Personality is the adaptive result of animals’ habitat and their society. Studies on animal personality are important to untangle complex social relationship. Naturalistic observation is an ideal method to distinguish wild animal personality and can better highlight the natural attributes and personality trait types in wild animals than can personality traits rating and behavior coding. The study subjects are a free-ranging group of wild Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) at Mt.Huangshan, Anhui. The study used focal animal sampling and all occurrence recording methods to collect adult macaques’ natural behaviors from July 2015 to June 2016. We then used principal components analysis to distinguish personality traits and gender differences among adult monkeys. Results showed that there were five types of personality such as leadership, introversion, sociability, solitary and bullying among adult male macaques. Adult female macaques had six types of personality: leadership, solitary, introversion, insecurity, nervousness and affiliation. The results are consistent with previous research and indicate that the naturalistic observation is a better choice for analyzing personality types in wild animals. The study provides scientific basis for further understanding diversity and adaptability at the individual level.