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    Catalogue of mammals in China(2021)
    WEI Fuwen, YANG Qisen, WU Yi, JIANG Xuelong, LIU Shaoying, LI Baoguo, YANG Guang, LI Ming, ZHOU Jiang, LI Song, HU Yibo, GE Deyan, LI Sheng, YU Wenhua, CHEN Bingyao, ZHANG Zejun, ZHOU Caiquan, WU Shibao, ZHANG Li, CHEN Zhongzheng, CHEN Shunde, DENG Huaiqing, JIANG Tinglei, ZHANG Libiao, SHI Hongyan, LU Xueli, LI Quan, LIU Zhu, CUI Yaqian, LI Yuchun
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 487-501.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150595
    Abstract12164)      PDF (1771KB)(6619)       Save
    China is one of the countries with the highest diversity of mammalian species. Knowledge of mammalian diversity and their taxonomy is fundamental to mammalian research and is the basis of scientific conservation of wild populations. To clarify the species diversity and important taxonomic information such as the taxonomic position of mammals in China, the China Mammalogical Society organized an editorial committee consisting of taxonomists studying different taxonomic groups. Based on previous taxonomic studies and the latest morphological and genetic evidences, the editorial committee produced the latest catalogue of mammalian species in China. This catalogue includes 12 orders, 59 families, 254 genera, and 686 species. The catalogue uses the taxonomy system based on phylogeny and fully discusses the validity of species taxonomy.
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    History,current situation and prospects on nature reserves for giant pandas ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in China
    HU Jinchu,ZHANG Zejun ,WEI Fuwen
    Abstract9114)      PDF (190KB)(4821)       Save
    The giant panda,a tribute to emperors in ancient China,is an endemic species and regarded as a modern national
    treasure. Contributing to extensive illegal hunting,it has become endangered before liberation. During 1950s,Chinese
    government initiated the establishment of nature reserves to conserve wildlife and their habitats,and in 1960s,five reserves,
    including Wolong,Wanglang,Baihe,Labahe and Taibaishan,were established for the giant panda. Seven more
    reserves were established in 1970s,based on the first national ground survey for the giant panda,and the reserves for the
    species summed up to thirteen. The second national ground survey (1985 - 1988)indicated that the population of wild giant
    pandas was decreased as much as 54% . In 1990s,the total of panda reserves was increased to 36,and by now,there
    have been 63 reserves established to protect giant pandas and their habitats,covering about 85% of the remaining habitats
    and 50% of individuals. The extant population was estimated about 2000,sparsely distributed in remote western mountane
    ranges in China. Chinese government has developed many in-situ and ex-site conservation strategies to conserve the animal
    by now. Giant pandas should deserve a promising future.
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    Marine mammal researches in China
    HAO Yujiang,WANG Kexiong,HAN Jiabo,ZHENG Jingsong,XIAN Yijie,YAO Zhiping,LU Zhichuang,LI Haiyan,ZHANG Xianfeng
    Abstract7766)      PDF (441KB)(5034)       Save
    Researchers in China have studied marine mammals for over 80 years. In recognition of Acta Theriologica Sinica’s
    30 year anniversary,we have reviewed the history of this research using an extensive published literature as well as our own research and experience,summarized its progress,and discuss future prospects. Marine mammals in this paper are divided into three groups:whales,pinnipeds,and other marine mammals. We have focused on research examining the ecology, rearing and breeding biology,conservation genetic,acoustics,and conservation biology for selected species. Two main points have been drawn from the review. First,Chinese research on marine mammals is at the forefront of some fields including research on rearing and breeding biology,c onservation biology,and bio-acoustics of river dolphin or porpoise. The second point,unfortunately,is that there is a lack of systematics studies on marine mammals in Chinese coastal waters. Finally, we expect to see significant breakthroughs and real progress on the protection of endangered species in the near future.
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    Mating behavior of captive wolves (Canis lupus) in Heilongjiang,China
    SHA Weilai,ZHANG Honghai,KONG Fanfan,CHEN Lei,ZHANG Chengde
    Abstract6778)      PDF (237KB)(3603)       Save
    In order to better understand mating patterns and processes of captive wolves ( Canis lupus), we observed 4 pairs in the Harbin North Forest Zoo for about 25 days (225 hours in total)from October 2005 to April 2006. We used focal animal sampling and all occurrence recording. Mating behaviors usually occurred during 8∶ 00 - 10∶00 am and 14∶00 -16∶ 00 pm. Among 741 mounts recorded,46 copulations were observed (6. 2% ). The mating period lasted for 5 - 14 days. We observed copulatory locks during copulations. After copulatory lock and several repeated twitches,male wolves would ejaculate. Female wolves displayed obvious sexual solicitations and acted in concert with male mounts by standing
    still with their tails to one side,and haunches bent forward. There were no differences in the twitching times ( P = 0. 827), but we did observe differences in the durations of copulatory locks (one-way ANOVA, F = 71.43, P < 0.001) among the four male wolves. The mean mating duration was 534 ±402 seconds,with the longest 1 588 seconds and the shortest 28 seconds.
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    Taxonomy and conservation status of gibbons in China
    Abstract6404)      PDF (774KB)(4387)       Save
    This paper reviews the taxonomy and conservation status of gibbons (Hylobatidae)and provides basic and comprehensive data for future conservation and research of gibbons in China. Based on the latest taxonomy of gibbons,4 genera and 17 species are recognized. Of these,6 species in 3 genera ( Nomascus concolor, N. nasutus, N. hainanus,
    N. leucogenys,Hoolock leuconedys,Hylobates lar
    )are distributed in China. Gibbons once were widely distributed in China, but are now restricted in Yunnan,Guangxi and Hainan because of habitat loss and degradation,and hunting. Conservation of gibbons in China is an urgent problem. H. lar and N. leucogenys might have disappeared from China;the populations of N. nasutus, N. hainanus are less than 30 individuals;the populations of H.leuconedys is less than 200 individuals; and as for the largest population, N. concolor has 1 000 -1 300 individuals. Law enforcement,conservation awareness education,promotion of popular science,and long-term conservation oriented research will help to conserve China’s last surviving gibbons.
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    Research advances and perspectives on the ecology of wild giant pandas
    WEI Fuwen,ZHANG Zejun,HU Jinchu
    Abstract6369)      PDF (325KB)(4568)       Save

    Among the order Carnivora, the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the most attractive animals, possessing high value for scientific research and being a symbol of worldwide nature conservation. In early 1980s, the Chinese government, cooperating with the WWF in initiated a research project on wild giant pandas in Wolong Nature Reserve. Since then, extensive research activities have been conducted in different mountain ranges inhabited by the animal. The application of new techniques such as 3S (GIS, RS, GPS)and molecular markers in the ecological study of the giant panda has greatly improved our understanding of its ecology. To date,a huge body of knowledge and information has been accumulated, potentially helpful for developing adaptive conservation strategies. In this paper, we summarize research findings and progress in understanding the ecology of wild giant pandas during the past 30 years on various aspects, including habitat ecology, feeding ecology, reproductive ecology, behavioral ecology, molecular ecology, population ecology and community ecology. Meanwhile, given the demands of research and management, future research directions are suggested.

