兽类学报

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野生大熊猫与放牧家畜的空间利用格局比较

周世强 Vanessa HULL 张晋东 黄金燕 刘 巅 黄炎 李德生 张和民   

  1. 中国保护大熊猫研究中心
  • 出版日期:2016-05-13 发布日期:2016-08-19
  • 通讯作者: 张和民, E-mail: wolong_zhm@126.com
  • 作者简介:周世强(1966-),男,学士,教授级高级工程师,主要从事大熊猫及栖息地、主食竹生态学以及大熊猫野化培训与放归研究

Comparative Space Use Patterns of Wild Giant Pandas and Livestock

ZHOU Shiqiang,Vanessa HULL,ZHANG Jindong,HUANG Jinyan,LIU Dian,HUANG Yan,LI Desheng,ZHANG Hemin   

  1. China Conservation and Research Center for the Giant Panda
  • Online:2016-05-13 Published:2016-08-19

摘要: 空间利用是野生动物对环境资源的利用模式和活动格局,影响着种群之间的基因交流和生存发展。我们于2010~2012年在四川卧龙国家级自然保护区的“核桃坪”及其附近区域,采用GPS颈圈跟踪技术对分布和放养于该区域的野生大熊猫和放牧家畜—马群进行了定位监测和样地调查。分别选择了3只大熊猫和3个马群的代表性个体的GPS颈圈数据,在地理信息系统(GIS)中通过数字高程模型(DEM)、动物移动模块等工具提取和计算了它们活动区域的地形地势、巢域大小、日移动距离和核域数量,并检验了野生大熊猫和放牧家畜空间利用的差异性。结果表明:野生大熊猫和放牧家畜不同月份和整体之间在海拔高度、坡度坡向、巢域面积、日移动距离和核域数量等方面都具有显著性的差异。野生大熊猫表现为随季节和食物类型(竹笋、竹秆、枝叶)丰度的变化分别活动于拐棍竹林、短锥玉山竹林和冷箭竹林中,活动空间较大(海拔范围、巢域大小)、日移动距离较短和核域数量多等特征的随机扩散模式,且不同个体和月份之间波动性较大;放牧家畜则因初始放养于不同区域的竹林(拐棍竹林、冷箭竹林)和人为干涉程度的大小差异,显示出不同的空间利用格局,但与大熊猫相比,总体而言都具有巢域面积小、日移动距离略大、核域数量极少等“步步为营”空间利用模式的特征,且不同畜群和不同时间之间的变化幅度也小于大熊猫。不同的空间利用格局对环境资源的影响强度截然不同,大熊猫的利用模式有利于竹子资源的更新恢复和生境结构的持续发展,而放牧家畜的利用模式将造成竹子资源的死亡衰败和生境结构的破坏退化。因此,加强放牧家畜的管控,有效协调社区经济发展和生物多样性保护成为卧龙自然保护区(特区)今后工作和管理的当务之急。

关键词: 大熊猫, 放牧家畜, 空间利用格局, GPS颈圈, 卧龙自然保护区

Abstract: Habitat use describes how wildlife utilize natural resources, and their activity patterns, and has great influence on the genetic exchange between local populations and their viability. Between 2010 and 2012, we collected habitat data and GPS data from giant pandas and livestock—domestic horses at the Hetaoping section of Wolong National Nature Reserve and surrounding areas by using GPS collar tracking technology. Afterwards, we selected GPS data from a representative 3 pandas and 3 horses and calculated the terrain, home range, daily movement distance and number of core areas by applying analyses such as digital elevation model (DEM) and animal movement module. Finally, we analyzed and tested whether there were significant differences between the habitat use of giant pandas and of livestock. The results showed that there were significant differences in habitat use between giant pandas and livestock in terms of altitude, slope and aspect of the terrain, home range, daily movement distance and number of core areas both seasonally and yearly. For giant pandas, habitat use changed between Fargesia robusta, Yushania brevipaniculata and Bashania faberi bamboo forests according to season and food abundance (bamboo shoots, bamboo stems, bamboo leaves), and exhibited a random dispersal pattern across a large activity range (altitude range, home range), short daily movement distance, large number of core areas and high variation between individuals and months. For livestock, depending on the original release site and disturbance level, habitat use exhibited a different pattern. However, compared with that of giant pandas, horses featured small home ranges, long daily movement distance, small number of core areas, and low variation between individual groups and months. These two divergent habitat use patterns put distinctive levels of pressure on local natural resources: the one adopted by giant pandas is beneficial for the recovery of bamboo resources and the sustainable development of the ecosystem; on the contrary, the one adopted by livestock will cause deterioration of the bamboo resources and destruction to the integrity of the ecosystem. Consequently, it is urgent for Wolong National Nature Reserve to reinforce the management of domestic grazing animals, and coordinate economic development of local communities with biodiversity conservation.

Key words: Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), Livestock, Space Use Pattern, GPS-collar, Wolong Nature Reserve