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    Catalogue of mammals in China(2021)
    WEI Fuwen, YANG Qisen, WU Yi, JIANG Xuelong, LIU Shaoying, LI Baoguo, YANG Guang, LI Ming, ZHOU Jiang, LI Song, HU Yibo, GE Deyan, LI Sheng, YU Wenhua, CHEN Bingyao, ZHANG Zejun, ZHOU Caiquan, WU Shibao, ZHANG Li, CHEN Zhongzheng, CHEN Shunde, DENG Huaiqing, JIANG Tinglei, ZHANG Libiao, SHI Hongyan, LU Xueli, LI Quan, LIU Zhu, CUI Yaqian, LI Yuchun
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 487-501.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150595
    Abstract12164)      PDF (1771KB)(6619)       Save
    China is one of the countries with the highest diversity of mammalian species. Knowledge of mammalian diversity and their taxonomy is fundamental to mammalian research and is the basis of scientific conservation of wild populations. To clarify the species diversity and important taxonomic information such as the taxonomic position of mammals in China, the China Mammalogical Society organized an editorial committee consisting of taxonomists studying different taxonomic groups. Based on previous taxonomic studies and the latest morphological and genetic evidences, the editorial committee produced the latest catalogue of mammalian species in China. This catalogue includes 12 orders, 59 families, 254 genera, and 686 species. The catalogue uses the taxonomy system based on phylogeny and fully discusses the validity of species taxonomy.
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    A summary of phylogenetic systematics studies of Myodini in China(Rodentia: Cricetidae: Arvicolinae)
    TANG Mingkun, CHEN Zhihong, WANG Xin, CHEN Zhixing, HE Zhiqiang, LIU Shaoying
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    2021, 41 (1): 71-81.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150409
    Abstract3214)      PDF (1657KB)(2932)       Save
    The tribe Myodini is distributed within the Holarctic realm and parts of the Oriental realm.Phylogenetic relationships and the taxonomy of taxa remain controversial due to a sparsity of fossils, convergent or parallel morphological evolution, relatively recent diversification, limited molecular sampling, and difficulty in obtaining specimens of some species.Major advances in phylogenetic systematics studies of Myodini have been made recently in China, including the following:(1) all taxa of the genus Eothenomys have been sampled and phylogenetic analyses have ended long-term debates for some groups.Changes included erection of subgenus Ermites and recognition of Eothenomys shimianensis, E.jinyangensis, E.meiguensis, and E.luojishanensis.Subspecies E.melanogaster colurnus, E.chinensis tarquinius, and E.custos hintoni were elevated to full species, the validity of E.eleusis and E.fidelis was confirmed, and E.miletus confinii and E.melanogaster libonotus were synonymized with E.cachinus;(2) a complementary phylogenetic analysis of morphological and molecular characters validated genus Craseomys and molecular analyses relegated C.shanseius to a subspecies of C.rufocanus;and(3) phylogenetic studies rejected the validity of Platycranius as a subgenus of Alticola because A.strelzowi clustered within nominate subgenus Alticola, and A.stracheyi was relegated to a junior synonym of A.stoliczkanus.Results of the recent studies show that Myodini consists of 30 species in 5 genera in China.Future sampling and analyses of Myodini can test the validity of subgenus Aschizomys and resolve relationship between remaining controversial taxa.
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    Comparative on the salt-licking behavior of three species of deer in the Tianmushan National Nature Reserve
    ZHOU Hu, LIU Zhou, PANG Chunmei, CHEN Kangmin, ZHANG Shusheng, YANG Shuzhen, XU Aichun
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    2021, 41 (1): 99-107.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150394
    Abstract3055)      PDF (3771KB)(2890)       Save
    To study the salt-licking behavior of South China sika deer ( Cervus nippon kopschi), black muntjac ( Muntiacus crinifrons) and Chinese muntjac( M. reevesi), twelve artificial salt fields were set up in the Tianmushan National Nature Reserve in Zhejiang Province, China.Two cameras were set up in each site to monitor the visits of deers from April 2018 to March 2019.The frequency and duration of each visits were recorded to reveal the daily salt-licking rhythm and seasonal pattern of different species, and the allometricl model was employed to test the gender differences of visitors.The results show that:(1) all the three species use artificial salt fields, but Chinese muntjac and South China sika deer have relatively high frequency of visiting;(2) The South China sika deer and black muntjac prefer to use salt fields at high and low altitude, respectively, however Chinese muntjac have no preference for altitude;(3) Chinese muntjac is a typical morning-dusk animal to visit salt fields, and South China sika deer and black muntjac mainly at dusk and night;(4) most identifiable visitors are single sex, and no more than two species appear in a same record;(5) the three species have different salt-licking patterns:South China sika deer has relatively low frequency but large quantity, black muntjac with low frequency and small quantity, and Chinese muntjac with high frequency and large quantity.Accordingly, We suggest that the wildlife management departments could set up more artificial salt fields in spring and summer, and appropriately reduce the salt bricks in autumn and winter.
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    Copulation calls and its influencing factors of Tibetan macaques ( Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China
    LI Biaobiao, WANG Xi, XIA Dongpo, ZHANG Qixin, LI Jinhua
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    2021, 41 (1): 32-41.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150408
    Abstract3017)      PDF (1592KB)(2947)       Save
    Copulation call has been defined as an unique and rhythmic vocalization which can be performed by males and/or females during their copulations in mammals.Copulation calls are taken as a mating strategy of males and females.The studies of copulation calls will help us to reveal the differences of mating strategies among varieties of species.In this study, we recorded the frequency of copulation calls between mating males and females when copulatory behavior occurred in Tibetan macaques ( Macaca thibetana).We further analyzed the related elements along with copulation calls and whether copulatory behaviors had an impact on the following friendly behavior between mating males and mating females.The results showed that the adult higher-ranking males performed more copulation calls than other classes.There is no difference on copulation calls between dominated females and subordinated females.Moreover, copulation calls contributed to more friendly behavior and closer spatial distance between males and famales after mating.This study provided a fundamental datum about communication process for copulation calls in Tibetan macaques, and it helped to understand the theoretical significance of function and evolution in muti-males and muti-females society.
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    Preliminary study on habitat suitability of snow leopard ( Panthera uncia) in central Tianshan Mountains
    MA Bing, PAN Guoliang, LI Leiguang, CHEN Ying, LI Yibin, LIU Yizheng, BALIKE·Jiekeyi, SUN Shiwei, SHI Kun
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    2021, 41 (1): 1-10.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150436
    Abstract2689)      PDF (9794KB)(2975)       Save
    Habitat loss and fragmentation due to anthropogenic pressure have a detrimental impact on the long-term population viability of endangered species, especially for snow leopards ( Panthera uncia) inhabiting plateau mountains.To evaluate the potential distribution and habitat quality for snow leopards in the Tianshan Mountains, 78 snow leopard presence records were collected covering an area of 2 425 km 2 in central Tianshan Mountains from November 2018 to June 2019.Eight species distribution models of snow leopard habitat selection were simulated.The results indicated that topographic roughness and altitude were the major factors influencing snow leopard distribution in the study area.Snow leopards preferentially occur in areas with topographic roughness greater than 70 and at altitudes range from 1 700-2 900 m.Ensemble model prediction results indicated that suitable habitat is concentrated between the west of Usu City and Banfanggou.This study obtained the potential distribution area of snow leopards in central Tianshan Mountains and evaluated the influence of environmental factors on it based on field investigation and model analysis.The study provides valuable baseline knowledge in the context of transboundary snow leopard conservation in the Tianshan Mountains.