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    Distribution pattern and zoogeographical division of mammals on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    HUANG Wei,XIA Lin,YANG Qisen,FENG Zuojian
    Abstract6181)      PDF (513KB)(4820)       Save
    The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is located in southwestern China. 250 species of mammals belonging to 10 orders and
    30 families have been recorded by the authors on the plateau. On the basis of comprehensive physical factors,the whole plateau was divided into 24 basic units identified as Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) for clustering. The information on mammals in each was used to compute composition similarity for the 24 OTU using Ward’s methods. Our study indicated that Palaearctic species were mainly distributed in Qiangtang and the northern plateau while the Oriental species were mainly distributed in southern Tibet and the Hengduan Mountains. The Palaearctic species in Qiangtang and the northern plateau comprised 88.6% of those on the whole plateau while the Oriental species in southern Tibet and the Hengduan Mountains comprised 97.7% . Based on clustering analysis and the landform on the plateau etc. , the zoogeographic distributions can be classified into fourth-level divisions. First,the zoogeographic distribution of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau can be divided into two first-level divisions with the linkage distance between 0.6219 and 1.0738. Second,the zoogeographic distribution of the whole plateau can be divided into four second-level divisions with the linkage distances between 0.5034 and 0.6219.
    Third, the zoogeographic distribution of the whole plateau can be divided into seven third-level divisions with the linkage distances between 0.2236 and 0.2684. Fourth,the zoogeographic distribution of the whole plateau can be divided into sixteen fourth-level divisions with the linkage distances between 0.0930 and 0.1245. Finally,according to the mammalian distribution and the evolution of the plateau,we discussed how the distribution pattern of the mammals in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau formed. It is suggested that the formation of the distribution pattern is closely related to the uplift of the plateau.
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    Taxonomic placement and origin of yaks: implications from analyses of mtDNA D-loop fragment sequences
    Guo Songchang, Liu Jianquan, Qi Delin, Yang Jie, Zhao Xinquan
    Abstract5902)      PDF (223KB)(2028)       Save
    The origin and generic placement of the yak ( Bos grunniens), a large ungulate endemic to Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, remains unresolved. 637 bp of mitochondrial DNA control region of both wild and domesticated yaks were sequenced. We found that D-loop region sequences were similarly informative to commonly used cytochrome b gene in constructing phylogeny for tribe bovini. Based on the genetic variation of this sequence, we firstly constructed a more discernable phylogeny of Bovini with high support than previous analyses. The analyses suggested that in Bovini, two monophyletic lineages were recovered: one comprising Bubalus and the other consisting of all species of Bos and Bison. Two species of Bison, the extinct species B. priscus and the extant species B. bison, clustered as a monophyletic lineage which is a sister to Bos grunniens. These results suggested that yaks are more closely related to North American Bison than to other species of Bos in Asia, and that yaks and North American bison have a common recent ancestor. Our results did not support a previous suggestion of establishing a monotypic genus ( Poephagus) to accommodate yaks. Because species of neither Bos nor Bison clustered as respective monophyletic lineages, these two should be taxonomically treated as one genus. Based on our results and other available fossil evidence, we discuss the historical context regarding the origin of yaks. The divergence between yaks and bison may have occurred in the Eurasia during the Quaternary climatic oscillation, when rising temperature following the ice ages restricted yaks to the cold Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Bison migrated to North America through the Bering Land Bridge and differentiated two species. It seems likely that American bison originated directly from extinct steppe bison.
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    The application of infrared camera in mammal research in Guanyinshan Nature Reserve,Shaanxi
    WU Pengfeng,LIU Xuehua,CAI Qiong,HE Xiangbo,Melissa Songer,ZHU Yun,SHAO Xiaoming
    Abstract5699)      PDF (410KB)(3501)       Save
    Since July 2009,the total 18 cameras were installed in the Guanyinshan Nature Reserve (GNR),Shaanxi Province.During our 24 months’monitoring from August 2009 to July 2011,we have collected a total of 1 755 mammal photos.The results show (1)a total of 22 mammal species were photographed. The first 6 species selected for analysis based
    on a relative abundance index (RAI)were Budorcas taxicolor,Naemorhedus goral,Elaphodus cephalophus,Sus scrofa,Capricornis sumatraensis and Muntiacus reevesi;their total percentage reaches 86.04% . (2)The monthly RAI (MRAI)for the whole year varies among months. The greatest value of MRAI is acquired in July and the lowest in February. (3)Three of the six selected species demonstrated similar daily activity patterns,which has two peaks,one at dawn and one at dusk.The daily pattern of Naemorhedus goral also has two peaks,but they differe from those of the previous three species. The daily activity pattern of Sus scrofa shows a peak at noon and Capricornis sumatraensis was less active at the period of 10∶ 00- 16∶00. (4)The NRAI gave a clear indication of variation in nocturnality among the 6 species. Capricornis sumatraensis was most active at night and Sus scrofa was opposite.
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    Research advances in Cetacean osmoregulation
    Abstract5453)      PDF (336KB)(24766)       Save
    As a unique clade of mammalia,Cetaceans complete all of their life activities in water. Cetaceans therefore have developed various strategies to adapt to their aquatic environments morphologically,physiologically and ecologically. Most of the Cetaceans inhabit the hyperosmotic marine environment,but a few species live in the hypoosmotic freshwater systems. However,despite the obvious differences of their living environment,both the freshwater and marine Cetaceans face the same challenge - to maintain the water balance and electrolyte homeostasis of their body. How do Cetaceans adapt to their aquatic environments?What kinds of strategies do they develop in morphology,physiology and ecology?We try to expound upon the osmoregulation process of the Cetaceans in the following aspects:source and metabolism of water/ electrolytes, morphology and histology of the kidney and skin,hormone regulation,and the molecules related to osmoregulation etc. by consulting and discussing the conclusions of previous research in the past century on this issue. Moreover,future research trends and important issues in this area are also discussed and proposed.
