摘要： 西印度海牛Trichechus manatus Linnaeus系稀有珍贵动物。近百年来,世界上饲养这种动物的国家只有几个,在人工饲养下能够繁殖的也只有美国和荷兰两个国家。因此有关海牛饲养管理的资料非常少,繁殖方面的资料更是寥寥无几。
Abstract: Manatee can be transported by air, out of water for 22 hours. But its skin should be kept moist,at a temperature of 21 and above.It has been found that the pair of manatees in our captivity can live on common waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) as the main substitute for food.They not only grow well but also produce young calf.The gestation for the two baby manatees takes 387 and 370 days respectively. The average period of 378.5 days fundamentally agrees with what has been recorded in some available material of estimation. For instance, Jennison has estimated the period to be 365 days (Crandall, 1964)In his report, Estanislau Kostka Pinto Da Silveira (1975) said that manatees probably have sexual intercourse in a bellyto-belly position. Our observation confirms that manatees really copulate in that way.No report has ever been made on the process of manatee's parturition. From our observation we have collected the following data: In her secoond birth the pregnant manatee has shown more obvious signs of impending parturition.The body position during parturition remains the same as usual. Some time after the foetal membr ane appears at the vaginal orifice,amniotic fluid begins to flow and lasts for about 3/2 hours until the foetus comes out. Placenta is discharged 19/2 hours later.According to our observation, the baby manatee spurts out of the water instinctively on its own and takes the first breath.This is contrary to the description in some writings which ccnclvee that it is the mother rranateewhich supports the baby out of the water.The gesture of nursing shows that both mother and taby are submergedin the water, their bodies parallel with the water level, while the mother extends one of its fore flippers diagonally, the baby sucks the nipple in the mother's armpit.Thus the two bodies form an acute angle.
戚静芬. 西印度海牛(Trichechus manatus Linnaeus)在人工饲养下的繁殖[J]. .
QI Jingfen. BREEDING OF THE WEST INDIAN MANATEE (Trichechus manatus Linn.)IN CAPTIVITY[J]. .