兽类学报

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黄喉貂日活动节律及食性的季节变化

朱博伟 王彬 冉江洪 李波 黄蜂 李晓清 古晓东   

  1.  (1 四川大学生命科学学院,生物资源与生态环境教育部重点实验室,成都 610065)
    (2 西华师范大学生态研究院,南充637002)
    (3 四川省栗子坪国家级自然保护区管理局,石棉 625400)
    (4 四川省野生动物资源调查保护管理站,成都 610081)
  • 出版日期:2019-01-30 发布日期:2019-01-18
  • 通讯作者: 冉江洪 E-mail: ranjianghong@suc.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    四川省林业厅资助项目

Seasonal variation of daily activity patterns and diet of yellow-throated marten (Martes flavigula)

ZHU Bowei,WANG Bin,RAN Jianghong,LI Bo,HUANG Feng,LI Xiaoqing, GU Xiaodong   

  1. (1 Key Laboratory of Bio-Resource and Eco-Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan, China)
    (2 Institute of Ecology, China West Normal University, Nanchong 637002, China)
    (3 Management Office of the Liziping National Nature Reserve, Shimian 625400, China)
    (4 China Sichuan Provincial Station for Survey, Conservation and Management of Wild Animals, Chengdu 610081, China)
  • Online:2019-01-30 Published:2019-01-18

摘要: 2016年4月至2017年4月,采用红外相机技术和粪便分析法(频率法和剩余物干重法)对四川栗子坪国家级自然保护区内黄喉貂不同季节的日活动节律及食物组成变化进行了研究。结果显示:(1)黄喉貂主要在白天活动(昼间独立照片数占总独立照片数的85.64%),不同季节黄喉貂日活动节律无显著差(χ2=126.950,df=132,P=0.608),但在不同季节其日活动高峰出现时间不同,春季的活动高峰出现在16:00~19:00(31.65%),夏季活动高峰发生在15:00~18:00(26.32%),秋季活动高峰出现在13:00~16:00(34.31%),冬季活动高峰出现在11:00~14:00(25.00%),并且冬季夜间活动与其他季节相比明显增多;(2)黄喉貂取食食物有兽类、鸟类、昆虫类和植物类等,但兽类是黄喉貂最主要的食物来源,在一年中以兽类的出现频率最高,为95.28%,兽类剩余物的总相对干重百分比达80.99%,其次是植物、鸟类和昆虫;(3)黄喉貂对食物类别的利用表现出明显的季节差异,春、夏、秋三个季节黄喉貂粪便中兽类所占比重最多,春季鸟类食物出现频率较高,冬季黄喉貂粪便中植物所占比重明显增多。本研究表明,黄喉貂在不同季节其日活动节律和食性均表现出一定的差异,这可能与其繁殖特性和生理代谢需求有关。本研究揭示了黄喉貂的日活动节律及食性的季节性变化,充实了黄喉貂的生物、生态学资料,也为该物种的保护管理提供了参考资料。

关键词: 黄喉貂, 栗子坪国家级自然保护区, 日活动节律, 食性, 季节变化

Abstract: From April 2016 to April 2017, seasonal variation of daily activity patterns and diet of yellow-throated martens (Martes flavigula) were studied using fecal analyses (frequency of occurrence and relative weight of remains) and Infrared Triggered Camera Technology in Liziping National Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province, China. We found that the activity of yellow-throated martens mainly occurred during the daytime, diurnal activity accounting for 85.64% of the total independent photographs. Pearson's chi-squared test showed that there was no significant difference in activity patterns of yellow-throated marten in different seasons (χ2=126.950, df=132, P=0.608). However, the peak time of activity patterns showed a certain difference among different seasons. The peak of the activity density occurred at 16:00-19:00 in spring (31.65%), 15:00-18:00 in summer (26.32%), 13:00-16:00 in autumn (34.31%), and 11:00-14:00 in winter (25.00%). In addition, there was more nocturnal activity in winter than that of the other three seasons. The content of yellow-throated marten feces could be classified into 4 groups: mammals, birds, insects and plants. Mammals(95.28% occurrence and 80.99% dry weight)were the major food of yellow-throated martens throughout the year. The food habits of yellow-throated martens varied in different seasons. Mammal remains in the feces appeared most frequently in spring, summer and autumn. Bird remains also appeared frequently in spring. The proportion of plants in the feces of yellow-throated martens was obviously increased in winter. Our results show that both daily activity patterns and diet of yellow-throated marten have certain differences in different seasons, which might be related to its seasonal breeding characteristics and physiological metabolism. These results are very helpful to a better understanding about the life history and survival strategy for yellow-throated martens, and provide a fundamental data and study for the protection of yellow-throated martens.

Key words: Daily activity patterns, Diet, Liziping National Nature Reserve, Seasonal variation, Yellow-throated marten