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    Preliminary comparison of diet composition of four small sized carnivores at Saihanwula Nature Reserve,Inner Mongolia
    ZHANG Lijia,WANG Anmeng,YUAN Li,BAO Weidong,YANG Yongxin,Baterr
    Abstract5294)      PDF (269KB)(3213)       Save
    Food habits and competition of sympatric carnivores at Saihanwula Nature Reserve,Inner Mongolia were compared from August to December 2007 by examining fecal content. Food items were evaluated by rate of occurrence in the diet and in weight percentage of total diet. Our study included red fox (Vulpes vulpes), badger (Melesmeles), mountain weasel (Mustela altaica) and leopard cat (Felis bengalensis). The data indicate red fox ingested 15 kinds of food with the following composition:plants (32.6% ), rodents (31.3% ) and birds (18.6% ); weasels were occasionally preyed upon (0.7% ). Although plant occurrence was high percentage,the role of vegetation decreased when calculated in relative weight percentage. Badger consumed more insects (29.3% ) and fruit (57.8% ) in terms of frequency, while mountain weasel preyed upon rodents at a very high rate of occurrence (73.7% ) and weight percentage (99. 8% ). The leopard cat primarily ate birds (27.8% ), especially medium-sized partridge (16.7% ccurrence rate). The index of relative importance indicates that red fox took hare,plants,rodents,and birds as their staple foods;badgers preferred more fruit and insects over other food types;and rodents were the dominant food for mountain weasel (63.9% ), with birds (16.7% ) higher than plants (10.05% ). A comparison of food niche breadth shows that red fox had the largest standardized value (0.2) followed by leopard cat (0.1), badger (0.07) and mountain weasel (0.001). These standardized values correlate with the distribution pattern of main prey groups. Based on food niche overlap,food competition was severe for red fox and badger (O = 0.99), red fox and leopard cat (O = 0.7), and badger and leopard cat (O = 0.6). These species could exist sympatrically in that there is a difference in main food types;red fox preyed more on hare and rodents,leopard cat caught more birds,and badger ate fruits and insects. Mountain weasel distribution and population development may be limited by red fox predation.
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    Mammalian fauna and its vertical changes in Mt. Qomolangma National Nature Reserve,Tibet,China
    HU Yiming,YAO Zhijun,HUANG Zhiwen2 ,TIAN Yuan,LI Haibin,PU Qiong,YANG Daode,HU Huijian
    Abstract5092)      PDF (1347KB)(4131)       Save
    The Mt. Qomolangma Natural Reserve,Tibet (QNR)conserves the extreme-highly mountainous ecosystem of Mt. Qomolangma and,thus,plays an important ecological role. However,its mammalian fauna is still a mystery,due to its harsh natural environments and difficult access. We carried out five field baseline surveys of mammalian diversity in the
    QNR by using a belt transect method,visits,an auto-trigger camera system,and traps,from September,2010 to October, 2012. A total of 81 species from 23 families and 10 orders were recorded,including 34 species which were listed on the State Key Protection List. Among them,regional species were common at 38. 3% of the total,with 14 Himalaya-Hengduan Mountainous species and 17 Highland species. With increasing attitude,species richness increased and reached its maximum at 2 500 -3 300 m where 48 species were found,followed by a rapid decrease in richness at higher elevations. The Fauna on the South Slope differed significantly from that on the North Slope. Among the 76 species on the South Slope,41 species belonged to the Orient Realm and 25 belonged to the Palearctic Realm. Among the 29 species on the North Slope,there were 2 Oriental species and 23 Palearctic species. On the South Slope,the Oriental species were dominant below an attitude of 3300m and the Palearctic were dominant above 4 000 m. Hence,we suggest that a division between the Oriental Realm and the Palearctic Realm exited in the South Slope in QNR with the dividing line between 3 300 m and 4 000 m.
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    Geometric morphometric of postnatal size and shape changes in the cranium of cape hare (Lagomorpha,Leporidea, Lepus capensis)
    GE Deyan,LV Xuefei,XIA Lin,HUANG Chengming,YANG Qisen
    Abstract4986)      PDF (10587KB)(1523)       Save
    We analyzed the geometric morphometrics analysis of the crana of 58 Lepus capensis of various ages using 180 landmarks/semi-landmarks. These exhibited rapid establishment of structure and allometric growth in different morphological components. Primary size and shape changes occurred from infant to age I (within six months). Nasal size displayed the most prominent positive allometry. Frontal and orbital grew nearly isometrically with the overall size change of the cranium. The parietal,tympanic bulla and foramen magnum displayed negative allometry. Growth trajectories were illustrated for the dorsal,ventral and lateral view of the cranium. Allometric shape changes were observed in the nasal,premaxilla and supraorbital process,as well as in the longitudinal axis of the cranium. The overall shape of the cranium was narrowed. These ontogenetic size and shape changes are beneficial in establishing a complete cranial system in young hares,particularly, in improving ventilation of the respiratory system,enhancing the ability to maintain vigilance,and in stabilization over a diverse range of locomotion activities as well as strengthening the ability for solid food acquisition. This pattern of allometric growth probably is one of the main functional adaptations in herbivorous mammals that have a cursorial lifestyle.
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    Investigation on the population of wild Bengal tiger ( Panthera tigris tigris) in Medog, Tibet
    WANG Yuan, LIU Wulin, LIU Feng, LI Sheng, ZHU Xuelin, JIANG Zhigang, FENG Limin, LI Bingzhang
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2019, 39 (5): 504-513.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150265
    Abstract4845)      PDF (100104KB)(3769)       Save
    Bengal tiger ( Panthera tigris tigris) used to be commonly distributed in Medog County, southeast Tibet, whereas no occurrence record has been reported across this area since 2002. In 2013—2018, we conducted field surveys in nine potential distribution areas of Bengal tigers in Medog using integrative approaches including camera-trapping, information network collection method and footprint identification method. The results suggested that there are only 1~3 non-resident individuals of Bengal tiger existing in Medog, occurring only during the dry season (October to March) in the south bank of the Yalu Zangbo River in the town of Beibeng, the south bank of the Yarlung Zangbo River in the Medog Town, and the south bank of the Jinzhu Zangbo in the Gedang Township. The prospects of the subsistence of wild Bengal tiger in Medog are not optimistic, subjected to various conditions and causes. Actions we proposed to conserve the wild tigers in this region include: (1) Conduct systematically designed basic monitoring on Bengal tigers and their prey;(2) Strengthen field patrolling and law enforcement against wildlife poaching; (3)Strengthen the protection of the intact forests; (4) Promote the livelihood and education of indigenous peoples to reduce their consumption of nature resources; (5) Develop landscape corridors for wild tigers to increase the habitat connectivity and facilitate their dispersal; (6) Strengthen cooperation on research and technical exchanges among different institutions and parties.
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    Homosexual and masturbating behaviors in a group of captive Yangtze finless porpoises ( Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis)
    ZHANG Changqun, ZHENG Yang, PLATTO Sara, HAO Yujiang, WANG Ding
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2015, 35 (3): 241-252.  
