兽类学报

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圈养林麝麝香分泌时间节律及影响因素

王静1 白瑞丹1 蔡永华2 黎勇3 程建国2 付文龙2 周密3 盛岩1 孟秀祥1
  

  1. (1 中国人民大学环境学院,北京 100872)
    (2 四川养麝研究所,都江堰 611830)
    (3 四川逢春麝业集团有限公司,成都 610000)
  • 出版日期:2020-09-30 发布日期:2020-09-27
  • 基金资助:
    中国人民大学科学研究基金(中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金资助)(19XNH041)
     

The musk secretion rhythm and the influencing factors in captive forest musk deer

WANG Jing1, BAI Ruidan1, CAI Yonghua2, LI Yong3, CHENG Jianguo2, FU Wenlong2, ZHOU Mi3, SHENG Yan1, MENG Xiuxiang1   

  1. (1 School of Environment and Natural Resources,Renmin University of China,Beijing 100872,China)
    (2 Sichuan Institute of Musk Deer Breeding,Dujiangyan 611830 Sichuan,China)
    (3 Sichuan Fengchun Musk Deer Technology Group Co. Ltd., Chengdu 610000, China)
  • Online:2020-09-30 Published:2020-09-27

摘要: 在2016年和2017年的5—8月,我们对川西马尔康麝场圈养林麝(Moschus berezovskii)的麝香分泌进行了行为与生理监测,对麝香分泌的各阶段进行了准确判定,记录了泌香启动、泌香盛期开始、泌香盛期终止及泌香结束的时间阶段及持续时间长,分析了林麝麝香分泌的时间阶段与体重和年龄等因素的关系。结果表明,马尔康麝场的雄性林麝平均泌香启动日在6月16日[(167.06±7.75)d,n=141],于6月17日进入泌香盛期[(168.52±7.67)d,n=141],6月21日[(172.17±7.26)d, n=138]泌香活动减弱,至6月25日[(176.27±8.11)d, n=131]泌香结束;雄麝体重与其泌香启动、泌香盛期停止及泌香结束时间呈显著负相关(rPS = -0.234,PPS =0.028;r VSF = -0.215,PVSF = 0.047;r SE = -0.229,PSE = 0.043),即雄麝的体重越大,其泌香越早;各年龄组间的平均泌香时长差异显著(F 17, 113 = 3.482, P = 0.003),其中2岁雄麝平均泌香时长最长[(13.07±2.08)d, n=20],显著高于3岁[(9.38±0.76)d, n=12, P = 0.042]和4岁[(7.80±1.60)d, n=5, P = 0.013]个体;马尔康林麝平均泌香量为(11.85g±0.96)g, (n=114),随泌香时长延长有增加趋势,但不显著(P = 0.854)。基于上述林麝雄体的泌香时间、泌香量与年龄和体重等因素间的关联,可对圈养的林麝个体间的泌香力、泌香量等进行区分和预判,作为圈养林麝驯养生产力优化的依据,并可为圈养林麝优质品系的选育提供参考。

关键词: 林麝, 圈养, 麝香分泌, 时间节律, 影响因素

Abstract: From May to August of 2016 to 2017, behavioral and physiological monitoring was conducted on the musk secretion of captive forest musk deer (Moschus Berezovskii) in Maerkang Musk deer farm of western Sichuan, the temporal pattern of musk secretion and its relationships with body weight and age were analyzed by recording the time of prime secretion, the vigorous secretion start, the vigorous secretion finish, the secretion end and the duration of each phase. The results show that, the average date of prime secretion was June 16th [(167.06±7.75)d, n=141], and entered the vigorous secretion in June 17th [(168.52±7.67)d, n=141] on average, then secretion weaken in June 21st [(172.17±7.26)d, n=138], and ended in June 25th [(176.27±8.11)d, n=131]. There were significant negative correlations between body weight and date of prime secretion, finish of vigorous secretion and end musk secretion (r PS = -0.234,P PS = 0.028;r VSF = -0.215,P VSF = 0.047;r SE = -0.229,PSE = 0.043), namely the heavier body weight, the earlier secretion. Secretion periods were significant different (F 17,113 = 3.482, P=0.003) with age groups, among which that at 2 years old was the longest [(13.07±2.08)d, n = 20], and significantly higher than that at 3 years old [(9.38±0.76)d, n=12, P = 0.042] and 4 years old[ (7.80±1.60)d, n=5, P = 0.013]. The average musk production was  (11.85±0.96)g (n=114), and showing an increasing trend with the extension of the secretion period, but was not significant (P = 0.854). Based on the correlations between the musk secretion rhythm and musk production, and the factors such as age and body weight, we can distinguish and predict the capacity and production of musk secretion among captive individuals, as the basis of productivity optimization of captive forest musk deer, it can provide reference for breeding high quality strains of forest musk deer.

Key words: Forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii), In captivity, Musk secretion, Temporary rhythm, Influencing factors