兽类学报

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浙江清凉峰国家级自然保护区华南梅花鹿栖息地内人为干扰类型及时空分布格局

刘周1 周虎1 郭瑞2 章书声3 许丽娟2 罗远4 徐爱春1   

  1. (1中国计量大学生命科学学院,杭州 310018)(2浙江清凉峰国家级自然保护区管理局,杭州 311300)(3浙江乌岩岭国家级自然保护区管理局,泰顺 325500)(4浙江天目山国家级自然保护区管理局,杭州311300)
  • 出版日期:2020-07-30 发布日期:2020-07-24
  • 通讯作者: 徐爱春 E-mail:springlover@cjlu.edu.cn

Temporal and spatial distribution of anthropological disturbance in sika deers’ habitat of Qingliangfeng National Nature Reserve

LIU Zhou1, ZHOU Hu1, GUO Rui2, ZHANG Shusheng3, XU Lijuan2, LUO Yuan4, XU Aichun1   

  1. (1 College of Life Sciences, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018, China)
    (2 Zhejiang Qingliangfeng National Nature Reserve, Hangzhou 311300, China)
    (3 Zhejiang Wuyanling National Nature Reserve, Taishun 325500, China)
    (4 Zhejiang Tianmushan National Nature Reserve, Hangzhou 311300, China)
  • Online:2020-07-30 Published:2020-07-24

摘要: 定量分析保护地内的人为干扰对珍稀濒危物种的保护非常重要。红外相机技术可为评估人为干扰提供重要数据。我们于2014年11月至2017年12月,利用红外相机对浙江清凉峰国家级自然保护区千倾塘区域的野生华南梅花鹿(Cervus nippon kopschi)栖息地存在的人为干扰进行了监测调查。共计布设57个监测位点,记录到人为干扰独立照片152张。识别到7个主要干扰类型,分别为行走干扰、盗采干扰、盗伐干扰、盗猎干扰、牛干扰、羊干扰、家犬干扰。研究结果表明,栖息地内的人为干扰与梅花鹿的活动节律和重要分布区域存在一定的重叠。人类干扰(包括行走、盗采、盗伐、盗猎)是主要干扰。干扰高发季节为春、秋季。行走干扰、采伐干扰、家犬干扰在上半年(1—6月)最高。牛干扰在4月和11月较高,羊干扰在4月和9月最高。保护区内干扰主要出现在07:00—18:00,干扰强度最高的时间段为08:00—10:00。从空间分布上,华南梅花鹿的主要分布小区(道场坪、癞痢尖、螺蛳尖)以及重要水源地(千倾塘)干扰强度较高。人类干扰和家犬干扰集中于千倾塘区域西部,放牧干扰集中于千倾塘区域东部。本次研究为利用红外相机进行保护区内人为干扰研究提供了案例,同时为管理部门制定和实施有效管理策略提供了科学依据。

关键词: 人为干扰, 红外相机, 清凉峰国家级自然保护区, 华南梅花鹿

Abstract: It is important to quantify anthropological activities to threatening species in nature reserves. The application of infrared camera-trapping provide sufficient data to assess anthropological human activities. We set up 57 camera traps to survey and monitor the impact of anthropological disturbance to sika deer(Cervus nippon kopschi)in Qianqingtang area of Zhejiang Qingliangfeng National Nature Reserve from November 2014 to December 2017. A total of 152 independent photographs of disturbance were recorded and classified into seven categories, including walking disturbance, gathering disturbance, logging disturbance, poaching disturbance, cattle disturbance, goat disturbance, and dog disturbance. Our results show that anthropological disturbances were overlapped with the sika deer distribution pattern over time and space. Human direct disturbances (including walking, gathering, logging, poaching) play the most important role of all. The most disturbances occurred in spring and autumn, as well as walking, gathering, logging, and dog disturbance mainly occurred from January to June, respectively in terms of season and month. The disturbances of cattle mostly observed on April and November, and goat on April and September, respectively. Most disturbances happened at 07: 00-18: 00, and the highest disturbance intensity happened at 08: 00-10: 00. The main distribution areas of sika deer (Daochangping, Lailijian, Luoshijian) and its water sources (Qianqingtang Lake) suffered high interference. Human and dog disturbances happened in the western part of the Qianqingtang area, while cattle and goat disturbances commonly in the eastern part. This study provides a case for the use of camera-trapping in quantifying the anthropological disturbance in nature reserves and contributes a scientific basis for conservation strategies on wildlife management.

Key words: Anthropological disturbance, Camera-trapping, Qingliangfeng National Nature Reserve, Sika deer(Cervus nippon kopschi)