Abstract Social learning is a plastic phenotypic behavior that enables animals to acquire the behavioral modes to adapt to their inhabited environment. Experiment were performed using root voles (Microtus oeconomus)to investigate the effect of multi- and single-conspecifics,and familiar and new conspecifics on the food selection of weaned voles using a cafeteria type preference trial in the laboratory. Experimental voles were caught at the Haibei Alpine Ecological System Station,the Chinese Academy of Sciences in May 2001. Experimental diets were prepared by adding cocoa powder or cinnamon powder at 1% of total dry matter of the basal diet. The results showed that conspecifics significantly affected the food preference by learning in voles,and the proportion of ingested food items that conspecifics had was up to 71% in weaned voles. The conspecifics had highly significant effects on food selection by learning in voles over 4 h with the interaction between multiple and single conspecifics and learning voles (P < 0.01),24 h later the effects disappeared (P > 0.05). No significant difference existed between effects of multiple and single conspecifics on food selection in weaned root voles (P > 0.05). Familiar conspecifics had significant effects on food selection of learning voles,but there was no significant effect of new conspecifics on food preference in learning voles.