    Abstract4806)      PDF (2063KB)(3728)       Save
    Similar to terrestrial mammals, male-female sexual behavior is significant for the survival and continuation of certain cetacean species. However, non-reproductive mating behaviors, i.e. homosexual behaviors and masturbation, are widespread in all mammals. Therefore, it would be interesting and helpful to better understand the reproduction of cetaceans by further investigating their non-reproductive behaviors. We investigated male and female non-reproductive behaviors in a captive population of Yangtze finless porpoise including three males and four females. Fourteen sexual behaviors were defined in our sexual behavioral ethogram, and the occurrence frequencies and dyads of each non-reproductive behavior were recorded. Over half of the sexual behaviors were non-reproductive behaviors (3887 times, 69.87%); homosexual behaviors occurred 3633 times (65.31%) and masturbation was recorded 254 times (4.57%). Most homosexual behaviors were performed between males (3438 times, 94.63%). The dyads AFU & TAO (1921 times, 55.88%) were the most active dyads involved in male-male sexual behaviors, and most of these behaviors (1543 times, 80.32%) were cooperative by counterpart. The male homosexual behaviors are thought to be related to the gang coalition or training. One female-female pair (F7 & F9; 117 times; 60.00%) performed the most frequent homosexual behaviors. None of the female-female sexual behaviors were rejected by the counterpart. Female homosexual behaviors, however, may have something to do with company or communication.
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    Footedness from a spontaneously bipedal posture of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys ( Rhinopithecus roxellana)in the Qinling Mountains
    ZHAO Dapeng,LI Baoguo
    Abstract4791)      PDF (3697KB)(1808)       Save
    Foot preference is believed to be a better predictor of the cerebral lateralization for language functions than hand preference. Interest in the evolutionary origins of hemispheric specialization in humans has prompted research of limb laterality in nonhuman primates. Comparisons of arboreal and terrestrial primates are crucial for understanding the role of posture and postural instability on foot preference. This is the first study to investigate foot preference in wild Sichuan snubnosed monkey ( Rhinopithecus roxellana),a rarely studied arboreal species,in a spontaneously non-locomotive posture (bipedal folding)in the Qinling Mountains of China. All subjects showed significant individual-level foot preference. The monkeys displayed a group-level right-footedness in the bipedal posture. Neither direction nor strength of foot preference was related to sex. These results in wild R. roxellana lend further support to the postural origin theory. To the best of our knowledge,we present the first evidence of footedness in a wild Old World monkey species.
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    Geographical differentiation in skull morphology of isolated Apodemus chevrieri populations in western Sichuan Mountains
    ZHANG Mingchun,ZHANG Zejun,MU Huaqiang,HUANG Xiaofu,HU Jinchu
    Abstract4714)      PDF (438KB)(2254)       Save
    In this research,we comprehensively compared skulls of Apodemus chevrieri populations in the western Sichuan
    Mountains, including the Minshan, Qionglai, Xiangling and Liangshan Mountains, which are isolated from each other by broad rivers or extensive human activities. One-way ANOVA and subsequent multiple comparisons indicated that one or more variables were significantly different among these isolated populations For all samples,the discriminant function analysis had 69.7% correct ratio. Significant differences in skull morphology in these populations implied that significant geographical differentiation had occurred among them. In addition,geographical distance was significantly positively correlated with difference in discriminant scores of skulls. We assumed that besides geographical distance,the difference in skulls among different populations was also related to selective pressures from their local environmental conditions. Our results indicated that future research should pay more attention to potential geographical differentiation in morphological traits when defining
    species within the Apodemus genus.
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    Preliminary studies on causes of death of Alpine musk

    KANG Fagong,LIU Zhixiao,ZHANG Xueyan,WANG Chenghua,DENG Kaidong
    Abstract4685)      PDF (191KB)(2527)       Save

    We analyzed 254 deaths caused by diseases in captive Alpine musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) from 1998 to 2005 at the Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm, Gansu . Among the eight categories of diseases,respiratory system diseases had the highest incidence rate of 26.8%, followed by motor system diseases (16.5% ), digestive and nutritive diseases (14.6% ), unidentified diseases (14. 2%), cardiovascular system diseases (13% ), urinary system diseases (9.8% ), nervous system diseases (3.5% ),and reproductive system diseases (1.6% ). The percentages of dead males were higher than those of the females for deaths caused by digestive system and nutritive diseases (♂62.2%), cardiovascular system diseases (60.6% ), nervous system diseases (66.7% ),unidentified diseases (61.1% ), and particularly the urinary system diseases (up to 84% ), and the male to female ratio of deaths caused by all the diseases was (♂ ♀)1 0.76, showing a male-skewed mortality. The mortality of newborn and fawns was relatively high, and the percentage of deaths in one and two- year-old deer was 51.6% of the total, but those decreased with deer age. The relationship between the economic benefit in the farming of musk deer and the prevention of diseases were discussed Finally,we offered a strategy to control the incidence of diseases by regarding the musk deer as a solitary species.

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    The opening up and utilization of a new movement corridor by Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Shangyong Nature Reserve,Yunnan
    LIN Liu,ZHU Wenqing,ZHANG Longtian,FENG Limin,WANG Lifan,TAO Qing,ZHANG Li
    Abstract4659)      PDF (1326KB)(2627)       Save
    The distribution of Asian elephants ( Elphas maximus) in Shangyong Nature Reserve and its surroundings was
    studied by site visits,elephant trace surveys and 3S techniques (GIS,GPS,RS ).from September 2004 to December
    2006.Activity traces of elephants were tracked and located by GPS, and their distribution range was analyzed from these GPS points, the data from field surveys and satellite images. The results indicated that the distribution range of elephants covered an area of 395 km 2 , including Shangyong Nature Reserve, part of the collective forest of Shangzhongliang, Manfen, Hetu and Nanping village which is located to the west of Shangyong Nature Reserve, and it had a long-narrow corridor spreading from Hetu, Nanping, through Tianfang, Longkuang and Kafeierdui, then reaches its destination in Nam Ha Nature Reserve in Laos. The “S”shaped corridor was wider on the two ends and narrower in the middle with a width of 0. 66 km. Meanwhile, natural forest covered only 37. 6% area of the corridor and was not continuous.From August 2002 to December 2006, six elephant trans-boundary movements through this corridor were recorded. It was believed that habitat loss and fragmentation,crop raiding behavior of elephants, human disturbance and illegal poaching were factors leading elephants to spread their range area and finally open up this new movement corridor. However,the long-narrow “S” shaped structure and continuous reduction of forest could not only impact utilization of the corridor by elephants, but also intensify the human-elephant conflicts in the region. Therefore,measures such as building ecological corridors,strengthening antipoaching enforcement and managing the current habitat should be taken to restore habitat and to mitigate human-elephant conflicts.

