兽类学报

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利用卫星追踪颈圈对圈养野生双峰驼野化放归的监测

薛亚东 李迪强 孙志成 袁海峰   

  1. 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所,国家林业局森林生态环境重点实验室;甘肃敦煌西湖国家级自然保护区管理局
  • 出版日期:2017-11-13 发布日期:2017-10-24
  • 通讯作者: 薛亚东 E-mail: xueyadong334@163.com

Using satellite tracking collars to monitor released captive-bred wild Bactrian camels

XUE Yadong,LI Diqiang,SUN Zhicheng,YUAN Haifeng   

  1. Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Environment of State Forestry Administration; Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry;dministrative Bureau of Gansu Dunhuang Xihu National Nature Reserve
  • Online:2017-11-13 Published:2017-10-24

摘要: 2012-2014年,通过对甘肃敦煌西湖国家级自然保护区野化放归的两峰野生双峰驼(Camelus ferus)佩带卫星追踪颈圈进行跟踪监测,利用最小凸多边形法和内核法开展了放归生境中野骆驼的活动范围和空间利用研究。研究期间,分别进行了22个月(ID:108444)和9个月(ID:108445)的跟踪监测,获得了3403个(ID:108444) 和1573个(ID:108445)定位成功的GPS位点。野骆驼放归后的前两个月仍存在一定的对圈养环境的依赖,两个月后野骆驼的活动范围开始向外扩展,直至四个月后,基本扩展至整个放养的围栏,活动范围分别从9.5109 km2增加到19.3694 km2 (ID:108444),8.8943 km2 增加到19.4192 km2 (ID:108445)。整个监测期间,95% Kernel活动范围分别为7.7181km2 (ID:108444) 和 3.0321 km2 (ID:108445)。从整个监测期间(ID:108444)的50% Kernel活动范围(0.2811 km2)来看,野骆驼整个放归期间仍然比较依赖原先的圈养环境;野骆驼存在对胡杨疏林的偏好;同时,放归的野骆驼仍然保持了对人的亲近行为。从2013年整年来看,放归野骆驼实际生境利用,春、秋两季范围大,夏、冬两季范围较小。放归的野骆驼不同季节对主要生境的利用也有所不同,最为明显的是夏季,野骆驼活动范围集中在荒漠地区,避开植被多的区域以避免蚊虫叮咬。本研究进一步了解了野骆驼的行为习性及其适应环境的行为对策,为野骆驼圈养种群的科学管理和进一步野化放归提供了理论依据。

关键词: 卫星追踪颈圈, 甘肃敦煌西湖国家级自然保护区, 野骆驼, 放归

Abstract:

Satellite tracking collars were used to monitor released captive-bred wild Bactrian camels in the Gansu Dunhuang Xihu National Nature Reserve, and space and habitat use were studied from 2012 to 2014. During the 22-month (ID:108444) and 9-month (ID:108445) monitoring periods, 3403 (ID:108444) and 1573 (ID:108445) GPS positions were obtained, respectively. Minimum Convex Polygon home range analysis showed that the home range of released wild camels covered a small area around the original enclosure at the start of the monitoring period (June-July). By August of the same year, the individual home range had expanded from 9.51 km2 to 19.37 km2 (ID:108444), and from 8.89 km2 to 19.42 km2 (ID:108445), respectively. During the monitoring periods, the individual home ranges covered the entire enclosure, with 95% Kernel home ranges of 7.72km2 (ID:108444) and 3.03 km2 (ID:108445), respectively. The intensive occupancy also indicated the habitat selection of wild camels. The released wild camels showed significant dependence on their original captive environment and proximity to people. And the released wild camels used different habitats in the release environment, especially in summer. Areas with Populus euphratica were preferred by the wild camels. This study provides useful information on the behaviour and adaptation of released captive-bred wild camels, which can be applied to the effective management of the captive-bred wild camel populations. The aim of this study was to improve the rehabilitation of captive-bred wild camels to be released into the wild.
 

Key words: Gansu Dunhuang Xihu National Nature Reserve, Reintroduction, Satellite tracking collar, Wild Bactrian camel