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中国蝙蝠生物学研究进展及其保护对策

江廷磊1  赵华斌2  何彪3  张礼标 罗金红5  刘颖1  孙克萍1  余文华6  吴毅6  冯江1,7   

  1. (1 东北师范大学,吉林省动物资源保护与利用重点实验室,长春130117)
    (2 武汉大学生命科学学院,武汉430072)
    (3军事科学院军事医学研究院军事兽医研究所,长春 130122)
    (4 广东省生物资源应用研究所,广东省动物资源保护与资源利用重点实验室,广东省野生动物保护与利用公共实验室,广州 510260)
    (5 华中师范大学生命科学学院,武汉 430079)
    (6 广州大学生命科学学院,广州510006)
    (7 吉林农业大学生命科学学院,长春 130118)
  • 出版日期:2020-12-01 发布日期:2020-12-03
  • 通讯作者: 冯江 E-mail:fengj@nenu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(31922050; 31961123001; 31722051; 31770403; 31670381; 31672258)

Research progress of bat biology and conservation strategies in China

JIANG Tinglei1, ZHAO Huabin2, HE Biao3, ZHANG Libiao4, LUO Jinhong5, LIU Ying1, SUN Keping1, YU Wenhua6, WU Yi6, FENG Jiang 1,7   

  1. (1 Jilin Provincial key laboratory of Animal Resource Conservation and Utilization, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130117, China)
    (2 College of Life Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China)
    (3 Military Veterinary Institute, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Changchun 130122, China)
    (4 Guangdong Key Laboratory of Animal Conservation and Resource Utilization, Guangdong Public Laboratory of Wild Animal Conservation and Utilization, Guangdong Institute of
    Applied Biological Resources, Guangzhou 510260, China)
    (5 School of Life Sciences, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, China)
    (6 College of Life Science, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China)
    (7 College of Life Science, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, China)
  • Online:2020-12-01 Published:2020-12-03

摘要:

自2019年末,新冠肺炎的全球大流行使蝙蝠(翼手目动物)倍受关注,甚至人们“谈蝠色变”。蝙蝠在生态和分类上多样性极高,占哺乳动物种类的20%左右。蝙蝠不仅在害虫控制、种子传播、植物授粉等方面具有重要的生态作用和经济价值,也在健康长寿、生物仿生和语言进化等方面具有重要的科研价值。中国是全世界蝙蝠物种多样性最丰富的国家之一,已知的物种超过了140种。近几十年来,中国学者在蝙蝠分类学、生态学、行为学、进化生物学、神经生物学和病毒病源学等研究领域取得了丰硕的成果,然而涉及蝙蝠的生态系统服务和资源保护的相关研究比较少。由于生境退化、过度捕杀、栖息地破坏、城市化、杀虫剂使用、气候变化等原因,中国蝙蝠受到极大的威胁,约51%的物种位于近危等级之上。为了有效地保护中国蝙蝠物种的多样性,建议加强基础研究,建立中国蝙蝠多样性监测网络,加强蝙蝠栖息地保护,完善相关法律法规,加强蝙蝠公众教育,以促进中国蝙蝠生物学研究和保护。

关键词: 蝙蝠, 研究进展, 濒危等级, 保护

Abstract:

Since the end of 2019, the global pandemic of COVID-19 has attracted much attention on bats (Chiroptera), and even people are frequently frowned upon when talking about bats. Bats are extremely diverse in ecology and taxonomy, accounting for ~20% of mammalian diversity worldwide. Bats play an important role in pest control, seed transmission, plant pollination, offering a great economic benefit to human society. Moreover, bats bear important scientific research value in health and longevity, biomimetic, language evolution, and more. There are more than 140 species of bats in China, ranking China one of the top countries in terms of bat species diversity of the world. In recent decades, Chinese researchers have made great progresses in diverse fields such as bat taxonomy, ecology, ethology, evolutionary biology, neurobiology, and viral pathogens in China. However, researches focusing on ecosystem services and conservation of bats were very scarce. Due to logging and plants harvesting, over-hunting, habitat destruction, urbanization, agricultural activities, climate change, and so forth, bats in China are largely threatened: 51% of bat species have been listed as Near Threatened or above (Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable). We argue that successful bat conservation in China must first strengthen basic research, particularly in assessing the population status and trends of bat species and establishing a monitoring network for bat diversity. Additionally, a combination of conservation efforts, including the protection of bat habitats,
construction of artificial bat habitats, improvement of relevant laws and regulations, and enhancement of public education on bats, are vital to ensuring sustainable bat populations in China.

Key words: Bats, Research progress, Endangered categories, Conservation