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    The relationship between boldness and aggression coupling and the fluctuation of rank in male Père David's Deer ( Elaphurus davidianus)
    MENG Qinghui, SONG Yuan, SHAN Yunfang, LI Junfang, BAI Jiade, MENG Xiuxiang, BAI Chao, ZHANG Chenglin
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (2): 159-167.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150473
    Abstract4652)   HTML756)    PDF (2097KB)(4778)       Save
    In estrus,male Père David's Deer ( Elaphurus davidianus) are divided into three ranks:king,challenger and bachelor.The order change was an intuitive performance of males'face to pressures.In this paper,the coupling degree of boldness and aggression in different stages of the life history of Père David's Deer was used to explain the rank development of Père David's Deer when they were young,the rank formation when they were sub-adults,and the rank fluctuations of the challenger during estrus.The behavior sampling method combines focus sampling and scanning sampling. Boldness was judged as the un-synchronization level of the behavior sample flow,and the early occurrence and low presynchronization rate of the same type of behavior.Aggression was judged by combination of aggressive behavior and winning index.Fecal testosterone levels were determined by radioimmunoassay.The results showed that there was a negative correlation between boldness and aggression coupling and grade development ( r=-0.111 8, P=0.018 3) in young Père David's Deer.There was a positive correlation between boldness and aggression coupling and rank fluctuation ( r=0.917 9, P=0.002 6) in sub-adults Père David's Deer.From sub-adult to adult estrus stage,four Père David's Deers achieved rank rise (boldness and aggression coupling r=0.852 3, P=0.000 3),and a Père David's Deer became the king.Four Père David's Deers did not change (boldness and aggression coupling r=0.482 9, P=0.006 3).Three Père David's Deers rank decreased (boldness and aggression coupling r=0.251 7, P=0.003 5).There was a positive correlation between testosterone level and rank of young Père David's Deer ( r=0.860 7, P=0.005 5).There was a positive correlation between testosterone level and rank of sub-adult Père David's Deer ( r=0.8457, P=0.004 4).There was a positive correlation between testosterone level and rank of adult Père David's Deer in rut ( r=0.954 6, P=0.001 8).Con- clusion:The coupling strength of boldness and aggression is positively correlated with the rank fluctuation of male Père David's Deer during estrus.Elevated rank is associated with raised secretion of testosterone levels.
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    A recent survey of bat diversity (Mammalia:Chiroptera)in Macau
    WONG Kai Chin,TAN Liangjing,YANG Jian,CHEN Yi,LIU Qi,SHEN Qiqi,CHOI Man
    Abstract4610)      PDF (2071KB)(3941)       Save
    Surveys to investigate bat species diversity were conducted in Macau from 2009 to 2012. Results indicated that at least 10 bat species belonging to eight genera from five families were identified. Of the 10 species, Hipposideros armiger (Hipposideridae)and Pipistrellus abramus (Vespertilionidae)were previously recorded in Macau,while eight species were
    newly recorded for Macau from the present study. The new bats were Cynopterus sphinx and Rousettus leschenaulti (Pteropidae), Taphozous melanopogon(Emballonuridae), Rhinolophus pusillus (Rhinolophidae), Myotis ricketti, P. pipistrellus, Miniopterus schreibersi,and M. pusillus (Vespertilionidae). In addition,using ultrasound survey methods and comparing results with published data on echolocation calls,we also recorded and identified one Rhinolophus species and one Hipposideros species,the former possibly representing R. siamensis or R. affinis,and the latter H. pomona or Aselliscus stoliczkanus. The present work also reports data on distribution range,morphological characteristics and echolocation calls of all 10 captured bat species,as well as a discussion of population size and conservation status in these species. It is important to protect roost habitats (including caves,old buildings and Chinese fan-palm)in order to conserve bat species diversity in Macau.
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    Population genetic structure and population genetic diversity analysis based on mitochondrial DNA of Asian elephant( Elephas maximus) in China
    Abstract4523)      PDF (1450KB)(3169)       Save
    The Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus) is the most endangered probiscidean, and occurs in China only in Yunnan Province. With non-invasive sampling using elephant dung as a DNA source, the population genetic structure and diversity were observed from PCR analysis of 178 individuals. One haplotype (ML&SY&SM&MY1) is shared among 4 conservation areas Mengla (ML), Shangyong (SY), Simao(SM) and Mengyang(MY), including 114 of 178 individuals, which differs from that found in the Nangunhe(NGH) area. Two highly divergent clades, α and β, of Asian elephants in China are observed using phylogenetic analyses and are verified by neighbour-joining(NJ), maximum parsimony(MP) and maximum likehood(ML) approaches. The result showed that the α clade includes 4 populations (ML, SY, SM and MY) and the β calde only includes the Nangunhe population. This also shows that there is high genetic divergence between the Nangunhe population and the other 4 populations. Mitochondrial DNA data analysis showed that genetic diversities in all of the 5 Asian elephant populations are very low, and resulted from habitat fragmentation which separated the effective genetic flow among the 5 populations.
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    Complete mitogenome of cape hare Lepus capensis (Lagomorpha:Leporidae)and its phylogenetic considerations
    WANG Jialian,YANG Guang
    Abstract4482)      PDF (560KB)(2455)       Save
    Despite its wide distribution and abundant wild populations,there has been little insight into the phylogeography of the Chinese cape hare ( Lepus capensis)and its relationships with other hare species. Moreover,its subspecies taxonomic status has been under debate for years. In present study,we reporte the complete mitochondrial genomic sequence of the cape hare from Yancheng City,Jiangsu Province,China,and that the gene composition / order of which were identical to that observed in most other mammals. Phylogenetic relationships of 12 species from five orders of Euarchontoglires,based on mitogenomic sequences,were reconstructed using Bayesian inference (BI)and maximum likelihood (ML)methods.
    The results strongly supported the monophyly of Lagomorpha,and cape hare and brown hare ( L. europaeus)were indicated as sister taxa,having a sister relationship with rabbit ( Oryctolagus cuniculus). Further phylogenetic analyses of 31 hare samples,based on complete Cyt b sequences,resolved the close phylogenetic relationships between cape hare and mountain hare ( L. timidus),Yunnan hare ( L. comus)and woolly hare ( L. oiostolus),Manchurian hare ( L. mandschuricus)and Yarkand hare (L. yarkandensis),respectively. The cape hare collected from Yancheng,Jiangsu in our study,had a close phylogenetic relationship with those from Shandong,Shaanxi and Sichuan Provinces. The present results provided some new insights into the tangled phylogenetic relationships of the cape hare.
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    Vocalization behaviour of Sichuan sika deer ( Cervur nippon sichuanicus) during rut
    NING Jizu,GUO Yanshu,ZHENG Huizhen
    Abstract4476)      PDF (944KB)(3230)       Save
    We studied vocal behavior of Sichuan sika deer (Cervus nippon sichuanicus) in Tiebu Nature Reserve, SichuanProvince, from 20 September to the 15 November 2006. We documented three types of calls:alarm call (in both sexes), roaring (males only)and rutting call (males only). Alarm calls of males had durations of 136 to 187 ms, a frequency range of 271.8 -3910.5 Hz, and the principal frequency was 3244.3 ±79.32 Hz. Alarm calls of females had durations of 257 to 539 ms, a frequency range of 1409.5 – 4474.6 Hz, and the principal frequency was 3534.8 ±89.12 Hz. Duration, minimum frequency, and maximum frequency of male and female alarm calls differed (P < 0.01). But intervals between alarm calls did not (P = 0.624). Roars varied in duration from 1580 to 4972 ms, in frequency form 234.6 to 6171.4 Hz, and the principal frequency was 2264.6 ±166.44 Hz. The principal frequency of roar differed among males (P < 0.01). During a roaring bout, the roar of one stag often aroused an oppositional roar of another stag. Frequency of the roaring was correlated with social rank-classes (primary males,secondary males and single males; P <0.01). Roaring was documented at all times of day, but peaks of roaring bouts occurred during 06:00 - 08:00,17:00 - 19:00,and 01:00 -03:00. We identified four types of rutting calls among stags, associated with displaying, pursuing females, mounting females, and being aroused by females.