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    Taxonomic and systematic research progress of mammals in China
    YU Wenhua, HE Kai, FAN Pengfei, CHEN Bingyao, LI Sheng, LIU Shaoying, ZHOU Jiang, YANG Qisen, LI Ming, JIANG Xuelong, YANG Guang, WU Shibao, LU Xueli, HU Yibo, LI Baoguo, LI Yuchun, JIANG Tinglei, WEI Fuwen, WU Yi
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 502-524.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150535
    Abstract2668)      PDF (3119KB)(3446)       Save
    Rich mammalian diversity in China ranks it as one of the key groups in maintaining ecological function. Since Mr. John R. Reeves conducted the first mammalian survey in Guangdong, China, from 1829 to 1834, Chinese mammal taxonomic and systematic researches have made remarkable progress in the past 200 years. Presently, the number of mammal species in China has reached 686, representing about 10% of all mammals and making it one of the most diverse countries in mammal species in the world. As China attaches greater importance to ecological protection, the ecological environment is increasingly improved. Nevertheless, along with global climate change, increasing human activities and the emergence of major human-animal epidemics, the importance of mammal surveys and taxonomic clarification has become more apparent. Meanwhile, this traditional discipline is constantly incorporating state-of-art techniques, such as integrative taxonomy, digitization of specimens, type specimens sequencing technique, portable sequencing techniques and deep learning-based species identification, with the goals of verifying species identification, building proper taxonomic classifications, and promoting the application and transformation of taxonomic achievements to other discipline. Animal taxonomy, a traditional basic discipline, is also the basis for many branches in modern biology, such as genetics, physiology, ecology, medicine and pharmacology. However, due to distinct characteristics among disciplines, it has not received sufficient attention in recent years. It is thus necessary to value traditional taxonomy, morphology and other basic disciplines at the national level, and provide special policy and financial support on talent training and funding.
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    Camera-trapping survey of the mammal diversity in the Qilian Mountains National Nature Reserve, Gansu Province
    MA Duifang, SUN Zhangyun, HU Dazhi, AN Bei, CHEN Liuyang, ZHANG Dexi, DONG Kai, ZHANG Lixun
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    2021, 41 (1): 90-98.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150418
    Abstract2649)      PDF (25885KB)(3110)       Save
    From August 2017 to August 2018, 60 infrared cameras were set up in three monitoring sample areas in Gansu Qilian Mountains National Nature Reserve.A total of 1 619 independent wildlife photographs were collected from 14 999 camera-days.Nineteen species were identified and belonged to 5 orders and 9 families.Three domestic animal species were captured.Among the detected wildlife species, 3 species are listed as Class Ⅰ state key protected wild animals in China and five species as Class Ⅱ.Two species are endemic to China.One specie is assessed as endangered(EN), one specie near threatened(NT) and four species as vulnerable(VU) by the IUCN Red List.The fauna analysis of mammals in the reserve showed that the Palaearctic species occupies 53% and the widespread occupies 47%.These 19 species were captured when any single camera had worked for 204 days.The four highest relative abundance indexes(RAI) species were red deer( Cervus yarkandensis) (5.16), bharal( Pseudois nayaur) (2.01), Siberian roe deer( Capreolus pygargus) (0.96) and Alpine musk deer( Moschus chrysogaster) (0.71).Their activity rhythm showed that the daily activity rhythm of red deer, bharal and Alpine musk deer showed double peak with morning and night peak, while Siberian roe deer only had one morning peak.The highest relative activity intensity was in summer.Our study provides basic status of current mammal species.These findings may contribute to understanding the behavioral adaptation of the four important species, and provide baseline information for the formulation of relevant protection strategies in the reserve.
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    Advances in ecological research on the limestone langurs in China
    ZHOU Qihai, HUANG Chengming
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    2021, 41 (1): 59-70.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150422
    Abstract2571)      PDF (1892KB)(3032)       Save
    Limestone hill is a unique habitat. Animals inhabiting limestone hills have evolved unique behavioral mechanisms to adapt to specific conditions. The limestone langurs of the genus Trachypithecus are rare and endangered primate species, restricted to the habitats characterized by Karst topography. There are seven allopatric taxa of limestone langurs:François' langur ( Trachypithecus francois), white-headed langur ( T. leucocephalus), Delacour's langur ( T. delacouri), Cat Ba langur ( T. policephalus), Hatinh langur ( T. hatinhensis), black langur ( T. ebenus), and Lao langur ( T. laotum).There are no systematic research on the ecology of limestone langurs, except for François' langurs and white-headed langurs in China. This paper reviews the research advances on the poulation, behavior ecology, and conservation of François' langurs and white-headed langurs in China. These efforts will improve our understanding of these species and provide important baseline information for the conservation of such rare and endangered species endemic to China. Further research should focus on the population history of limestone langurs, as well as the adaptive mechanisms in response to habitat fragmentation and climate change.
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    Research advances and perspectives of conservation genomics and meta-genomics of threatened mammals in China
    WEI Fuwen, HUANG Guangping, FAN Huizhong, HU Yibo
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 581-590.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150518
    Abstract2518)      PDF (1937KB)(2606)       Save
    Understanding the evolutionary processes, endangered mechanisms and adaptive evolution are key scientific issues in conservation biology. During the past decades, advances in high-throughput sequencing and multi-disciplinary crossover provide deep insights into the evolutionary history, genetic structure, adaptive evolution, and host-microbiota coevolution of endangered species. The emergence of two new branches of conservation biology, Conservation Genomics and Conservation Metagenomics, provides novel insights into wildlife conservation. In this review, we summarize the important advances in the two fields and discuss the future research directions, aiming to promote the conservation biology of threa-tened animals in China.
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    Research advances and perspectives of mammalogy in China in the past 40 years
    WANG Dehua, WEI Fuwen, ZHANG Zhibin, WANG Zuwang
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 483-486.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150602
    Abstract2483)      PDF (1229KB)(2641)       Save
    It has been 40 years since the establishment of the Branch of Mammalogical Society of China Zoology Society in 1980 and the official founding of the journal Acta Theriologica Sinica in 1981. Most areas of mammalogy experienced great and healthy developments in China, especially in taxonomy and phylogeny, population ecology, physiological ecology, behavioral ecology, conservation ecology, conservation genetics, molecular evolution, and habitats assessments. Here we invited 11 review papers to reveal the main advances of these areas in the past 40 years in China and proposed some potential developmental directions for the future. Based on the well developments of these areas, some new problems and areas such as diseases of wild mammals and their transmission ecology, the roles of mammals in the ecosystem under climate changing, conservation physiology, and conservation metagenomics are the research fields that should be enhanced.
