Establishing behavioral ethograms is the foundation of animal behavioral studies. We constructed the ethogram of sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) using the PAE (Posture, Act and Environment) code system and datasets from infrared cameras in Wolong Nature Reserve during January 2015 to June 2016. Using data from videos and pictures captured by infrared cameras, we identified and recorded 7 types of postures, 63 acts and 74 behaviors. We also compared frequency of each type of behavior across different sex, age and season; and analyzed the relationship between sambar deer behaviors and environmental characteristics. The ethogram can provide basic information for studying behavioral ecology of sambar deer. It is also important for conservation planning and management of sambar deer. The techniques and methods can be applied to behavioral studies for other animals which are difficult to observe directly in the field.