Abstract The population, distribution and sleeping caves of wild François’ languor (Trachypithecus francoisi) in Yezhong Nature Reserve were investigated by the interviews and field survey methods from January to April 2016. The results showed that there were total 16 groups (119 individuals) within in and around the Yezhong Nature Reserve, nine groups in the reserve, and seven groups outside of the reserve. The results also indicate that the François’ languors were sleeping in 23 caves. The average altitude of these caves is 1065 ±289.14 meters with the range 724-1638 meters, and the distance from the water source is 46.66 ± 17.46 meters with the range 20-90 meters. François' langurs’ sleeping caves are commonly located in evergreen broad-leaf deciduous mixed forests or bushes; the slope is generally above 75°, and far away from residential areas. To protect these valuable and unique wild François’ langurs, more protection should focus on the present habitats that still exist. Practical and effective protective measures must be established which include strengthening the management of reserve caves and expanding the protection range.