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卧龙自然保护区大熊猫对拐棍竹笋的选择与利用

张明春 李忠 黄炎 黄金燕 李德生 刘巅 周小平 周世强 李仁贵 张和民   

  1. 中国大熊猫保护研究中心
  • 出版日期:2017-08-14 发布日期:2017-07-05
  • 通讯作者: 张和民 E-mail: wolong_zhm@126.com

Giant panda selection of Fargesia robusta shoots in Wolong Nature Reserve,China

ZHANG Mingchun, LI Zhong, HUANG Yan, HUANG Jinyan, LI Desheng, LIU Dian, ZHOU Xiaoping, ZHOU Shiqiang, LI Rengui, ZHANG Hemin#br#   

  1. China Conservation and Research Center for the Giant Panda
  • Online:2017-08-14 Published:2017-07-05
  • Contact: ZHANG Hemin E-mail: wolong_zhm@126.com

摘要: 拐棍竹是卧龙野生大熊猫春季的主要食物。2014-2016年,从设置的3条固定样线中我们发现了当地野生大熊猫有分段取食拐棍竹笋的现象,且没有到放牧活动和人为干扰严重的河谷区域取食竹林内的拐棍竹笋。它们首先在海拔较低( 2 100 m左右)、新笋发育较早且人为干扰不严重的区域觅食,当这些区域的新笋普遍超过2 m高度时会向海拔较高处迁移。大熊猫优先选择有较高比例粗大竹笋的区域作为觅食场所,且当觅食斑块内新笋普遍较小时对粗笋有倾向性选择(P<0.05),但当环境中的新笋质量较好时,选择性有所降低(P>0.05)。大熊猫在新笋质量较好的觅食斑块中取食率较高,在海拔较高处因竹笋的基径较小所以取食率较低(F=20.12, P<0.05)。大熊猫取食新笋所留残桩高度与周边竹笋的高度呈正比(r=0.50, P<0.001)。为保证大熊猫在新笋期的觅食活动免遭干扰,管理者应该在这一时期严格限制大熊猫活动频繁区域的人为干扰。

关键词: 卧龙大熊猫, 拐棍竹, 分段取食, 基径, 选择

Abstract: The shoots of Fargesia robusta are the most important food source for giant pandas in Wolong nature reserve in spring. We conducted three line transects in the springs of 2014, 2015, and 2016. We found that giant pandas preferred to forage on lower elevation shoots and avoided foraging in areas with heavy grazing and other human actives. There was a significant positive correlation with the lowest foraging elevation used by giant pandas and the amount of anthropogenic disturbance. When shoots reached a height greater than two meters, giant pandas left to forage on food patches at higher elevation. Giant pandas preferentially selected areas with bigger bamboo shoots and within a bamboo forest they foraged on the largest shoots available particularly when stands were composed mostly of small diameter shoots (P<0.05). When the majority of the shoots were bigger, giant pandas switch to foraging shoots randomly (P>0.05). Pandas foraged on a higher percentage of shoots in areas containing larger shoots, (F=20.12, P<0.05), and foraged fewer shoots at higher elevations because shoots were thinner in diameter and taller. There was a significant positive correlation between the height of the shoot stub and the shoot itself (r=0.50, P<0.001). To encourage giant pandas to forage on Fargesia robusta shoots, managers should limit anthropogenic disturbances in spring, especially at elevations between 2100-2400 meters where giant pandas preferentially feed.

Key words: Base diameter, Fargesia robusta, Forage shoot, Giant panda of Wolong, Selection