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    The morphological structure of winter upper-hair from the mid-back and claw of Siberian weasel (Mustela sibirica) from Tonghe Forest Farm

    ZHANG Wei,SUN Changhong,MA Yue,HUA Yan
    Abstract4393)      PDF (962KB)(2222)       Save

    Thirty Siberian weasels (Mustela Sibirica) (15 males and 15 females) were sampled from Longkou Forest Farm of Tonghe in Xiaoxing’an Mountains in winter. For each individual, 5 guard hairs from the mid-back and 5 upper-hairs from the hind-claw were collected and subjected to morphological examination of scale pattern using electron scanning microscopy. All the hairs were measured for indices including hair length, medulla length, hair follicle length, hair diameter, medulla diameter, and hair root diameter using biological microscope system H6303i,and then medulla length index (ratio of medulla length to hair length) and medulla index (ratio of medulla diameter to hair diameter)were calculated. The statistical results showed that the length of guard hairs from the mid-back was 33.50 ± 0.52 mm in males and 28.85 ± 0.28 mm in females, the average of medulla length index was 95.36% in males and 95.16% in females, and the average of medulla index was 79.41% in male and 80.68% in females. All these indices were significantly larger than those of upper-hairs from hind-claw (P< 0.05). Such morphological structure characters of guard hairs from mid-back favor heat insulation properties and those of upper-hair from hind-claw enhance the function of protection. The for the upper-hair from the hind-claw, the hair follicle length was 0.91 ± 0.05 mm in male and 0.79 ± 0.10 mm in female, hair root diameter was 86.0 ±3.7μm in male and 71.9 ± 3.1μm in female, the ratio of the length with irregular-wave scales and regular imbricate scales to the hair length is 100% in both male and female. All these indices were significantly larger than those of guard hairs from the mid-back (P < 0.05) and such morphological structure characters enhance the function of protection further. The functional differentiation between guard hairs from mid-back and upper-hairs from hind-claw make the weasels more adaptable to a cold environment with complex vegetation form.

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    Comparison of the Tibetan fox ( Vulpes ferrilata) home range size using methods the fixed kernel estimation and the minimum convex polygon
    LIU Xiaoqing,WANG Xiaoming,WANG Zhenghuan,LIU Qunxiu,MA Bo
    Abstract4362)      PDF (861KB)(3836)       Save
    The minimum convex polygon (MCP)and the fixed kernel estimator (FKE)are the two methods most used for
    home range estimation. However,because of the problems like spatial data dependence and extreme data points,the usage of these two methods is limited. In this paper,we attempted to analyze and compare the results from these two methods, and discuss how to avoid the disadvantages of each method to make the home range estimation more accurate. We documented 352 locations of 7 adult Tibetan foxes (Vulpes ferrilata) in Shiqu County,Sichuan Province and Dulan County,Qinghai Province during 2006 and 2007. Both MCP and FKE were used to calculate the home range. We found:(1)when the utility probability percentage was set ≤95% ,the difference of the home range size calculated by these two methods had no significant difference;(2)although FKE was more robust than MCP,extreme data points influenced the calculation of both the two methods in higher utilization probability percentage (i. e.,85% - 100% ); (3)home range size calculated by FKE was influenced significantly by the setting of smoothing parameter h which could be determined arbitrarily and the least squares cross validation did not always provide the best evaluation of h. We recommended that both of the FKE and 95% MCP should be used in the same home range study. FKE can be the better home range estimator when the autocorrelation of data spatial distribution is not significant. However,95% MCP can be the only choice especially when the comparison of the results from different telemetry studies is needed.
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    Effect of reproductive experiences on energy budget during lactation in the striped hamster ( Cricetulus barabensis)
    ZHAO Zhijun
    Abstract4327)      PDF (1252KB)(2202)       Save
    Energy budgets during peak lactation were measured in striped hamsters throughout the first,second,third and fourth lactation events. The present study showed that 1)asymptotic food intake,milk energy output (MEO),litter size and mass,resting metabolic rate (RMR),nonshivering thermogenesis (NST),mitochondria cytochrome c oxydase (COX) activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT),serum T3 ,T4 and prolactin levels did not differ between the four bouts of lactation; 2)the asymptotic food intake was significantly correlated with MEO,litter mass and RMR.This suggests that striped hamsters with different reproductive experiences are able to compensate for the high energy demands during peak lactation by increasing energy intake and decreasing energy expenditure associated with thermogenesis Sustained metabolic rate (Sus- MR)during peak lactation may be limited by the capacity to produce milk,which is more likely consistent with the prediction of the “peripheral limitation hypothesis”rather than the “central limitation hypothesis”. Limits to SusMR may be independent of the reproductive experiences.
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    Research progress in conservation biology of endangered mammals in China
    Wei Fuwen
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2016, 36 (3): 255-.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201603001
    Abstract4324)      PDF (1562KB)(4767)       Save
    Research progress achieved by Chinese scientists in conservation biology of endangered mammals (e.g. Carnivores, primates, ungulates and cetaceans) from 2010-2015 was reviewed. These researches are mainly related to different branches of the conservation biology, such as evolutionary biology, ecology, behavior, physiology, genetics, genomics and meta-genomics, as well as policy and practices. The remarkable research achievements have been made in Conservation Biology of endangered mammals in China, especially for giant pandas and golden monkeys. Evidence from multidisciplinary researches indicated that the giant panda is not an evolutionary cul-de-sac, remaining evolutionary potential. Although the panda is facing environmental problems such as habitat fragmentations, its population is growing and available habitat is expanding. It turned out that its Red List Category could be downlisted from
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    Some progress in mammalian physiological ecology in China
    WANG Dehua
    Abstract4294)      PDF (224KB)(2264)       Save
    Some research progress in physiological ecology of mammals in China (mainly on small mammals) was brifely
    reviewed,such as adaptation to different environments,physiological function of leptin and thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue. According to the status in China and the developmental trends in the world,some possibledirections and growing fields were proposed,such as macrophysiology and responses to the global climate change.
