Reserve, Giant panda, Sympatric animals, Elevation, Spatial distribution