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Sex-age differences in activity budget and position behavior of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

LI Dayong,ZHOU Qihai,TANG Huaxing,HUANG Chengming   

  1. Key Laboratory of Southwest China Wildlife Resources Conservation of Ministry of Education,China West Normal University
  • Online:2012-02-29 Published:2012-02-20



  1. 西华师范大学西南野生动植物资源保护教育部重点实验室

Abstract: Data on activity budgets,activity heights,and semi-positional behaviors were collected from one provisioned group of Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta )between November 2005 and October 2006 at Seven-star Park,Guilin, Guangxi Province,using an instantaneous scan sampling method. We compared the activity budgets,activity heights,and positional behaviors by sex-age or age classes. Our results indicated that the Rhesus macaque at Seven-star Park was a semiterrestrial species,and spent much time resting (41. 5% );sitting was the most frequently adopted resting (85.5% ) and feeding (85. 4% )posture. Quadrupedal walking was the most prevalent locomotor mode (64. 5% ). There were sex differences in activity budgets of adult individuals:adult females spent more time grooming than did adult males. They also differed among age classes:resting time tended to increase with age,whereas playing time decreased. There were also significant variations in activity height and locomotor mode for different age classes. Adults were more terrestrial than were other classes. They also walked quadrupedally more frequently than the other ages. Subadults leaped more frequently than did individuals of other ages. Juveniles climbed and bridged more frequently than did adults. These variations may be related to the differences in body sizes and activity levels of different ages,as well as to the discontinuous tree canopies. Our
results will contribute to understanding the behavioral adaptation of different sex-age classes in rhesus macaques to their social and natural environment

Key words: Activity budget, Position behavior, Rhesus macaque, Semi-provisioned, Sex-age difference

摘要: 2005 年11 月至2006 年10 月,对生活在广西桂林七星公园内的一群半野生猕猴进行观察,采用瞬时扫描取样法收集不同性别—年龄组个体的活动时间分配、活动高度和姿态行为的数据。研究结果表明:七星公园猕猴属半地栖性灵长类动物,花费较多的时间休息(41.5% );坐是猕猴最主要的休息姿态
(85. 5% )和觅食姿态(85. 4% ),四足行走是最主要的移动模式(64.5% )。成年个体的活动时间分配表现出明显的性别差异,主要表现为成年雌猴花费更多的时间相互理毛。不同年龄组个体的活动时间分配也表现出显著差异。休息时间随年龄的增长而增加,而玩耍时间则表现出相反的趋势。猕猴的活动高度和移动模式也表现出明显的年龄差异。成年个体花费更多的时间在地面活动。在移动过程中,成年个体采用四足行走的频率明显高于其它年龄组个体;亚成年个体跳跃最多;少年个体采用攀爬和架桥的频率明显高于成年个体。这些差异可能与个体在不同发育阶段的体型和活动水平差异以及林冠的不连续性有关。本研究结果将有助于了解猕猴不同性别年龄组个体对其栖息的社会和自然环境的行为适应机制。

关键词: 猕猴, 活动时间分配, 姿态行为, 性别年龄差异, 半野生