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    PIAO Renzhu, GUAN Guosheng, ZHANG Minghai
    Abstract4266)      PDF (183KB)(1215)       Save
    Using the 3 orders sampling method,the authors selected 16 sampling sites and
    replaced 202 sampling lines which were 2 476.6km in length,and 309 trail lines of moose(Alces alces)were counted in Da and Xiao Xinganling Mountains of Northeastern China,during the winter of 1985-1987.From these data,the geographical distribution and population size were determined as follows:the total area of moose habitat is about 1 90000km 2 ,the average density is 0.0519 individuals/km 2 and the population size is 9 955+397 individuals. In the meantime,annual descending rate was 6.3 %. Now the moose population in China is greatly need to protect.Lastly,the reasons of causing the moose population to reduce,as well advantage and shortcoming of the investigation method were discussed.
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    Development of radio-telemetry halter for measuring nutritional behavior and its preliminary application on Eld’s deer
    Takuji Hirayama,ZHANG Licun,HE Kang,ZHENG Youfeng,LI Yuchun
    Abstract4236)      PDF (1129KB)(2102)       Save

    Measurement of eating, ruminating and reposing behaviors for ruminants is a necessary to study ecological nutrition and mechanism of resource utilization; however, no radio transmitter is available for such purpose at present. Based on jaw movements of ruminants when eating, ruminating and reposing, the authors designed a radio-telemetry halter for measuring these behaviors and applied it to two female adult Eld’s deer (Cervus eldii hainanus) at Banxi Nature Reserve in July 2005. This radio-telemetry halter consist of two main parts, a jaw movement sensor (switch) and a circuit sending radio signals including eating behaviors and interval signals on the same radio frequency used for locating animal. Signals of jaw movement are recorded as analog data, and transfermed to digital signals for identifying eating, ruminating, and reposing behavior. The measured time ratios for the halter-equipped Eld’s deer outside the enclosure were 12% eating,36% ruminating, and 52% reposing, and for the deer inside the enclosure 3%,38% and 59%,respectively,indicating there existed an adaptive period for halter-equipped deer. The authors intend to place GPS senors into the telemetry for displaying animal behavior and location on GIS layers on computer, and to establish a real-time system for recording and analyzing behavior and location of ruminant in the future.

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    The application of HS-SPME-GC / MS in detecting chemical components in giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca)urine
    LIU Yuliang,XIN Qiuhong,LIU Dingzhen,CAI Zhigang,ZHANG Zhihe,LAN Jingchao,WEI Rongping,LI Desheng,HOU Rong
    Abstract4226)      PDF (1594KB)(2682)       Save
    Urine plays an important role in chemical communication between giant pandas ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca). The detection of chemical compounds in giant panda urine is the key to identifying the compositions and assaying the function of each chemical compound. We used headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME)and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/ MS)to pre-treat and analyze the composition of giant panda urine We found 56 peaks and through searching the mass spectrometry library of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),38 of them were putatively identified .In addition,we also modified the method of cleaning HS-SPME fiber.The results show that HS-SPME-GC / MS is an effective method to detect the volatile and semi-volatile compounds in giant panda urine. It is proved to be an important research tool for revealing the mechanism of chemical communication in the giant pandas.
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    New bat record from Guangdong Province in China — Arielulus circumdatus (Temminck,1840)
    ZHANG Libiao,LIU Qi,SHEN Qiqi,ZHU Guangjian,CHEN Yi,ZHAO Jiao,LIU Hui,SUN Yunxiao,GONG Yuening,LI Chaorong
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    2014, 34 (3): 292-.  
    Abstract4163)      PDF (6424KB)(3797)       Save
    Three bats (2 males and 1 female)were collected in Babao Mountain (24°55'43.4″N,113° 0′57. 0″E,1 000 ma.s.l),Guangdong Nanling National Nature Reserve,Guangdong Province,China in July,2013. These bats are middle size,with 40. 4 - 41. 6 mm forearm length,and 16. 0 -16. 1 mm greatest length of skull. The pelage was characteristic.On the dorsum,the basal hairs are black,with distinctive yellow-ferruginous and shiny tips. On the abdomen,the basal hairs are black and brown,with paler tips,and differ among throat,chest and abdomen. The tragus is broad with lunar to kidney shape. The margins of the ears and tragus are palm and pale color. These bats were identified as Arielulus circumdatus (Temminck,1840),was and are the first records from Guangdong Province. Previous records suggested that this bat species was only found in Yunnan Province in China,and with very few specimens. The features of morphological structure and the skull of these specimens are given in this paper,and compared with specimens from Yunnan and SE Asia. We also recorded the echolocation calls of these bats,and discuss the taxonomy and distribution of this bat species in China. The specimens were kept in Guangdong Entomological Institute.
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    Sex-age differences in activity budget and position behavior of rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta)
    LI Dayong,ZHOU Qihai,TANG Huaxing,HUANG Chengming
    Abstract4141)      PDF (779KB)(2553)       Save
    Data on activity budgets,activity heights,and semi-positional behaviors were collected from one provisioned group of Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta )between November 2005 and October 2006 at Seven-star Park,Guilin, Guangxi Province,using an instantaneous scan sampling method. We compared the activity budgets,activity heights,and positional behaviors by sex-age or age classes. Our results indicated that the Rhesus macaque at Seven-star Park was a semiterrestrial species,and spent much time resting (41. 5% );sitting was the most frequently adopted resting (85.5% ) and feeding (85. 4% )posture. Quadrupedal walking was the most prevalent locomotor mode (64. 5% ). There were sex differences in activity budgets of adult individuals:adult females spent more time grooming than did adult males. They also differed among age classes:resting time tended to increase with age,whereas playing time decreased. There were also significant variations in activity height and locomotor mode for different age classes. Adults were more terrestrial than were other classes. They also walked quadrupedally more frequently than the other ages. Subadults leaped more frequently than did individuals of other ages. Juveniles climbed and bridged more frequently than did adults. These variations may be related to the differences in body sizes and activity levels of different ages,as well as to the discontinuous tree canopies. Our
    results will contribute to understanding the behavioral adaptation of different sex-age classes in rhesus macaques to their social and natural environment
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    The viewpoint on the study of zoogeography in China
    ZHANG Rongzu
    Abstract4138)      PDF (235KB)(2195)       Save
    Viewpoints on the study of zoogeography under the existing status in China are presented by the author. Three
    aspects have been included:1,studies on zoogeographical region and geographical congruence should be strengthened. It will be help to elucidate the problems of boundary marking between the Palaearctic realm and the Oriental realm in China and the suggestion of the “Tibetan realm”;2,studes on animal habitat - landscape,based on comprehensive viewpoint of ecological zoogeography;3,studies in cultural biogeography should pay attention to influences of agricultural activities, which has existed for generations in China.