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    Research advances and prespectives in ethology and behavioral ecology of the mammals in China
    LI Baoguo, HOU Rong, ZHANG He, CHEN Guoliang, FANG Gu
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 525-536.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150529
    Abstract2454)      PDF (2008KB)(2513)       Save
    Ethology and behavioral ecology study the behavioral traits, behavior patterns and behavior mechanisms of animals, as well as the behavior strategies to adapt to environmental changes. Here, we briefly review some significant achievements of these two research fields over the past forty years in China by focusing specifically on mammalian taxa. The results indicate that more advanced technologies and methods have significantly improved the ways of data collection and experimental analysis over the past two decades. Chinese scholars have published many high-quality papers in international journals and books, which has narrowed the research gap between China and the developed nations. In particular, behavioral studies on the giant panda are playing a leading global role. Some other significant research achievements include those on interspecific interactions and behavioral adaptation mechanisms of rodents, primates' social behavior and adaptation mechanism of foraging strategy, and echolocation behaviors of bats. In contrast, behavioral studies on some groups, such as carnivores, ungulates, and marine mammals, are still lacking. The increasing national support on basic research, more high-level research bases and the growing number of scientists, as well as the application of interdisciplinary and advanced techniques, will facilitate the prosperous development of ethology and behavioral ecology in China.
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    Discussion of taxonomic status of Crocidura dongyangjiangensis Liu Y, Chen SD, and Liu SY, 2020 and Crocidura huangshanensis Yang, BW Zhang and Li, 2020
    CHEN Shunde, CHEN Dan, TANG Keyi, QIN Boxin, XIE Fei, FU Changkun, LIU Yang, LIU Shaoying
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    2021, 41 (1): 108-114.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150503
    Abstract2435)      PDF (11648KB)(2833)       Save
    From the morphological and molecular comparison of the two recently published Crocidura species ( Crocidura huangshanensis and Crocidura dongyangjiangensis) based on specimens collected from geographically close locations, it is found that the two species are similar in overall description, and the appearance and morphological measurements are overlapped in many skull characteristics.Phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial and nuclear genes showed the two species were clustered and did not form an independent clade from each other.The uncorrected p-distance of Cyt b holotypes of the two taxon was only 1.1%.In GenBank, the BLAST similarity of Cyt b genes of the two species was 99.56%.Therefore, it is determined that the two taxon should recognized as the same species.Since the publication of Crocidura dongyangjiangensis was earlier than Crocidura huangshanensis, thus we suggest Crocidura huangshanensis Yang, BW Zhang and Li, 2020 as a junior synonym of Crocidura dongyangjiangensis Liu Y, Chen SD, and Liu SY, 2020.
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    Genetic diversity and sex structure of red deer population in Saihanwula Nature Reserve, Inner Mongolia
    ZHANG Zhao, ZHANG Rui, LI Xiaoyu, Saihan, YANG Zhendong, HAN Zhiqing, BAO Weidong
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    2021, 41 (1): 42-50.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150439
    Abstract2350)      PDF (2593KB)(2688)       Save
    Red deer( Cervus canadensis) in northeast China are geographically isolated and their habitat is fragmented;therefore, studies on genetic diversity and sex structure are useful for understanding survival trends of isolated populations and improving conservation efforts for red deer in this region.In this study, we used eight pairs of microsatellite molecular markers to analyze the genetic diversity and sex structure of a population of red deer from Saihanwula National Nature Reserve in Inner Mongolia using 456 fecal samples collected in the field.The analysis identified 56 individuals in the winter of 2015 and 41 individuals in the autumn of 2016.The average expected heterozygosity of the eight microsatellite loci was 0.650 1 and the average polymorphic information content was 0.603 5, indicating that the genetic diversity of the red deer population was high.The genetic differentiation coefficient was -0.053 99, the inbreeding coefficient was 0.086 67 and the gene flow was 2.942 11, indicating that the red deer population had normal gene exchange and a low level of inbreeding.Based on the sex-determining region Y(SRY gene), the sex ratio of females to males was 1.8:1 for the winter population and 0.71:1 for the autumn population.This study reveals that although this isolated red deer population currently has relatively high genetic diversity, there is a risk of inbreeding in the long term.Therefore, strengthening population monitoring, improving genetic structure and promoting exchanges of individuals with nearby populations will help to ensure the long-term survival of this and other red deer populations in Northeast China.
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    Habitat suitability assessment of the white-headed langur ( Trachy-pithecus leucocephalus) based on MaxEnt modeling: a case study of the Chongzuo White-Headed Langur Nature Reserve, Guangxi
    WU Manfei, HU Zhanbo, ZHOU Qihai, WU Jianbao
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    2021, 41 (1): 20-31.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150416
    Abstract2312)      PDF (34244KB)(3092)       Save
    The study of relationships between species distribution patterns and environmental variables is of great significance to the planning of ecological corridors and environmental restoration.We collected 51 distribution points of Trachypithecus leucocephalus and 11 environmental variables in the National Nature Reserve of the white-headed langur in Chongzuo, Guangxi.This paper makes a comprehensive evaluation of habitat suitability by using maximum entropy modeling, which generated habitat suitability indices through threshold delimitation.We delimited low-suitability area, suitable area and highly-suitable area, which covered 5 061.43 km 2, 42.80 km 2 and 20.63 km 2 respectively.The analysis of environmental variables showed that the comprehensive contribution values of annual precipitation, land use classification, slope and annual average temperature were 54.6%, 17.4%, 11.8% and 9.5% respectively.The cumulative contribution value of those four environmental variables was 93.3%, suggesting that these factors had greatest effect on the distribution of white headed langurs.In order to effectively protect the white-headed langur and its habitat, we suggest planning ecological corridors within the reserve in order to expand the suitable habitat into the restoration area and promote intergroup gene exchange between the langurs.
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    Effect of group size on daily travel distance and activity budget of Rhinopithecus bieti during the winter and spring seasons in Mt. Lasha, Yunnan, China
    WANG Haoran, LI Yanpeng, GUAN Zhenhua, REN Guopeng, YANG Xin, HUANG Zhipang, CUI Liangwei, XIAO Wen
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    2021, 41 (1): 11-19.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150434
    Abstract2307)      PDF (1851KB)(2821)       Save
    The ecological constraints model(ECM) proposes that when the population size increases, primates will increase daily travel distance, moving time, feeding time, reduce resting time.In line with the ECM, within-group scramble competition occurred within groups of frugivorous primates due to patch-distributed and high-quality food resources (such as fruits).During the period from December 2018 to May 2019, we collected data on daily time budget of both a larger group(170) and a smaller group(100) of Rhinopithecus bieti living in the same area through instantaneous scanning sampling every 20 minutes.Locations were recorded on a topographic map(1:50 000) every 30 minutes to collect daily travel distance data in Mt.Lasha of Yunling Provincial Nature Reserve.We then analyzed differences in daily travel distance and time budget in order to test whether temperate folivorous primates follow the ECM.The results indicate that the larger group had longer daily travel distance than the smaller group in spring and winter, reduced socializing time and increased moving time in spring.However, no difference in time budget between the two groups was found in winter.Moreover, all age-sex classes of individuals in the larger group decreased the time spent in socializing activities in spring, but adult females increased the time spent in moving.In winter, adult females in the larger group increased resting time, but there were no differences in time budget of other age-sex classes of individuals between the groups.Our study demonstrates that there was within-group scramble competition in R.bieti, and much intensity of scramble competition was found in spring than in winter, which was in accordance with the ECM.In addition, the group size had a greater influence on the time budget of adult females, which was related to their relatively high nutritional and energy needs during pregnancy.
