兽类学报

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基于红外相机技术调查长青国家级自然保护区兽类和鸟类多样性

何百锁 孙瑞谦 陈鹏 董伟 王军 王大军 李晟   

  1. 长青国家级自然保护区
  • 出版日期:2016-08-13 发布日期:2016-11-16
  • 通讯作者: 李晟 E-mail: shengli@pku.edu.cn

Baseline survey of bird and mammal diversity using camera-trapping in the Changqing National Nature Reserve of ShaanXi Province

HE Baisuo, SUN Ruiqian, CHEN Peng, DONG Wei, WANG Jun, WANG Dajun, LI Sheng   

  1. Changqing National Nature Reserve
  • Online:2016-08-13 Published:2016-11-16
  • About author:李晟(1980-),男,研究员,主要从事野生动物生态学和保护生物学研究。

摘要: 野生动物多样性的有效保护与管理,需要大范围、长时间的系统监测网络的支持。红外相机调查技术近年来已成为自然保护区鸟兽调查的最有效工具之一,为了解和掌握区域性乃至全国性的生物多样性现状,提供了最直接和最基础的数据。长青国家级自然保护区位于秦岭南坡,地处秦岭自然保护区群的核心地带。自2008年至2011年,使用被动式红外触发相机调查技术在长青保护区内调查了大中型兽类与鸟类的本底资源。共完成有效调查位点435个,相机工作日15767d。获得兽类有效拍摄3 282次,记录到分属5目12科的21种野生兽类和1种家畜,其中国家一级和二级重点保护野生动物各有5种,被IUCN物种红色名录评估为濒危(EN)、易危(VU)、近危(NT)的物种分别有2、3、4种。食肉目和偶蹄目是本次调查兽类记录中物种数量(分别有9种和7种)和有效拍摄数(分别占兽类有效拍摄数的13.5%和84.0%)最高的两个类群,食肉目中相对多度指数最高的物种是大熊猫(Ailuropoda melanoleuca, 12.30),偶蹄目中最高的物种是羚牛(Budorcas taxicolor, 114.04)。保护区内大型兽类(食肉目和偶蹄目)物种多样性沿海拔梯度,大体呈现中部高、两侧低的单峰模式,海拔1600-2200 m的中等海拔段是大型兽类多样性最高的区域。鸟类有效拍摄191次,记录到分属4目8科的17种鸟类,其中国家二级重点保护野生动物物种8种。鸡形目雉科鸟类是有效拍摄数最高的类群,占全部鸟类拍摄数的79.8%。调查中记录到的林猬(Mesechinus hughi)和鹰雕(Spizaetus nipalensis)为长青自然保护区的新记录种。调查结果提供了较为全面的区内大中型兽类和鸟类群落的本底信息,为后续的保护管理规划和长期监测提供了数据支持和指导。

关键词: 秦岭, 红外相机调查技术, 生物多样性编目, 物种名录, 野生动物监测

Abstract: Valid conservation and management of wildlife requires a well-developed monitoring network infrastructure. During the past decades, camera-trapping has become a strong tool for Chinese nature reserves to survey their large mammals and birds, and provides substantial data for us to learn the wildlife distribution and status at both regional and state level. Changqing National Nature Reserve is located on the southern slope of the Qinling Mountains and plays an essential role within the reserve network of Qinling. From 2008 to 2011, we conducted an inventory survey of large mammals and birds of Changqing using camera-trapping. With an intensive survey effort of 15,767 camera-days from 435 locations, we obtained 3,282 detections of mammals, including 21 wild and 1 domestic species belonging to 12 families and 5 orders. Among the detected mammal species, 5 are listed as Class I state key protected wild animals in China and 5 as Class II. Two mammal species were evaluated as Endangered by IUCN RedList, 3 as Vulnerable, and 4 as Near Threatened. Carnivora (9 species) and Artiodactyla (7 species) were the most abundant taxa of this mammal community and accounted for 13.46% and 84.00%, respectively, of total number of detections. The most detected species of each taxon, respectively, was giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca, 12.30) and takin (Budorcas taxicolor, 114.04). The species richness of large mammals (i.e., carnivores and ungulates) represented a unimodal pattern along an elevational gradient, with a mid-elevation peak at 1600-2200 m. We also recorded 191 detections of birds, including 17 species belonging to 8 families and 4 orders, among which 8 are listed as Class II state key protected wild animals in China. Phasianidae was the most detected avian taxon and accounted for 79.79% of total bird detections. Mesechinus hughi and Spizaetus nipalensis were new species records to Changqing. Our results provided a comprehensive baseline of the large mammal and bird community within Changqing, which will support and guide future management and long-term monitoring of the reserve.

Key words: Qinling Mountains, camera-trapping, biodiversity inventory, species list, wildlife monitoring