兽类学报

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黑叶猴食物组成的地域性差异比较

李生强, 黎大勇, 黄中豪, 李友邦,黄乘明,周岐海   

  1. 珍稀濒危动植物生态与环境保护教育部重点实验室;广西珍稀濒危动物生态学重点实验室,广西师范大学,桂林 541004
  • 出版日期:2016-02-13 发布日期:2016-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 黄乘明, E-mail: cmhuang@ioz.ac.cn 周岐海, E-mail: zhouqh@ioz.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:李生强(1990 -),男,硕士,主要从事野生动物生态与保护研究.
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(31360093, 31172122, 31372145);广西自然科学基金项目(2014GXNSFAA118068);广西师范大学珍稀濒危动植物生态与环境保护教育部重点实验室,广西珍稀濒危动物生态学重点实验室研究基金资助

Geographic Variation in Diet Composition of François langurs

LI Shengqiang, Li Dayong, HUANG Zhonghao, LI Youbang, HUANG Chengming, ZHOU Qihai   

  1. Key Laboratory of Ecology of Rare and Endangered Species and Environmental Protection, Ministry of Education; Guangxi Key Laboratory of Rare and Endangered Animal Ecology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004, China
  • Online:2016-02-13 Published:2016-05-20

摘要: 研究同一个物种在不同生境觅食对策的差异不仅有助于了解其行为和生态的可塑性,还有助于评价其对自然或人为干扰导致的生境质量的改变的适应能力,从而为物种的有效保护和管理提供科学依据。本文以广西弄岗国家级自然保护区和扶绥保护区的黑叶猴为研究对象,采用瞬时扫描取样法收集相关的食性数据,并结合贵州麻阳河国家级自然保护区黑叶猴的食性研究结果,比较分析黑叶猴食物组成的区域性差异以探讨黑叶猴对不同喀斯特石山生境的行为适应对策。结果表明:黑叶猴3个地理种群共采食77科、182属、259种植物,木本植物(包括乔木和灌木)是其最重要的食物来源。3个地理种群均表现出较高程度的叶食性,树叶分别占其食物组成的52.7%、63.9%和79.7%。然而,3个地理种群的食物组成却存在显著差异,种群间总的食物重叠指数仅为1.33%-7.43%,主要食物的重叠指数仅为0-13.51%。这些差异可能与栖息地中植被组成的差异有关。与弄岗和麻阳河黑叶猴相比,扶绥黑叶猴采食更多的嫩叶和灌木。人为干扰对栖息地植被结构的影响可能是导致上述差异的主要原因。我们认为黑叶猴不同地理种群食物组成的显著差异反映其觅食的灵活性以应对不同喀斯特石山生境。

关键词: 黑叶猴, 食物组成, 觅食灵活性, 喀斯特生境

Abstract: Comparative studies of nonhuman primate species that utilize different habitats are essential for understanding their behavioral and ecological plasticity. Furthermore, results from such studies can assist in formulating conservation strategies by evaluating a species’ capacity to cope with changes in habitat quality resulting from natural process or human disturbance. We compared dietary profiles for François’ langur (Trachypithecus francoisi) in Nonggang National Nature Reserve, Fusui Nature Reserve, and Mayanghe National Nature Reserve to evaluate inter-site variation in diet. Our results showed that a total of 259 plant species belonging 182 genera from 77 families were consumed by the langurs. Woody plants, including trees and shrubs, were the most important food resources. Langurs were highly folivorous, with leaves accounting for 52.7%, 63.9%, and 79.7% of their diets, respectively. However, we found that diet differed between study sites, with overlaps of 1.33% to 7.43% for total food species, and 0 to 13.51% for main food species. This variation could be related to differences in forest composition. Compared to congeners in Nonggang and Mayanghe, langurs in Fusui ate much more young leaves and shrubs. These differences reflected changes in forest structure resulting from human disturbance. Marked variations in the diets of T. francoisi at different sites suggest dietary flexibility, which could be important for their survival in different habitat conditions.

Key words: Dietary flexibility, Diet composition, Fran?ois langur, Limestone habitat