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Preliminary comparison of diet composition of four small sized carnivores at Saihanwula Nature Reserve,Inner Mongolia

ZHANG Lijia,WANG Anmeng,YUAN Li,BAO Weidong,YANG Yongxin,Baterr   

  1. College of Biological Sciences,Beijing Forestry University,Beijing 100083,China
  • Online:2011-03-02 Published:2011-03-02

内蒙古赛罕乌拉自然保护区4 种小型食肉目动物的食性构成的初步分析

张逦嘉, 王安梦, 袁梨, 鲍伟东, 杨永昕, 巴特尔   

  1. 北京林业大学生物学院,北京 100083

Abstract: Food habits and competition of sympatric carnivores at Saihanwula Nature Reserve,Inner Mongolia were compared from August to December 2007 by examining fecal content. Food items were evaluated by rate of occurrence in the diet and in weight percentage of total diet. Our study included red fox (Vulpes vulpes), badger (Melesmeles), mountain weasel (Mustela altaica) and leopard cat (Felis bengalensis). The data indicate red fox ingested 15 kinds of food with the following composition:plants (32.6% ), rodents (31.3% ) and birds (18.6% ); weasels were occasionally preyed upon (0.7% ). Although plant occurrence was high percentage,the role of vegetation decreased when calculated in relative weight percentage. Badger consumed more insects (29.3% ) and fruit (57.8% ) in terms of frequency, while mountain weasel preyed upon rodents at a very high rate of occurrence (73.7% ) and weight percentage (99. 8% ). The leopard cat primarily ate birds (27.8% ), especially medium-sized partridge (16.7% ccurrence rate). The index of relative importance indicates that red fox took hare,plants,rodents,and birds as their staple foods;badgers preferred more fruit and insects over other food types;and rodents were the dominant food for mountain weasel (63.9% ), with birds (16.7% ) higher than plants (10.05% ). A comparison of food niche breadth shows that red fox had the largest standardized value (0.2) followed by leopard cat (0.1), badger (0.07) and mountain weasel (0.001). These standardized values correlate with the distribution pattern of main prey groups. Based on food niche overlap,food competition was severe for red fox and badger (O = 0.99), red fox and leopard cat (O = 0.7), and badger and leopard cat (O = 0.6). These species could exist sympatrically in that there is a difference in main food types;red fox preyed more on hare and rodents,leopard cat caught more birds,and badger ate fruits and insects. Mountain weasel distribution and population development may be limited by red fox predation.

Key words: Badger (Meles meles), Food niche, Inner Mongolia, Intra-guild predation, Leopard cat (Felis bengalensis), Mountain weasel (Mustela altaica), Red fox (Vulpes vulpes)

摘要: 为了解同域分布动物的食物竞争关系,采用样线法收集粪便样品,依据残遗物鉴别物种的方法,于2007年8 ~12 月对赛罕乌拉国家级自然保护区的赤狐、狗獾、香鼬和豹猫的食物构成进行比较。结果表明:赤狐取食所有15 类食物,并捕食小型鼬类;在赤狐粪样(n =70) 中出现率较大的植物(32.6% )以重量比率计算时其贡献极大下降(0.02% ),而出现率较低的草兔和鸟类重量比率较高(草兔65.4% , 鸟类22.9% ), 相对重要值的计算表示,赤狐的食物构成均一。狗獾(n = 64)以取食昆虫和植物果实为主(出现率29.3% 和57.8% )。香鼬(n =14)集中取食鼠类(出现率73.7% ,相对重量99.8% ),豹猫(n = 11) 则以鸟类居多(出现率27.8% ,相对重量69.0% )。食物生态位的宽度以赤狐最大(0.2),其次为豹猫(0.07)。根据食物生态位的重
叠度分析,赤狐与狗獾(O = 0.99)和豹猫(O = 0.7)以及狗獾与豹猫(O = 0.6)的种间竞争较强, 但在主要食物上出现分离,实现捕食者之间的共存。赤狐对香鼬的捕食可能限制了其种群的发展。

关键词: 赤狐, 狗獾, 香鼬, 豹猫, 食物生态位, 同类相食