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青海省人与藏棕熊冲突现状、特点与解决对策

韩徐芳 张吉 蔡平 张毓 吴国生 王恩光 徐爱春   

  1. 中国计量大学生命科学学院
  • 出版日期:2018-01-30 发布日期:2018-04-09
  • 通讯作者: 徐爱春 E-mail: springlover@cjlu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31272325)

The status and characteristics of, and solutions to, human-Tibetan brown bear conflicts in the Qinghai Province

HAN Xufang, ZHANG Ji, CAI Ping, ZHANG Yu, WU Guosheng, WANG Enguang, XU Aichun   

  1. College of Life Science, China Jiliang University
  • Online:2018-01-30 Published:2018-04-09

摘要: 人与野生动物冲突会造成重大经济损失,甚至造成人员伤亡,不利于野生动物的保护。藏棕熊主要分布于我国西部地区,与当地居民的冲突具有与大型食肉动物冲突的典型特点。2012-2015年我们对青海省人与藏棕熊冲突172起案件进行了统计分析,同时采用分层访谈法对86户牧民做了人与藏棕熊冲突调查,以期了解该省人与藏棕熊冲突现状,掌握冲突发生的特点和规律,探讨冲突发生的内在原因。研究结果显示:(1) 全省人与藏棕熊冲突案件集中发生在玉树州和海西州,其中玉树州治多县和曲麻莱县冲突最为严重;(2) 每年6-9月为冲突高发期,藏棕熊冬睡期的2月及11月也有发生;(3) 藏棕熊伤害类型主要表现为损毁房屋构件、取食房屋内储存的粮食以及造成人身伤亡;(4) 大部分受访者认为当地人与藏棕熊冲突事件严重,政府应以货币的形式对野生动物伤害给予适当补偿;(5) 目前牧民普遍采取的防熊措施效果并不理想。我们建议加强牧民游牧期间对房屋巡护、加固工作,建议撤户并村,妥善安置过冬食物与饲料,积极开展野生动物伤害补偿工作;同时建议进一步加强对藏棕熊的科学研究,为缓解人熊冲突现象提供科学理论依据。

关键词: 藏棕熊, 人兽冲突, 野生动物伤害, 防熊措施, 青海省

Abstract: Human-wildlife conflicts can cause great financial losses and casualties to humans, and also are not beneficial for the protection of wild animals. Tibetan brown bears mainly occur in Western China. Their interactions with local inhabitants reflect typical characteristics of conflicts between large carnivores and humans. We analyzed a total of 172 cases of human-Tibetan brown bear conflict in Qinghai province from 2012 to 2015. We also interviewed 86 local herdsmen, aiming to understand the current situation of human-Tibetan brown bear conflict, grasp the traits and rules of conflicts, and discuss the internal reasons of them. Our results showed that (1) within Qinghai province, the conflicts mainly happened in Yushu and Haixi autonomous prefectures, and were more severe in Zhiduo and Qumalai counties of Yushu autonomous prefecture; (2) the conflicts primarily happened during the period of June and September every year, while there were also a few cases during the bear hibernation period between February and November; (3) typical damages by Tibetan brown bears included destroying houses, eating stored crops, and causing personal casualties; (4) the majority of the interviewees considered the conflicts to be serious, and the government should give appropriate compensation (e.g. money); (5) it was widely acknowledged by the interviewees that bear prevention measures were not sufficient to prevent damages. We suggest that the herders could pay more attention to consolidating and patrolling their house during nomadic days. The scattered families are expected to merge together and arrange appropriate food and fodder for winter. The compensation standards of damage caused by wild animals should be carried out actively. Meanwhile, we also call for further research on Tibetan brown bears so as to obtain enough scientific evidence to alleviate the conflicts between humans and Tibetan brown bears.

Key words: Human-wildlife conflict, Measures to control damage, Qinghai Province, Ursus arctos pruinosus, Wildlife damage