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    Research advances and perspectives of conservation genetics of threatened mammals in China
    WEI Fuwen, MA Tianxiao, HU Yibo
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 571-580.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150517
    Abstract2299)      PDF (1840KB)(2441)       Save
    China is one of the world's mega-diverse countries. There are diverse terrestrial and marine mammals in China, including endemic and flagship species like the giant panda, snub-nosed monkey, South China tiger, Milu, and Baiji. However, habitat loss and fragmentation, poaching, pollution, and climate change imposed direct threats to mammals' survival, which resulted in the genetic diversity loss of species. Genetic diversity is the basic component of biodiversity and affects the long-term survival of species and populations. Therefore, conservation genetics was established as an important branch subject of conservation biology, aiming to investigate the population genetic variation and genetic mechanisms of species endangerment and extinction. With rapid development in research techniques and methods, great progress has been made in China in the past 40 years in the evaluation of genetic diversity and inbreeding, landscape genetics, ecological genetics, and genetic management on threatened mammals. Meanwhile, the threats to mammals' survival caused by human activities still exist. The further development of new techniques, such as high-throughput sequencing, could deepen our understanding of the genetic adaptation and endangerment processes of threatened mammals, and lead to more effective management and conservation.
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    Research advances and perspectives in the genetics and evolution of mammals in China
    YANG Guang, TIAN Ran, XU Shixia
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 591-603.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150538
    Abstract2205)      PDF (2179KB)(2343)       Save
    China has a rich resource of mammals, about 150 of which are endemic species. This review summarizes research on the evolutionary genetics of mammals in China for the past 60 years, including phylogenetic reconstruction, genetic diversity, population structure, adaptive evolution, and molecular mechanisms of convergent evolution. We especially focus on the significant research achievements in some key taxa such as Carnivora (giant panda and red panda), Ungulate, Chiroptera, Primates, small mammals, and marine mammals, providing useful information for the conservation of Chinese mammals. We also propose several suggestions for future studies on the evolution of Chinese mammals, including utilizing multi-omics technologies, screening new genetic markers and candidate genes or regulatory elements, integrating methods of epigenetics and evolutionary developmental biology. This review aims to help understand the taxonomy, origin, as well as the developmental and genetic mechanisms in specific phenotypes and unique adaptations of Chinese mammals, further realizing the new vision and conceptual framework of ‘Unity of Nature and Man’ in conservation biology.
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    Effects of melatonin on behavioral time budgets of growing female mink based on different analysis models and sampling methods
    YU Xiaojun, YANG Feifei, WANG Guang, LI Dandan, WANG Lihua
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    2021, 41 (1): 82-89.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150458
    Abstract2200)      PDF (1288KB)(2512)       Save
    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of melatonin on the behavioral time budgets of female mink in growing period based on different analysis models and sampling methods.A total of 12 short-haired black young females (with 6 minks implanted melatonin and 6 minks without implanted melatonin) were randomly selected from the mink farm.Behaviors of each mink in the two groups were video-recorded at 30 d(period Ⅰ), 60 d (period Ⅱ) and 75 d(period Ⅲ) after melatonin implantation.The results showed that there were totally different statistic results for the analysis of fixed effect of melatonin on location, eating, grooming, abnormal behavior and drinking by mixed linear model and generalized linear mixed model, respectively.The results from generalized linear mixed model conformed to the recognized effects of melatonin.Regarding to all behaviors, there were not significant differences for data obtained by instantaneous sampling at no more than 1.5 min interval and continuous sampling ( P>0.05).It could be concluded that generalized linear mixed model was more suitable for the analysis of non-normalized data, and instantaneous scan sampling at 1.5 min interval was reasonable to determine behavioral time budgets of mink.
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    Research advances and prepectives on habitat assessment and protection of endangered mammals of China
    JIANG Guangshun, LI Jingzhi
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 604-613.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150501
    Abstract2194)      PDF (2121KB)(2540)       Save
    At present, global, species are facing increasing extinction risk at an unprecedented rate. The effective assessment and scientific protection of wildlife habitat are important prerequisites and means to prevent endangered wildlife from extinction and maintain their sustainable survivals and development. This article summarizes the current status and achievements of research progress on habitat assessment and protection from five categories of endangered wildlife in China:carnivores, ungulates, primates, small mammals, and marine mammals. This article summarizes and analyzes related acade-mic achievements in order to reveal systematic and valuable methods and technical means for the scientific protection and management of habitats. This article also offers prospects for the theoretical and technical challenges of habitat assessment and protection research. It proposes that the habitat assessment and protection research of endangered mammals in China should move towards a ‘precise’ development direction of integration, quantification, intelligence, and multi-disciplinary cross-integration applications, to provide technical support for the effective implementation of national ecological construction projects.
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    Research advances and prespectives in mammal physiological ecology in China
    WANG Dehua, ZHAO Zhijun, ZHANG Xueying, ZHANG Zhiqiang, XU Deli, XING Xin, YANG Shengmei, WANG Zhengkun, GAO Yunfang, YANG Ming
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 537-555.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150558
    Abstract2190)      PDF (2869KB)(2500)       Save
    After more than 70 years of development, mammalian physiological ecology in China has made great progress in the study of physiological adaptation of animals living in different geographical environments, such as the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Inner Mongolia Grassland, and the Hengduan Mountains. The main research topics include energy metabolism and body temperature regulation, hibernation physiology, water metabolism, ecological immunology, and the thermoregulatory role of gut microbiota. Some topics and areas still require more effort, such as physiological adaptation of mammals to extreme environments, large mammals physiology and conservation physiology. The new technologies need to be better integrated including the multi-omics technology, isotope technology, and remote sensing technology. This paper reviews the main advances of mammalian physiological ecology in China.
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    Cloning of AQP1 and AQP3 genes and their locations and expressions in different tissues of yak( Bos grunniens)
    LI Juan, WANG Li, LUO Xiaolin, GUAN Jiuqiang, ZHANG Xiangfei
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    2021, 41 (1): 51-58.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150433
    Abstract2150)      PDF (32184KB)(2709)       Save
    Aquaporin(AQP) is widely expressed in tissues of organisms and affects the process of water metabolism.In order to investigate the biological function of AQP1 and AQP3, the expression patterns and location of AQP1 and AQP3 in different yak tissues were clarified in this study.The PCR was used to amplify the AQP1 and AQP3 genes of yak, and their sequences were analyzed by bioinformatic techniques.The qPCR was used to detect the expression of AQP1 and AQP3 in different tissues of yak.Immunohistochemistry was used to study the expression and distribution of AQP1 and AQP3 proteins in tissues.The results showed that the CDS of AQP1 and AQP3 genes of yak were 816 bp and 840 bp.And the homology with the wild yak was at most 99% of AQP1 and AQP3.The expression levels of AQP1 and AQP3 genes were the highest in the kidney, which were significantly higher than those of the intestine, muscle, rumen and other tissues( P<0.01).The expression of AQP1 gene is higher than AQP3 in all tissues.AQP1 and AQP3 proteins were mainly distributed in the renal proximal tubules, intestinal lamina propria cells and rumen granulosa cells, and both showed the highest expression in the kidney.The results of this study have implications for the study of mammals in the alpine and hypoxic environment, and contribute to the study of the functions of AQP1 and AQP3 in yak.
