兽类学报

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四川短尾鼩的生境选择及对人为干扰的响应

宗浩 向大兵 吴思思 李江 任熙 李婉瑜 付长坤 王琼 陈顺德   

  1. 四川师范大学生命科学学院
  • 出版日期:2017-08-14 发布日期:2017-07-05

Habitat selection and the response to human disturbances by Anourosorex squamipes

ZONG Hao,XIANG Dabing, WU Sisi, LI Jiang,REN Xi,LI Wanyu,FU Changkun,WANG Qiong,CHEN Shunde   

  1. College of Life Science,Sichuan Normal university
  • Online:2017-08-14 Published:2017-07-05

摘要: 2014年4-9月,通过铗夜法对12种不同生境内的四川短尾鼩种群数量进行了调查,依据捕获率的大小及生境的干扰程度分析四川短尾鼩的生境选择倾向。利用人工捕捉模拟种群干扰,分别在干扰1个月、2个月、3个月、4个月时间之后,监测荒草地、废弃梨树林、灌丛和绿化林4种代表性生境内四川短尾鼩的种群数量、年龄结构、性比的变化,进而分析四川短尾鼩对人为干扰的生态响应。结果显示:(1)四川短尾鼩在12种典型生境中,按捕获率的大小依次分为4个等级:绿化林>废弃梨树林、景观林、荒草地、桉树林、蔬菜地、灌丛>人居村落、废弃葡萄园>竹林,葡萄园,油菜地;(2)四川短尾鼩的生境选择倾向为:异质性适中、适度干扰、竞争较低的生境>异质性较低、干扰较高的生境(宜觅食、竞争弱)或异质性较高、干扰较低的生境(宜栖身、竞争弱)>高竞争的生境>异质性低或强烈干扰或二者兼有的生境。(3)干扰之初,所有生境中四川短尾鼩种群密度明显降低,干扰2个月之后其种群数量均可恢复到正常状态;干扰后性比平均值增加3.52%,怀孕率变化不显著;全部生境中,成体组比例平均降低1.71%,老年组减少7.53%;幼年组的比例平均增长2.33%,亚成体增加6.91%。幼体和亚成体比例的增加,使种群数量在一定时间内保持稳定增长。

关键词: 四川短尾鼩, 生境选择, 人为干扰, 种群动态, 生态响应

Abstract: The population sizes of Anourosorex squamipes in twelve different types of habitats was surveyed during April to September in 2014. According to the order of trapping success and the degree of human disturbance of the different habitats, we analyzed trends of habitat selection of Anourosorex squamipes. Simulated population disturbance was executed by the way of artificial capture. The investigation consisted of population size, age group and sex ratio for different habitats specified as one of four typical sorts (grassland, abandoned pear garden, bush-land and landscape planted woods) after 1, 2, 3 and 4 months of human disturbance, It is shown that the trapping success for Anourosorex squamipes in the 12 habitats presents a sequence from large to small for five grades as follows: forest area > human habitat environment or abandoned pear garden >landscape planted woods or bush-land or abandoned vineyard or grassland >  Eucalyptus woods or vegetable field > bamboo woods or vineyard or rape field. It was found that Anourosorex squamipes select their habitat more likely in a sequence as follows: habitats with intermediate disturbance and environmental heterogeneity, habitats with high disturbance and low environmental heterogeneity, habitats with low disturbance and high environmental heterogeneity, and habitats with excessive disturbance or environmental heterogeneity or both. Moreover, the population of Anourosorex squamipes in all the habitats was reduced significantly at the beginning of human disturbance, and then could be restored to the normal level in 2 months. More specifically, the average sex ratio was increased by 3.52% , the pregnancy ratio changed slightly, the rate of adult groups was decreased by 1.71%, the rate of old groups decreased by 7.53%, the rate of young group increased by 2.33% and the sub-adult group increased by 6.91% after the human disturbance. Nevertheless, the increasing of rate of young group and sub-adult group suggests that Anourosorex squamipes populations would maintain a continuous growth trend in a long period.

Key words: Anourosorex squamipes, Habitat selection, Human disturbance, Population dynamics, Ecological response