The agro-pastoral ecotone of North China not only is a vulnerable ecosystem zone，but also is an ecological security boundary line in China. Rodent pests have always been one of the important ecological issues plaguing the agriculture-stock production of this area. With increased understanding of ecological and environmental security, research and development of ecologically based pest management, aimed at maintaining such security, has begun paying attention to natural pest regulation, highlighting the “win-win” nature of gains in both pest control and sustainable development. As a case, we demonstrated a study of Mongolian gerbils Meriones unguiculatus, which were one of major rodent pests of the agro-pastoral zone in Inner Mongolia, China. We reviewed the characteristics of group living, food hoarding, and space behavior in gerbils, and their behavioral adaptation to habitat quality or food abundance as well as to local phenological characters and agronomic cultivation practices. We propose that key manipulation principles of a synergistic habitat management strategy should focus on adaptive characteristics of pest behavior in ecologically-based management of Mongolian gerbils. It is hoped to that this information will enable exploration of ecologically- based management strategies via fundamentals behavioral ecology, which integrate sustainable environment- friendly rodent control and integral benefits.