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    Spatiotemporal relationships between snow leopard( Panthera uncia) and red fox( Vulpes vulpes) in Qionglai Mountains, Sichuan Province
    SHI Xiaogang, SHI Xiaoyun, HU Qiang, FENG Xi, JIN Senlong, CHENG Yuehong, ZHANG Jing, YAO Meng, LI Sheng
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    2021, 41 (2): 115-127.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150475
    Abstract2133)      PDF (19003KB)(3291)       Save
    Carnivores is a key functional group in the ecosystem.Under the situation of global decline of large mammal populations,determining the interspecific interaction and co-existing mechanism between sympatric predators is essential to help us understand the underlying mechanisms driving ecosystem changes and species population dynamics.The spatial and temporal niches are the two most critical dimensions shaping an animal's ecological niche,and the interaction relationship of spatiotemporal niche between sympartric species is the basis to understand species co-existence.In this study,we took the Wolong National Nature Reserve in central Qionglai Mountains,Sichuan Province,as our study area.We collected spatiotemporal data of snow leopard( Panthera uncia,occurrence locations n=198) and red fox( Vulpes vulpes, n=68) from camera-trapping and fecal DNA surveys to construct species distribution models and conduct analysis on their daily activity patterns for both species.The results showed that,the area of overlapped suitable habitats of snow leopard and red fox in the study region was 404.08 km 2,which mainly located in the high-altitude area in the northwest part of the reserve,accounting for 77.74% and 80.79% of the total habitat area of snow leopard and red fox respectively.These two species had great overlap on vertical distributions as well and both showed a distribution peak approximately at 4 300 m above sea level,whereas the mean elevation of snow leopard was slightly higher than that of red fox,and the range of red fox's vertical distribution spanned slightly wider than that of snow leopard.The daily activity patterns of snow leopard(number of independent detections n=351) and red fox( n=155) were both bimodal.Snow leopards tended to be crepuscular,while red foxes were more nocturnal,with high level of overlap between the two species( Δ=0.68).At sites where snow leopards were present or where snow leopards had been previously detected within two weeks,red foxes increased their nocturnality,thus reducing the temporal overlap with snow leopards,although their daily activity pattern was not significantly changed.The results of this study preliminarily revealed the spatiotemporal niche relationship between snow leopard and red fox,which will provide examples and basic information for us to better understand the co-existing mechanism of apex predators and meso-predators in alpine ecosystems,and provide supports for the fine management of these carnivore populations in the nature reserves.
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    Research advances and perspectives on mammal population ecology in China
    BIAN Jianghui
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 556-570.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150500
    Abstract2086)      PDF (2704KB)(2469)       Save
    Mammal population ecology is key component of model ecology. Charles Sutherland Elton's 1924 article on periodic fluctuations in animal populations marked the beginning of modern population ecological research. What factors regulate population fluctuation has always puzzled ecologists and many hypotheses were put forward to explain mechanism underlying population fluctuation, but there is no one hypothesis that can perfectly explain its mechanism. The study of mammal population ecology in China began in the 1950s, and has gone through 70 years of development, and has made some important achievements. In this paper, we summarize research findings and progress in rodent and other mammal populations during the past 70 years on various aspects, including pattern of population dynamics, changes in demography, effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, and interaction of those factors. Meanwhile, future research directions are suggested.
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    Mammal specimen collection in China
    WEI Fuwen
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 614-616.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150603
    Abstract1975)      PDF (1017KB)(2386)       Save
    China is rich in mammal diversity, with 12 orders, 59 families, 254 genera and 686 species. In the past 40 years, the number of mammal specimens in Chinese museums has increased rapidly. According to the newly published catalogue of mammals in China, 19 museums were investigated and a total of 166 178 mammal specimens are preserved. The top 5 museums, which accounted for 84.9% of all preserved specimens, are the Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences(CAS); Institute of Zoology, CAS; Sichuan Academy of Forestry Sciences; Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, CAS; and China West Normal University. Among the specimens in the 19 museums, small mammals accounted for 91.5%. Large- and medium-sized mammal specimens, especially cetaceans, are relatively low. The specimen collection and preservation of these groups should be increased in the future.
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    Impacts of a road on abundance of wild animals through infrared camera monitoring: a case study of road inside Guanyinshan National Nature Reserve
    SOO Yu Han, CAI Qiong, ZHU Ziyu, HE Xiangbo, LIU Xuehua, Melissa Songer
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (1): 49-57.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150504
    Abstract1951)   HTML312)    PDF (11981KB)(2317)       Save
    From July 2014 to October 2018, 20 infrared cameras were used to monitor the impacts of an internal road on the activities of wild mammals and birds in Guanyinshan National Nature Reserve in Shaanxi. A total of 16 168 pieces of photographs were obtained with 13 species of wild mammals and 14 species of wild birds. Among the detected species, 4 are listed as Class Ⅰ state key protected wild animals in China and 7 as Class Ⅱ. The result showed that the further away from the road, the more animal species appeared. 2 species of mammals only appeared in the area that is 100 m away from the road, which indicated that certain mammals showed an obvious avoidance effect on the road. As 8 species of birds only appeared in an area 50 m away from the road, birds showed a stronger avoidance effect than mammals. However, roads with fewer vehicles at night can provide easier night mobility for certain mammals, so the intensity of activity at night of takin ( Budorcas taxicolor) near the road increased. Only the wild boar ( Sus scrofa) in the area 5 m away from the road showed a peak in night activity to avoid human disturbance during the day. Only golden pheasant ( Chrysolophus pictus) in an area 100 m away from the road have similar activity time as other studies in Qinling. This showed that golden pheasants near the road changed their activity time to adapt to road disturbance. Our study preliminarily proved that roads have a certain impact on wild animals. We suggest studies on road ecology in the whole Guanyinshan National Nature Reserve area.
