兽类学报

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新疆天山中部北山羊社群结构

朱新胜, 汪沐阳, 杨维康, David Blank   

  1. 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所,中国科学院干旱区生物地理与生物资源重点实验室,乌鲁木齐 830011
  • 出版日期:2016-02-13 发布日期:2016-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 杨维康, E-mail: yangwk@ms.xjb.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:朱新胜(1989- )男,硕士研究生,主要从事动物生态学研究 .
  • 基金资助:
    :国家自然科学基金项目(U1303301, 31401988);中国科学院外国专家特聘研究员计划(2011T1Z42)资助;中国科学院西部之光人才培养计划西部博士资助项目(XBBS201308)

Social structure of Asiatic ibex(Capra sibirica)in Middle Tien Shan, Xinjiang

ZHU Xinsheng, WANG Muyang, YANG Weikang, David Blank   

  1. Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, the Chinese Academy of Sciencese, Urumqi 830011, China
  • Online:2016-02-13 Published:2016-05-20

摘要: 2013年10月至2014年9月,于天山中部天格尔山脉乌鲁木齐河源区研究了北山羊的社群结构。将其集群类型划分为雄性群、雌幼群、混合群和独羊4类。共统计北山羊497群,总计6 427只。北山羊最大集群为100只,最小群为1只,全年平均群大小为(12.93±0.65)只。其中春季(14.83±1.35)只,夏季(14.16±1.65)只,秋季(15.17±1.69)只,冬季(9.32±0.74)只。冬季北山羊平均集群大小显著低于其他三个季节。混合群的平均群大小最大,其余依次为雌幼群和雄性群。Kruskal-Wallis H检验结果表明各社群类型群大小差异极显著。北山羊多以2-7只的小群活动,占到总遇见频次比例的41.05%,8-20只群占32.80%,20只以上大群出现最少,占17.71%。在4种集群类型中,雌幼群出现频率最高,占51.91%,其次依次为混合群、雄性群和独羊。卡方检验结果表明4个季节间4种社群类型的出现频次差异显著。研究结果显示,北山羊在发情期混群,非繁殖期同性集群。受环境因素和自身生理周期的影响,其集群大小、集群类型均随季节变化而变化。

关键词: 北山羊, 集群大小, 集群类型, 天山中部

Abstract: We studied group sizes and types of Asiatic ibex(Capra sibirica)in the middle Tien Shan from October 2013 to September 2014. Groups were classified as male, ewe-lamb, mixed groups, and solitary sheep. A total of 6327 individuals belonging to 497 groups were observed, with a mean group size of 12.93±0.65. The largest groups included 100 individuals and the smallest groups were solitary sheep. Mean group size was 14.83±1.35 in spring, 14.16±1.65 in summer, 15.17±1.69 in autumn, and 9.32±0.74 in winter. The average group size changed significantly between winter and the other three seasons. The maximum mean group size was mixed groups, followed by ewe-lamb and then male. Kruskal-Wallis H test showed significant differences in group size of each group type. Group with 2-7 individuals, 8-20 individuals and >20 individuals accounted for 41.05%, 32.80% and 17.71%, respectively. Ewe-lamb groups were the most frequently encountered,followed by mixed, male, and solitary sheep. The frequency with which we observed social groups varied by season. Research shows that Asiatic ibex composed of mixed groups in estrus and living in separate groups except for breeding season. Affected by the external environment and physiological characteristics, the group size, group type will change with the seasons.

Key words: Capra sibirica, Group size, Group type, Middle Tien Shan