兽类学报

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围栏条件下同域分布三种鼠对两种种子的贮藏行为差异

侯祥 张博 陈晓宁 王京 韩宁 常罡   

  1. 陕西省动物研究所
  • 出版日期:2016-05-13 发布日期:2016-08-19
  • 通讯作者: 常罡 snow1178@snnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:侯祥(1985—)男,硕士研究生,实习研究员,主要从事动物行为生态及动植物相互关系的研究,E-mail: hx426108@163.com

Seed-hoarding behaviours of three sympatric rodent species on two tree species under semi-natural enclosure conditions

HOU Xiang, ZHANG Bo, CHEN Xiaoning, WANG Jing, HAN Ning, CHANG Gang   

  1. Shaanxi Institute of Zoology
  • Online:2016-05-13 Published:2016-08-19

摘要: 种子贮藏是啮齿动物利用食物资源的一种适应性行为。同域分布的啮齿动物可能进化出不同的贮藏方式和策略。为了解同域分布的啮齿动物的贮藏策略及种子特征在动物贮藏行为决策中的作用,于2014年10-12月,通过半自然围栏实验,在秦岭南坡的佛坪国家级自然保护区内调查了同域分布社鼠、中华姬鼠和甘肃仓鼠对板栗和锐齿槲栎种子的贮藏策略差异,并探讨了2种种子特征在鼠类贮藏行为决策中的作用。结果显示:1)社鼠主要集中贮藏板栗种子,未分散贮藏任何种子;中华姬鼠未贮藏板栗种子,对锐齿槲栎种子同时表现出集中和分散贮藏行为,以集中贮藏为主;甘肃仓鼠对2种种子均表现出集中贮藏行为,未表现分散贮藏行为。2)社鼠和甘肃仓鼠均倾向于集中贮藏有较高营养价值(高蛋白和脂肪)且单宁含量较低的板栗种子;中华姬鼠倾向于分散贮藏单宁含量高的锐齿槲栎种子。3)3种鼠均喜好取食有较高营养价值且单宁含量低的板栗种子,很少取食单宁含量高的锐齿槲栎种子。结果表明同域分布鼠类对不同种子的贮藏方式有所不同,种子特征影响鼠类的取食和贮藏策略。

关键词: 鼠类, 半自然围栏, 分散贮藏, 集中贮藏, 种子特征, 物种共存

Abstract: Seed-hoarding is believed to be an adaptive strategy for survival during periods of food shortage for many seed-eating rodents. Sympatric rodents may evolve different hoarding strategies which may be beneficial to their coexistence. This study investigated hoarding behaviours of three sympatric rodent species (Chinese white-bellied rats, Niviventer confucianus, south China field mice, Apodemus draco, Gansu hamster, Cansumys canus) on seeds of two co-occurring trees (Chinese chestnut, Castanea mollissima and Oriental white oak, Quercus aliena ) under enclosure conditions in Foping National Nature Reserve, Qinling China, during October-December 2014. Seeds of C. mollissima have higher protein and fat (hereafter high nutrition seeds), but fewer tannins than do seeds of Q. aliena (hereafter high tannin seeds). The results showed that, 1) N. confucianus larder-hoarded C. mollissima seeds, A. draco mainly larder-hoarded Q. aliena seeds as well as scatter-hoarded a few seeds of this species, whereas C. canus larder-hoarded seeds of the two tree species only; 2) N. confucianus and C. canus preferred to hoard the high nutrition seeds (C. mollissima), whereas A. draco tended to hoard the high tannin seeds (Q. aliena); 3) All three rodent species preferred to eat the high nutrition seeds (C. mollissima), rather than the high tannin seeds (Q. aliena). These results suggest that sympatric rodent species have different hoarding strategies for seeds of co-occurring trees, and such differences are largely affected by seed traits.

Key words: Sympatric rodents, Semi-natural enclosure, Scatter hoarding, Larder hoarding, Seed traits, Coexistence