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基于粪便DNA的青藏高原雪豹种群调查和遗传多样性分析

周芸芸 冯金朝 朵海瑞 杨海龙 李娟 李迪强 张于光   

  1. 中央民族大学,中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所
  • 出版日期:2014-05-13 发布日期:2014-08-18
  • 通讯作者: 张于光 yugzhang@sina.com.cn
  • 基金资助:
    自然保护区生物标本资源共享子平台项目(2005DKA21404)

Population survey and genetic diversity of snow leopard (Uncia uncia) in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau as revealed by fecal DNA

ZHOU Yunyun, FENG Jinchao, DUO Hairui, YANG Hailong, LI Juan, LI Diqiang, ZHANG Yuguang   

  1. Minzu University of China, Institute of  Forest Ecology,Chinese Academy of Forestry
  • Online:2014-05-13 Published:2014-08-18
  • Contact: ZHANG Yuguang yugzhang@sina.com.cn

摘要: 基于非损伤性取样,利用mtDNA和微卫星DNA遗传标记,对来自青藏高原三江源国家级自然保护区、羌塘国家级自然保护区和甘肃党河南山地区等地的277 份疑似雪豹粪便样品进行了物种鉴定、个体识别和遗传多样性研究。结果显示:在190份成功扩增的mtDNA cyt b基因片段中,确定有89份属于雪豹;微卫星分析确定其属于48个不同的个体。在48个雪豹mtDNA cyt b基因片段中,共检测出13个多态性位点,定义了9个单倍型,单倍型多态性为0.776,核苷酸多态性为 1.50%, 9个单倍型的遗传距离为 0.009-0.058。研究表明在研究区域均存在雪豹分布,并具有一定的遗传多态性,地理距离分布较远的羌塘国家级自然保护区和甘肃党河南山地区的雪豹样品具有一定的遗传差异。

关键词: 雪豹, 粪便DNA, 青藏高原, 遗传多样性, 遗传结构

Abstract: With noninvasive sampling, 277 fecal samples were collected from dominant distribution areas of snow leopard (Uncia uncia), including Sanjiangyuan National Nature Reserve (Qinghai Province), Qiangtang National Nature Reserve (Tibet Autonomous Region) and Nanshan area (Danghe, Gansu Province). Species identification, individual recognition and genetic diversity were explored by analysing the mtDNA cytb gene fragment and microsatellite loci. The results showed that 190 samples were successfully amplified and sequenced in 277 fecal samples. 89 samples were identified as snow leopard and they belonged to 48 individuals. 9 haplotypes and 13 diversity sites were found in the 48 mtDNA cytb gene fragments. The haplotype diversity was 0.776, the nucleotide diversity was 1.50% and the genetic distance among 9 haplotypes ranged from 0.009 to 0.058. According to the results, we postulate that snow leopards among these areas have significant genetic variation in the mtDNA cytb gene fragments. The samples distributed in Qiangtang National Nature Reserve and Nanshan area have significant genetic distance.

Key words: Fecal DNA, Genetic diversity, Genetic structure, Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, Snow leopard (Uncia uncia)