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    Characteristics of seasonal reproduction in Mongolian gerbils ( Meriones unguiculatus)
    LIU Wei,WAN Xinrong,ZHONG Wenqin,WANG Jianqing
    Abstract4098)      PDF (1673KB)(1951)       Save
    The Mongolian gerbil ( Meriones unguiculatus)widely distributed in semi-arid,typical steppes,and desert grasslands in the north of China and is one of dominate rodents. We studied reproduction and population dynamics of Mongolian gerbils under semi-natural conditions in south-central Inner Mongolia using monthly capture-recapture methods from
    October 2000 to 2004. In this study,we analyzed seasonal changes in reproductive parameters such as cohort-specific age of sexual maturity,proportion of sexually mature gerbils, proportion of reproducing gerbils,and the ratio of recruits to reproductive females. Mongolian gerbils displayed significant seasonal fluctuations in reproductive performance. We found that age at the sexual maturity of females born in winter (4.6 ± 0. 2 month)and spring (4.4 ±0.8 month)was younger than that of gerbils born in summer (7.7 ± 0.4 month). Reproduction primarily occurred in spring and ceased in autumn. We also found that increased temperature and precipitation from spring to summer negatively affected maturation proportion. Mongolian gerbils prefer habitats with short,sparse vegetation and dry,loose,sandy soil. Increases in temperature and rainfall enhance vegetation growth;consequently, tall,dense,moist vegetation might reduce the suitability of habitats and retard reproduction of Mongolian gerbils. Therefore,pronounced seasonal dynamics of reproduction may reflect a vital feature of life-history strategies of Mongolian gerbils:adaption to seasonal changes in climate and food abundance in northern high latitudes.
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    The genetic divergence and gene flow pattern of two muntjac deer ( Muntiacus reevesi) populations,Wannan and Dabie Mountains,from the effect of Yangtze River and the late Pleistocene glacial oscillations
    SHI Wenbo,WANG Hui,ZHU Lifeng,ZHU Qiongqiong,HAN Demin,CHANG Qing,ZHANG Baowei
    Abstract4016)      PDF (765KB)(3348)       Save
    The muntjac deer ( Muntiacus reevesi ) is a widespread species in South China , which makes it an excellent target species in phylogeography and population genetics studies in the South China area . Using 770 nucleotides of the mitochondrial DNA D - loop region from 101 individuals from Wannan ( WN ) and Dabie mountains ( DB ), we explored the genetic diversity , effective populations , population demographic history and gene flow pattern between the two populations . In these populations , higher genetic diversity and larger effective population size were observed in the Wannan population ( h = 0.952 ,π = 0. 0168 , N E = 146830 ) than in the Dabie population ( h = 0.734 ,π = 0.0077 , N E = 19840 ). Based on Mismatch Distribution Analysis , a significant population expansion sign was detected in the Wanan population ( 0.157 Mya ), which might have been triggered by the warm fourth interglacial stage of the Pleistocene . The demographic history analysis indicated that Pleistocene climate fluctuations had imprinted a strong genetic signal in the genetic background of muntjac deer . In addition , an asymmetric gene flow pattern was discovered between the Wannan and Dabie populations ( MWN DB = 0.36 ; MDB WN = 75.00 ). The asymmetric gene flow pattern might be attributable to the landscape changes of the Yangtze River in the Pleistocene glacial oscillations , which may reflect the totally different effects of barriers in the glacial period and interglacial stages .
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    Diurnal time budgets and activity rhythm of captive Chinese water deer ( Hydropotes inermis)in spring and summer
    MA Feiyan,YU Xiaojun,CHEN Min,LIU Chaofei,ZHANG Zhiming,YE Jianhua
    Abstract3994)      PDF (515KB)(2072)       Save
    Diurnal (06:00 -19:00)time budgets and activity rhythms for 24 captive Chinese water deer (Hydropotes inermis)(12♀,12♂)were observed from March to July,2008 in the Huaxia Park of Pudong,Shanghai using instantaneous scan sampling and all-occurrence recording methods. The behaviors recorded included resting,ruminating,standing,alertness, feeding,moving,auto-grooming,urinating and social behaviors. In both spring and summer,resting was the principal activity of the Chinese water deer,followed by feeding and moving. The diurnal behaviors of the Chinese water deer had a clear rhythm,the active periods were concentrated near dawn (06:00 - 08:00)and dusk (16:00 - 18:00).
    The deer spent significantly more time resting but significantly less time standing,urinating,auto-grooming and moving in summer than they did in the spring (One-way ANOVA )analysis and Mann-Whitney U Test ). Compared to males females spent significantly more time standing and ruminating,but significantly less time resting,auto-grooming and displaying alertness. As to the females,there were more significant difference in standing,urinating,auto-grooming,moving and social behaviors and significantly difference in feeding between spring and summer. In spring,the females spent more time standing,urinating,auto-grooming and moving than in summer. Females spent more time feeding and on social behaviors because they have high energy pregnancy and post-partum requirements in summer. To the males,resting,feeding,autogrooming, alerting and social behaviors showed more significantly differences than standing,ruminating,urinating and moving between spring and summer. In spring,they spent more time on feeding,auto-grooming,alerting,standing,ruminating, urinating,moving and social behaviors,except resting. The results indicated that the Hydropotes inermis in the Huaxia Park had time budgets and activity rhythms similar to those of the wild population and the welfare of the deer was well satisfied. We believe that the results will be useful to new management practices and could be the theoretical basis for release to the wild in Shanghai.
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    Physiological ecology in small mammals and evolutionary theory
    WANG Dehua,YANG Ming,LIU Quansheng,ZHANG Zhiqiang,ZHANG Xueying,CHI Qingsheng,XU Deli
    Abstract3984)      PDF (484KB)(2850)       Save
    The theme of animal physiological ecology (or ecological physiology)is the adaptation of animals to their environment.
    Physiological ecologists usually use the physiological data to understand the ecological questions relevant to animals’ survival and reproduction,and try to interpret the way and reason of animal’s physiological adaptation and evolution.For nearly 70 years,evolutionary theory has great effect on the development of physiological ecology,and the findings of physiological ecology also make great contributions to the development of evolutionary biology. Here we focus on some aspects of physiological ecology of small mammals,namely body size and metabolism,digestive physiology,ecological immunology and hibernation (torpor),to briefly review some achievements and the implication of evolutionary theory.
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    Mammalian skeleton specimen preparation using proteolytic enzyme (alcalase)detergent
    WU Yonghua,YANG Qisen
    Abstract3975)      PDF (799KB)(3657)       Save
    We report on an easy method to remove muscle tissue from the skeleton by alcalase detergent in mammalian skeleton specimen preparation. In the present paper,using hare skull specimen as an example,we describe the alcalase detergentmethod in details and compare it with other methods for mammalian skeleton specimen preparation. In this method,hare muscle tissues are removed from skeletons by alcalase detergent. With commercial proteinases,alcalase (2.4 L, 2.4 AU/ g, Novozymes Biotechnology Co. , Ltd. ), the process requires around 10 minutes’skeletal simmering in a 0.5% solution (V/V) of the alcalase and water under 60 ℃ condition. In total, about 101 rat skull and 487 hare skull specimens are made using this method. Compared to other traditional methods in mammalian skeleton specimen preparation,the alcalase detergent method is safer,more efficient and less costly,and it is also suitable for batch production of skeleton specimen.
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