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    Comparison of activity rhythms of sympatric Chinese ferret-badger( Melogale moschata) and crab-eating mongoose( Herpestes urva)
    YAO Wei, WANG Guohai, LIN Jianzhong, LONG Jifeng, LI Jiaqi, ZHOU Qihai
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    2021, 41 (2): 128-135.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150382
    Abstract1895)      PDF (3024KB)(2904)       Save
    Understanding wildlife activity and temporal niche partitioning is fundamental in revealing mechanisms of niche partitioning among sympatric species as well as species coexistence and community composition.Based on images collected by infrared camera traps in Nonggang National Nature Reserve between December 2016 and December 2017,we examined differences in daily activity patterns between two sympatric carnivores,the Chinese ferret-badger( Melogale moschata) and crab-eating mongoose( Herpestes urva),by kernel density estimation and coefficient of overlap to explore the time niche differentiation.The results showed that the Chinese ferret-badger was a typical nocturnal animal with two peaks in daily activity(01:00-05:00 and 21:00-24:00).The peak of ferret-badger activity during the dry season was earlier and was three hours longer in duration compared with during the rainy season.The crab-eating mongoose was strictly diurnal with a single activity peak(11:00-18:00).Compared to during the rainy season,the dry season activity peak for mongooses occurred earlier and was also longer in duration.The daily activity patterns of both species showed marked difference between seasons.The overlap index between the Chinese ferret-badgers and crab-eating mongooses during the research period was lower( Δ=0.17),and was higher in the dry season( Δ=0.22) than that in the rainy season( Δ=0.12).Therefore,we conclude that sympatric Chinese ferret-badgers and crab-eating mongooses likely decrease interspecific competition by time niche differentiation so as to coexist.
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    A new record of mammal from the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region of North China— Mustela altaica
    HAN Sicheng, LU Daowei, MENG Hao, LEONG Chifong, LIU Yanlin, SONG Dazhao, LI Sheng, LUO Shujin
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (3): 361-364.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150487
    Abstract1880)      PDF (15011KB)(3469)       Save
    An adult weasel was photographed in September 2019 during a camera-trapping survey in the Haituo-Songshan mountain area of Beijing. This species was identified as the mountain weasel (Carnivora;Mustelidae; Mustela altaica), a small mustelid native to the mountains of East and Central Asia, found on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and in some high-altitude regions of northern and southwestern China. However, the documented localities of M. altaica nearest to Beijing are from Shanxi and Inner Mongolia, while none was reported from Beijing or its adjacent Tianjin and Hebei. This finding therefore added a new record of mammalian species to the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region and the Yanshan Mountains, and also expanded the known range of M. altaica in China. It revealed the likely underestimated species richness in suburban Beijing and highlighted the importance of systematic biodiversity monitoring and conservation in urban ecosystems.
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    Seasonality of abundant and rare taxa in gut microbiota of plateau pikas
    FAN Chao, ZHANG Liangzhi, FU Haibo, LIU Chuanfa, LI Wenjing, ZHANG He, TANG Xianjiang, CHENG Qi, SHEN Wenjuan, ZHANG Yanming
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (6): 617-630.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150540
    Abstract1842)   HTML709)    PDF (12688KB)(2572)       Save
    Climate and diet are important factors driving seasonal changes in gut microbiota of small herbivorous mammals. However, most previous studies rarely addressed abundant and rare taxa in gut microbiota. Here, we used plateau pika ( Ochotona curzoniae) as a model and conducted 16S rRNA gene-based large-scale structural profiling to explore the seasonal differences (spring, summer, autumn, and winter) in microbial composition, diversity, and function in abundant and rare taxa. The results showed that the Shannon index of abundant and rare taxa was significantly higher in winter than in other seasons. However, the ACE index of abundant taxa was significantly lower in autumn than in other seasons while that of rare taxa was significantly higher in winter than in spring and summer. For the abundant taxa, the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes in winter and autumn was significantly higher than that in spring and summer, while for the rare taxa, the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes in summer and autumn was significantly higher than that in winter and spring. The relative abundance of the amino acid metabolism pathway in abundant taxa was significantly higher in winter than that in spring and summer, while the relative abundance of this pathway in rare taxa was significantly higher in spring than that in summer and autumn. Air temperature, precipitation, and vegetative nutrition were significantly associated with variations in the microbial composition of both abundant and rare taxa. The total explanation proportions of environmental variables to the changes of abundant and rare taxa were 18% (air temperature:3%; precipitation:4%; vegetative nutrition:10%; combined:1%) and 9% (air temperature:1%; precipitation:2%; vegetative nutrition:5%; combined:1%), respectively. The results indicate that abundant and rare taxa of gut microorganisms have different distribution patterns, seasonal characteristics, and contributions to the entire microbial variation. The abundant taxa were more strongly influenced by environmental variables, reflecting the inconsistency in responses of different gut microbial taxa to seasonal changes. This study promotes our understanding of seasonal processes and environmental adaptability of animal's gut microbiota.
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    Group composition and seasonal changes of Bharal( Pseudois nayaur) in Wanglang National Nature Reserve,China
    LIU Mingxing, CHEN Xing, HOU Xingyu, LI Yunxi, JIANG Wenlong, YANG Kong, LI Sheng, GUAN Tianpei
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (3): 321-329.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150471
    Abstract1830)      PDF (1737KB)(3119)       Save
    The Bharal( Pseudois nayaur) is a common herbivore across the Tibetan Plateau, but little is known about the population at the eastern edge of its distribution. From June 2018 to August 2019, we studied the composition and seasonal changes of bharal groups in Wanglang National Nature Reserve using passive infrared camera traps. We recorded a total of 6 623 individuals belonging to 1 921 groups, with a mean group size of 3.45±2.16. The largest group comprised 23 individuals, and the smallest groups were formed by solitary individuals(both female and male). We classified six group types based on sex and age:mixed age/sex groups, ewe-lamb groups, adult male groups, adult female groups, solitary adult males, and solitary adult females. Small herd sizes(2-5 individuals) are typical of the bharal population of Wanglang National Nature Reserve, and no significant differences in group size existed among seasons. We analyzed group composition and seasonal changes of bharal and found that mixed groups were the most frequently observed, comprising 45.3% of all observations, followed by ewe-lambs, adult male groups, adult solitary males, adult solitary females, and adult female groups. The proportion of each group type varied seasonally. In spring, the highest proportion of observations were of adult male groups(29.5%) and adult solitary males(22.6%), whereas in summer, autumn, and winter mixed(58.5%, 41.8%, and 36.7%, respectively) and ewe-lamb(21.4%, 24.7%, and 18.6%, respectively) groups predominated. Observations of the individual bharal group types varied between seasons, for example, mixed groups were most frequently observed during summer, but ewe-lamb groups showed no significant change among seasons. Changes in the local environmental conditions, as well as physiological phases and their associated resource requirements are likely the mechanisms driving these temporal changes in group types and sizes.
