ACTA Theriologica Sinica

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The impacts of Korean pine cone production and availability on hoarding behaviors of squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) and chipmunks (Eutamias sibiricus)

GAO Hongmei, MEI Suonancuo, RONG Ke, MA Jianzhang, ZONG Chen   

  1. College of Wildlife Resources, Northeast Forestry University
  • Online:2017-04-20 Published:2017-04-20

红松结实量与松果可利用量对松鼠和花鼠贮食行为的影响

高红梅 梅索南措 戎可 马建章 宗诚   

  1. 东北林业大学野生动物资源学院

Abstract: Plants increase the efficiency of seed dispersal by hoarding animals by producing large seed amounts at intervals of several years, however artificially picking seeds decreased the food availability and had impacts on hoarding behaviors and population dynamics of animals. To probe the impacts of cone-picking on cone availability and hoarding behavior of the main animals in Korean pine forest, based on the cone production and picking amount of Heilongjiang Liangshui National Nature Reserve during 2003-2012, we investigated changes of cache size and depth; cache density; the number of squirrels in mast and non-mast years; population sizes of squirrels and chipmunks; and larder-hoarding seed amounts in chipmunk caves in 2010 and 2011. The results showed that: 1) compared with non-mast years, the average cache size, density and number of squirrels were significantly larger in mast years; 2) cone availability was lower in some mast years because the picking proportion was higher than non-mast years; 3) cone production of Korean pine in 2011 was highest, but hoarding density of squirrels was lower than another two mast years, 2003 and 2008, and the encounter rate was lowest; 4) however the population density and pine seed amount in chipmunk caves was not significantly different between 2010 and 2011. Our research indicated that the increase of picking proportion decreased cone availability and had obvious impacts on the hoarding behavior of squirrels. Nature Reserves should wisely determine the picking amount of Korean pine cone, especially in mast years, to ensure the food abundance of hoarding animals and maintain the health of Korean pine ecosystem.

Key words: Pinus koraiensis, Cone picking, Cone production, Availability, Sciurus vulgaris, Eutamias sibiricus, Hoarding behavior

摘要: 植物通过每隔几年产生大量种子的丰年策略提高贮食动物传播种子效率,但人为采摘活动降低了种子的可利用量,从而影响贮食动物行为及种群动态。为研究红松球果采摘如何通过降低松果可利用量而影响贮食动物行为,我们基于黑龙江凉水自然保护区2003-2012年红松结实量和采摘量的变化,比较分析了结实大小年间松鼠贮点大小、贮点深度、贮食密度和贮藏量、松鼠花鼠种群以及2010年和2011年花鼠洞穴贮藏量的差异。结果显示:结实大年松鼠的平均贮点大小显著高于小年,大贮点比例增加,贮食密度和贮藏量也明显高于结实小年,但随着结实量的增大,球果采摘量增加,使松果可利用量减少,由此结实大年2011年松鼠贮食密度并未随结实量增加而增加,反而低于2003年和2008年,松鼠遇见率也没有在该结实大年有所增长。而花鼠种群和洞穴松籽贮藏量在结实大年和小年间没有显著差异。研究表明红松球果采摘对松果可利用量和松鼠贮食行为有较大影响,应合理确定大年的采摘量以保证贮食动物的食物丰度,维系红松生态系统健康。

关键词: 红松, 球果采摘, 结实量, 可利用量, 松鼠, 花鼠, 贮食行为