兽类学报

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四川省石渠县西藏盘羊种群与分布现状调查

周华明1,3  吴猛 李静3  李志明1 王杰2   

  1. (1四川贡嘎山国家级自然保护区管理局, 康定 626000)
    (2中国科学院成都生物研究所,山地生态恢复与生物资源利用院重点实验室, 成都 610041)
    (3甘孜藏族自治州林业科学研究所, 康定 626001)
  • 出版日期:2020-07-30 发布日期:2020-07-24
  • 通讯作者: 王杰 E-mail: wangjie@cib.ac.cn

Population and distribution status of the Tibetan argali (Ovis hodgsoni) in the Shiqu County, Sichuan Province

ZHOU Huaming 1,3, WU Meng 1, LI Jing 3, LI Zhiming 1, WANG Jie 2   

  1. (1 Gongga Mountain National Nature Reserve, Kangding 626000, China)
    (2 Key Laboratory of Mountain Ecological Restoration and Bioresource Utilization, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, 610041, China)
    (3 Ganzi Prefecture Forestry Research Institute, Kangding, 626001, China)
  • Online:2020-07-30 Published:2020-07-24

摘要: 西藏盘羊长期被怀疑已在四川省甘孜藏族自治州绝灭,直到20世纪末在石渠县发现3只个体。我们于2013—2018年在甘孜州12县34乡开展了访问和实地调查,结果仅在石渠县发现实体,共发现24群321头,集群大小1~41头/群,平均为(13.4 ± 11.4 )只。其中全雄性14群,集群大小1~15只,平均(7.4 ± 4.6)只;雌幼混合8群,集群大小9~41只,平均(24.6 ± 13.0) 只;雌雄幼混合群2群,分别为8只、12只。共记录到成年个体238头,性比略偏雌 (雌雄比为128∶110);1~2龄个体38头,0~1龄个体45头。根据在真达—色须—尼嘎—洛须等乡镇的历年重复调查,保守估计适宜栖息地内盘羊的种群密度为每平方千米0.33~0.57只。调查区域内盘羊面临的威胁因素包括过度放牧、护牧犬、狼(Canis lupus)、雪豹(Panthera uncia)和金雕(Aquila chrysaetos)。据此,为保护石渠县西藏盘羊,我们建议进行更深入的分布、栖息地和种群调查,并开展以盘羊为主题的宣传教育和生态旅游。

关键词: 盘羊, 分布, 种群组成, 天敌, 护牧犬

Abstract: Tibetan argali (Ovis hodgsoni) was suspected to be extinct in the Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture for a long time. No living individuals were found in the field surveys until the end of last century. We surveyed 12 counties and 34 rural towns in the Ganzi Prefecture by questionnaire and line transects in 2013-2018. We found 321 argali in 24 herds in the Shiqu County. The herds averaged 13.4 ± 11.4 (SD, range 1-41) individuals. Altogether we counted 45 lambs, 38 sub-adults, 110 adult males and 128 adult females. There were 14 herds comprised of only rams (7.4 ± 4.6) (range 1-15) individuals, 8 herds comprised of only females and juveniles (24.6 ± 13.0 ) (range 9-41) individuals, and 2 herds that were a mix of males, females and juveniles (8 and 12 individuals, respectively). The threats to the Tibetan argali include over-grazing, shepherd dogs, wolves (Canis lupus), snow leopards (Panthera uncia), and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). We conservatively estimate argali density to be 0.33-0.57 ind./km2. We suggest a more thorough survey be conducted to understand the distribution, habitat, and population status of argali within Shiqu County. Furthermore, we believe there is a need to develop programs to educate the public about the regions’ ecological needs and expand the ecotourism industry.

Key words: Tibetan argali (Ovis hodgsoni), Distribution, Herd structure, Predators, Shepherd dogs