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    Activity patterns of Asiatic black bear( Ursus thibetanus) on the Mt.Lasha Yunling Nature Reserve
    ZHANG Yongjun, HE Yuchao, ZHAO Juanjun, CHEN Yao, LI Yanpeng, HUANG Zhipang, CUI Liangwei, XIAO Wen
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    2021, 41 (2): 136-143.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150444
    Abstract1792)      PDF (2465KB)(2967)       Save
    The Mountains of Southwest China is an important distribution area of the Asiatic black bear( Ursus thibetanus),but the activity pattern of this species is rarely studied.This study focused on Asiatic black bear.Total 218 Camera traps were set up a grid 250 m×250 m in Mt.Lasha area of Yunling Nature Reserve,Lanping,Yunnan,from July 2017 to August 2019.Our study lasted for 2 years,with 36 175 trapping days,the cumulative monitoring period averaged to 238±100.31 days and a total of 77 Independent photographs(IPs) obtained.The annual rhythm of Asiatic black bear is unimodal,mainly animals are active in the summer rainy season(May-October).The hibernation occurred from February to April,so the hibernation period is 3 months.Double activity peaks were found in daily activity rhythms,with no difference in day and night activities.The main elevation range of the activity is from 3 100 m to 3 400 m,and there is no obvious vertical migration.The main vegetation types are mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forests(50%),followed by mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forests(30%).Compared to the previous studies,we found that the hibernation pattern of Asiatic black bears was affected by its distribution latitude,the higher latitude that it distributed,the hibernation started earlier and lasted for a longer time.Our results reveal the hibernation pattern with latitude of Asiatic black bear on a large scale,and provide reference for conservation and management of this species.
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    Comparative on foraging behavior between white-headed langurs( Trachypithecus leucocephalus) and François'langurs( T.francoisi) in Guangxi, China
    LIAO Rong, LU Shiyi, HUANG Zhonghao, LI Youbang
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (4): 406-415.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150470
    Abstract1734)      PDF (1585KB)(2707)       Save
    Comparing the foraging behavior of sibling species can reveal similarity in behavioral plasticity and adaptability.White-headed langur( Trachypithecus leucocephalus) and François'langurs( T.francoisi) are sibling species sharing similar body size, social structure and habitat environment.They are neighboring primates distributed in the karst seasonal rain forest of the white-headed Langur National Nature Reserve in Chongzuo, Guangxi.In order to explore whether the two langurs have similar foraging strategies in response to karst habitat, we studied their foraging behavior from January to December 2012 using instantaneous scanning sampling.The results revealed that the feeding habits of the white-headed langur and the François'langur did not vary across day time.Leaves were the main food items for these two species, which accounted for 77.0%±4.4% of annual diet for the white-headed langurs and 68.9%±8.3% of annual diet for the François'langurs.There was no significant change in the eating time of leaves for both langurs(white-headed langur: χ 2=6.602, df=11, P=0.830;François'langurs: χ 2=11.393, df=11, P=0.411).Foraging behaviors of both species occurred frequently after leaving the sleeping cave in the early morning and before entering the sleeping cave in the later afternoon.Specifically, at 09:00-10:59 and 16:00-17:59, white-headed langur spent 41.7% and 46.3% of day time on feeding, whereas François'langurs devoted 31.3% and 38.0% of day time to feeding at 09:00-10:59 and 16:00-17:59, respectively.In addition, there was no significant difference in foraging time between the two langurs.Our result suggests that the white-headed langur and François'langurs share similar foraging strategy in the limestone forest, implying that the similar conservation efforts based on feeding ecology should be considered for both langurs.
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    New records of Tibetan shrew( Sorex thibetanus Kastschenko,1905) and Gansu shrew( Sorex cansulus Thomas,1912) in Yunnan Province
    SONG Wenyu, WANG Hongjiao, LI Yixian, HE Shuiwang, JIANG Xuelong
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (3): 352-360.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150520
    Abstract1687)      PDF (20628KB)(3360)       Save
    Tibetan shrew( Sorex thibetanus) and Gansu shrew( Sorex cansulus) are two poorly known species of the genus Sorex. In 2017, 48 specimens of Sorex were collected in alpine areas of north-west Yunnan. The morphological characteristics and measurements of these specimens were compared with previous specimen records, and their phylogenetic relationships with other Sorex species were assessed based on Cyt b gene. Results show that 27 specimens from 4 sites are morphologically similar to S. thibetanus, while other 21 specimens from 2 sites are morphologically similar to S. cansulus, although with considerable differences. The intraspecific Kimura-2-parameter distance based on Cyt b was 0.46% for S. thibetanus and 0.42% for S. cansulus, while the distances between these two species to other Sorex species were 10.76%-17.04% and 6.59%-14.52%, respectively. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses support the two species are monophyletic to S. thibetanus(BS=71%) and S. cansulus (BS=100%), which both are new mammal records in Yunnan Province.
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    Future effects of climate change and human footprint on the geographical distribution of three snub-nosed monkeys in China
    LI Xinrui, ZHAO Xumao, LI Ming
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (3): 310-320.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150513
    Abstract1687)      PDF (28727KB)(3297)       Save
    Climate change and the human activities on the environment are important drivers of biodiversity loss. Based on MaxEnt models, we studied the impacts of climate change and the human footprint on predicted range shift in the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey( Rhinopithecus roxellana), the Yunnan snub-nosed monkey( R. bieti), and the Guizhou snub-nosed monkey( R. brelichi). All three species are endemic to China. We found that areas of suitable habitat for the three snub-nosed monkey are shrinked and the elevation of the distribution area was increased from 2000 to 2050, of which suitable habitat for Guizhou snub-nosed monkey was contracted the most. And habitats of snub-nosed monkeys that are most vulnerable to human disturbance and climate change were principally located in Northeast Sichuan Province, Southwest Shaanxi Province, Northwest Hubei Province, Fanjingshan in Guizhou Province, and the western part of Yunnan Province. Human footprint index was an important factor leading to the decrease of suitable habitat area of golden snub-nosed monkey. And mean temperature of warmest Quarter, Precipitation Seasonality and Mean Temperature of Coldest Quarter were the most important climatic factors leading to the decrease of suitable habitat for Sichuan snub-nosed monkey, Yunnan snub-nosed monkey and the Guizhou snub-nosed monkey. In addition, the southwestern of habitat(Sichuan snub-nosed monkey) and the central part of habitat(Yunnan snub-nosed monkey) had high connectivity. We suggest that priority management policies should be directed to protecting vulnerable areas and building a biodiversity corridor between subpopulations in areas with high connectivity. This study provides a basis for predicting the location of vulnerable habitats that require protection in order to conserve endangered animals.
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    Establishment and application of giant panda rotavirus PCR detection method
    SU Xiaoyan, LI Lin, YAN Xia, ZHANG Dongsheng, HOU Rong, LIU Songrui
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (3): 254-260.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150454
    Abstract1676)      PDF (6859KB)(2966)       Save
    Rotavirus is one of the main pathogenic microorganisms threatening the survival of giant pandas. In order to detect panda rotavirus antigens quickly, conveniently and accurately, it is necessary to develop a detection method suitable for ex-situ breeding centers and protection areas. In this study, the panda rotavirus Vp7 gene sequence was synthesized to construct the PUC-VP7 recombinant plasmid, and it was used as a positive control for PCR detection and analysis of panda rotavirus samples. The results showed that during the PCR amplification analysis, both the plasmid and the viral cDNA showed a specific band at 340 bp. In addition, when performing rotavirus antigen detection on forty-five panda rotavirus fecal samples, two samples showed a band at 340 bp, and the gene fragment was 99.89% homologous to the panda rotavirus CH-1 strain. The PUC-VP7 plasmid constructed in this study can not only be used as a positive quality control material in the PCR detection of giant panda rotavirus, but can also effectively improve the promotion and application of the PCR virus detection technology in ex-situ breeding centers and protected areas.
