兽类学报

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中国东北虎栖息地分析与潜在生态廊道构建

李维平 包衡 张明海   

  1. 东北林业大学野生动物资源学院;国家林业局保护生物学重点实验室
  • 出版日期:2017-11-13 发布日期:2017-10-24
  • 通讯作者: 张明海 E-mail: zhangminghai2004@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家林业局项目:中俄边境东北虎走廊带恢复(2014-41314406)

Habitat analysis and design of potential ecological corridors for Amur Tiger in Northeastern China

LI Weiping,BAO Heng,ZHANG Minghai   

  1. College of Wildlife Animal Resource, Northeast Forestry University;Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology, Chinese State Forestry Administration
  • Online:2017-11-13 Published:2017-10-24

摘要: 东北虎(Panthera tigris altaica)是现存5个虎亚种中体型最大者,其作为全球生物多样性保护的旗舰物种,在维持健康生态系统功能中占据不可替代的重要地位。近几十年来,由于东北虎栖息地受到人类活动强烈干扰,致使栖息地破碎化,主要栖息地孤立分布,呈现岛状,天然生态廊道消失殆尽,东北虎的保护面临巨大挑战。因此,确定东北虎关键栖息地,构建与恢复东北虎栖息地之间的生态廊道十分必要。本研究运用专家模型结合东北虎栖息地选择规律和栖息地特征,综合分析植被类型、国家级与省级自然保护区分布、地形因子以及人为干扰因子共7个主要影响因子;通过层次分析法(AHP)获得各影响因子的相对权重值,运用加权线性方程获得了东北虎潜在适宜栖息地,并确定了东北虎核心分布区以及分布区间的综合代价值。通过廊道设计模型(Linkage mapper)得到东北虎核心栖息地间的潜在生态廊道。结果得到了21条东北虎潜在生态廊道,对打通国内零星分布区,特别是张广才岭—完达山—老爷岭之间的迁移通道、扩大东北虎生存空间具有现实指导意义。

关键词: 东北虎, 专家模型, 核心栖息地, 生态廊道

Abstract: Amur tiger(Panthera tigris altaica)is the largest of the five remaining tiger subspeciesAs the flagship species for global biodiversity conservation, it plays an indispensable role in maintaining healthy ecosystem functions. In recent decades, tiger conservation has faced enormous challenges, mainly due to strong human disturbance of their habitats, leading to the further habitat fragmentation, insularization of tiger's main geographic range and disruption of natural ecological corridors. Therefore, identifying the tigers’ core habitats, developing and restoring ecological corridors between key habitats are very important. In this research, by using the expert model combining Amur tiger habitat selection rules and habitat features, we analyzed 7 main parameters, including the vegetation type, distribution of national and provincial natural reserves, terrain and human disturbance factor. We determined the relative importance values for factors by an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), then, by using the weighted linear equation, we identified potentially suitable habitats for Amur tiger, the Amur tiger’s core habitats and the synthetical cost values among the distribution area. Using the corridor design model (Linkage mapper), we proceeded with the design of potential ecological corridors between core habitats. Ultimately, we identified 21 potential ecological corridors, connecting areas of the Amur tiger’s current sporadic distribution in China, especially the migration channels between Zhangguangcailing - Wandashan - Laoyeling, which has practical significance for expanding living space for this species.

Key words: Amur tiger, Core habitat, Ecological corridor, Expert model