Abstract Fertility control reduces the birth rate of rodent populations and influences animal reproductive capability. By contrast, the effects of sterilants on individual behaviors may affect the social hierarchy of populations, and interfere with reproduction in normal animals. To understand the effects of cabergoline treatment dosage and treatment duration on the behavior of male Rattus losea, 40 male rats were randomly divided into five groups and treated with 0, 50, and 100 μg/kg cabergoline for 3 consecutive days. One male subject from the pre-treatment group (T750, T7100) was assigned to dyadic encounters with one subject from the control group (C) on the first day after the end of the three-day treatment. T2450 and T24100 rats encountered the same rat from C on the 18th day after the end of the three-day treatment. T750 and T7100 were assigned to dyadic encounters with normal females on the fourth day after the end of the three-day treatment. T2450 and T24100 rats encountered normal females on the 21st day after the end of the three-day treatment. Social behaviors between the same sex and the opposite sex were observed for 30 min and videotaped. The results showed that cabergoline treatment negatively affected the investigative and aggressive behavior of male R. losea, and reduced the aggression duration and frequency of males toward females. The frequency of investigation, grooming and resting in males that encountered female counterparts were significantly different between pre- and post-treatment with 100 μg/kg cabergoline. In conclusion, cabergoline treatment disturbs the inter- or intra-sexual social behaviors of R. losea. Furthermore, with longer duration post-treatment, the behavioral data in our experiment were not significantly different compared with pre-treatment. These results indicate that the effects of drug on social behavior of the male can gradually disappear after suspending cabergoline treatment.