兽类学报

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左炔诺孕酮和炔雌醚(EP-1)及组分对鼠类不育效果的研究进展

张知彬   

  1. 中国科学院动物研究所农业虫害鼠害综合治理研究国家重点实验室
  • 出版日期:2015-05-15 发布日期:2015-08-12
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院科技服务网络计划(KFJ-EW-STS-068-3)和科技部国家重大基础研究计划(2007CB109101)

A review on anti-fertility effects of levonorgestrel and quinestrol (EP -1) compounds and its components on small rodents

Zhang Zhibin   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management on Pest Insects and Rodents in Agriculture, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
  • Online:2015-05-15 Published:2015-08-12

摘要: 由于当前传统灭杀带来的一系列问题,鼠害不育控制逐渐受到重视。自张知彬等2004率先报道左炔诺孕酮和炔雌醚(EP-1) 对野生鼠类不育效果的研究以来,国内多个研究团队对EP-1及其组分的不育效果、剂量、饵料制作、环境安全性、行为与分子机理等方面开展了大量的验证和完善研究,取得了许多重要的进展。这些结果进一步说明EP-1及组分对鼠类具有很好的不育效果,并具有两性不育、高效低量、可持续、相对环保与安全、野外投放方便、经济可行等特点。EP-1或炔雌醚毒饵的不育剂量约为10-50 μg/mL (0.001%-0.005%),甚至更低;其组分在土壤和水体的半衰期约为5-16d和小于3d。在鼠类繁殖的早期,采取野外一次饱和投放即可有效降低全年鼠类的繁殖,效果可延续至第二年。可见,EP-1及其组分有望成为鼠害控制的一个新手段。建议今后进一步加强野外不育与跨年持续效应的验证、环境安全性评价和行为生态学机制等研究工作。

关键词: 鼠类, 鼠害, 不育控制, 炔雌醚, 左炔诺孕酮, EP-1

Abstract: Fertility control is attracting high attention in rodent pest control due to problems of traditional culling. Since the first report by Zhang in 2004,the anti-fertility effects of levonorgestrel and quinestrol (EP -1)on small wild rodents have been tested in several laboratories independently. Much progress has been achieved in fields of anti-fertility efficiency, dosage, baiting techniques, environmental safety and behavioral or molecular mechanisms of EP -1 and its compounds. Theseresults further revealed that EP -1 and its compounds were highly efficient and cost-effective in sterilizing both male and female rodents with a very low dosage, one pulse baiting, an across-year effect and relative environmental safety. The effective dosage of EP -1 and its components is about 10 -50μg/mL (0.001% -0.005% )or even lower; their half-lives are about 5 -16 days in soil and less than 3 days in water. One single baiting in the early breeding stage can effectively depress reproduction of wild rodents for the whole year, and the anti-fertility effect can be extend to next year. Thus, EP -1 and its components are very promising for practical use in the future. It is recommended that future studies should be directed at testing the current and across-year effects of EP -1 on more rodent species in the field, assessment of environmental safety, optimal baiting techniques and behavioral or ecological anti-fertility mechanisms of these compounds.