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秦岭地区大熊猫种群空间利用消长状态以及道路影响研究

刘兰妹 刘雪华 金学林 王志臣 龚明昊   

  1. 清华大学环境学院
  • 出版日期:2017-08-14 发布日期:2017-07-05
  • 通讯作者: 刘雪华 E-mail:xuehua-hjx@tsinghua.edu.cn

Research on the change of giant pandas’ spatial utilization and road impacts in the Qinling Mountains

LIU Lanmei, LIU Xuehua, JIN Xuelin, WANG Zhichen, GONG Minghao   

  1. School of Environment, Tsinghua University
  • Online:2017-08-14 Published:2017-07-05
  • Contact: LIU Xuehua E-mail:xuehua-hjx@tsinghua.edu.cn

摘要: 研究大熊猫种群空间利用的消长动态及其干扰因素对识别大熊猫潜在生境、保护大熊猫种群可持续增长具有重要的现实意义。本文收集了第三次和第四次秦岭大熊猫种群及栖息地调查数据,借助地理信息系统空间分析工具,对比分析了大熊猫种群的空间利用变化格局,并探究了道路干扰对大熊猫种群空间利用格局的影响。结果显示:(1)2000-2012年间,佛坪、长青核心密集区大熊猫种群空间利用密度西北方向增加,东南方向减少,即黄柏塬保护区呈增加趋势,而佛坪、观音山和周至保护区交界处呈减少趋势。其中,局部高密度区面积减少,但整体空间利用面积增大,并呈向外围扩散趋势。种群空间利用密度最大增长达3.05痕迹点/ km2,最大减小密度达2.71痕迹点/km2。(2)距国道、省道和县道2000 m以内种群空间利用密度增幅上升,距乡村道路2000 m外种群空间利用密度变化减小,且距高速公路3500 m大熊猫种群空间利用密度由减转增。深入探讨大熊猫种群空间利用格局可为建设优良栖息地和潜在栖息地提供参考,其结论将有助于优化道路选址和保护区规划,缓解人为活动和野生动物之间的冲突。

关键词: 秦岭地区, 大熊猫种群空间利用密度, 消长状态, 道路影响

Abstract: Research on the spatial utilization dynamics of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) population and human interference are essential to identify potential habitat and to sustain the population. The data were collected from the Third and the Forth National Survey of Giant Panda Populations and Habitats. Geographic information system technology and comparative analyses were applied to investigate spatial utilization dynamics in giant panda populations and the disturbance of roads on neighboring panda populations. Our results show that: (1) In the period 2000-2012, giant panda’s high spatial utilization density increased to the west and decreased to the east. It increased in Huangbaiyuan Nature Reserves, but decreased slightly in Foping, Guangyinsha and Zhouzhi Nature Reserves. The area of high-density panda spatial utilization decreased in size, as pandas spread out over a wider area. The maximum increase in utilization density was 3.05 tracks/km2, and the maximum decrease was 2.71 tracks/km2.  (2) The rateof increase of Giant pandas’ spatial utilization density rose within 2000m in national, provincial, county roads. The range of spatial utilization density change decreased 2000m away from rural roads. Spatial utilization density increased 3500m between highways. Our study on the spatial utilization pattern of giant panda population provides a reference for more suitable and sustainable habitats, which would be helpful to optimize road locations and nature reserve planning, and to alleviate the conflict between human activities and wildlife.

Key words: Giant panda spatial utilization density, Population change, Qinling Mountains, Road disturbance