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    Activity pattern of Transbaikal zokor( Myospalax psilurus) and its relationship with soil temperature and humidity
    Manduhu, YUAN Shuai, YANG Suwen, JI Yu, Chaoketu, WEI Jun, FU Heping, WU Xiaodong
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (4): 441-450.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150523
    Abstract1654)      PDF (2146KB)(2957)       Save
    The activity rhythm of animals is a comprehensive adaptation to environmental conditions.Subterranean rodents live in relatively low oxygen and dark environment all year round.How their activity rhythm and intensity are affected by soil temperature and humidity of their habitat, and whether there are gender differences, has received extensive attention.The influence of these factors can objectively reflect the long-term life-history strategies of subterranean rodents to adapt to their habitats.Transbaikal zokor ( Myospalax psilurus) is a dominant rodent species in the meadow steppe of northern China.It is very important to study the diurnal and seasonal activity intensity of zokor and their relationships with soil temperature and humidity for understanding its survival and reproductive strategies and ecological controlling factors.This study was conducted in May(spring), July(summer), and September(autumn) of 2016 and 2017 in the meadow grassland of Hulunbeier city, Inner Mongolia, China, using radio-tracking methods to monitor the diurnal and seasonal activity intensity of Transbaikal zokor.We analyzed the daily activity intensity and sex differences among zokor in different seasons, and the relationships between activity intensity and soil temperature and soil relative humidity were analyzed.The results showed that(1) the daily activity rhythm of zokor was unimodal.The activity peak appeared from night to morning in different seasons, and the duration of peak activity varied between seasons:12 hours in spring, 7 hours in summer and 6 hours in autumn.There was no significant difference in the daily and seasonal activity intensity between male and female individuals, which exhibited a high synchronization.(2) The activity intensity of zokor was significantly correlated with soil temperature( P<0.01).The activity intensity of zokor was highest when soil temperature was at 7℃-10℃(20:00 to 08:00 the next day) in spring, 17℃-22℃(20:00 to 03:00 the next day) in summer and 10℃-12℃(22:00 to 04:00 the next day) in autumn, and then gradually decreased with increasing soil temperature.There was no significant correlation between activity intensity and soil relative moisture.
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    Seed-hoarding preferences of rodents for cork oak( Quercus variabilis) and Henry's chestnut( Castanea henryi): testing the high-tannin hypothesis
    LI Yuan, SHEN Youbi, WANG Minghui, YI Xianfeng, WANG Zhenyu
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (3): 338-343.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150363
    Abstract1649)      PDF (1425KB)(2961)       Save
    Tannin in seeds particularly affects the feeding and hoarding strategies of rodents. The high tannin hypothesis suggests that rodents prefer to eat more low-tannin food but hoard more high-tannin food for later consumption. However, the question of whether the hoarding and eating preferences of sympatric rodent species follow the high tannin hypothesis still remains poorly understood. In order to further test the high-tannin hypothesis, we investigated the feeding and hoarding preferences of sympatric rodent species ( Leopoldamys edwardsi, Niveventer fulvescens, N. confucianus, Apodemus chevrieri, A. draco) on cork oak, Quercus variabilis and Henry's chestnut, Castanea henryi under enclosure condition in the Banruosi Experimental Forest in Dujiangyan City of Sichuan Province, Southwest China. Seeds of cork oak and Henry's chestnut show similar traits but varying tannin levels (11.7% versus 0.6%). The result showed that(1) the five sympatric rodents preferred to eat acorns of C. henryi rather than those of Q. variabili;2) larder hoarding N. fulvescens and N. confucianus preferred to larder-hoard C. henryi nuts;whereas scatter hoarding L. edwardsi and A. chevrieri tended to hoard C. henryi nuts;3) scatter hoarding A. draco which larder-hoard and scatter-hoard food preferred to scatter-hoard Q. variabili nuts and larder-hoard C. henryi nuts. These results failed to support the high-tanning hypothesis, indicating that seed-hoarding and eating preferences of sympatric rodents for seeds show interspecific differentiation, and do not necessarily follow the high tannin hypothesis.
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    Positional behavior of Assam macaque ( Macaca assamensis) living in the limestone forest of southwest Guangxi, China
    LIU Zheng, LIU Shengyuan, LI Youbang, HUANG Zhonghao
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (1): 12-23.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150543
    Abstract1646)   HTML321)    PDF (1650KB)(2381)       Save
    Positional behavior studies have vital importance for understanding the adaptation mechanism of primates to their habitat. To explore seasonal and daily variations of Assam macaques ( Macaca assamensis) positional behavior and the influence of food composition and ecological factors on this type of behavior, we collected positional behavioral data via instantaneous scan sampling method from September 2012 to August 2013 at Guangxi Nonggang National Nature Reserve, located in southwest China. The quadrupedal walking (45. 3% ±7. 6%) was observed as the most frequently used locomotion mode, followed by leaping (28. 8% ±4. 8%), climbing (23. 9% ±6. 2%), quadrupedal running (1. 2% ±0. 7%) and bridging (0. 9% ±0. 6%), with a significant difference. Locomotion modes varied significantly between seasons. Assam macaques used bridging more frequently in fruit-rich season but used climbing less during the fruit-lean season. However, the other modes of locomotion did not significantly vary in the different seasons. Assam macaques were documented to climb more often in the afternoon than during the morning period. There were also significant variations in the macaques' postures. Specifically, sitting (91. 7% ±4. 1%) was the dominant posture, followed by standing-forelimb suspending (4. 2% ±3. 3%), suspending (1. 9% ±1. 6%), quadrupedal standing (1. 4% ±1. 8%), and lying (0. 8% ±0. 5%). In addition, we observed a variety of significant different postures during different activities. For instance, sitting (87. 3% ±6. 1%) and standing-forelimb suspending (7. 9% ±5. 5%) was the dominant postural modes for feeding, sitting (95. 6% ±2. 8%) and lying (3. 1% ±2. 2%) was the dominant postural mode during the grooming behavior; and sitting (97. 1% ±1. 4%) and quadrupedal standing (2. 2% ±1. 1%) was the dominant postural modes observed during the resting periods. There was no significant seasonal variation in observations related to the different postures of this group of macaques. Lying and suspending posture were more frequently used in the morning (06:00-11:59) than during the afternoon (12:00-19:00). Nevertheless, diet and ecological factors were important parameters that affected the positional behavior of macaques. We established both model I (including fruits) and model II (including immature leaves) to test the effects of diet composition on the positional behavior of Assam macaques. These results provided evidence of the effects of diet and ecological factors on the positional behavior of Assam macaques. This study highlights the necessity to increase the knowledge of behavioral ecology and to understand the influence of ecological factors on the survival of Assam macaque in the limestone forest.
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    New records of bat species and their conservation status in Macao, China
    WANG Junhua, WONG Kai-Chin, CHEK Si-Nga, VU Ka-Man, CHAN Hoi-Hou, LIANG Jie, HE Xiangyang, ZHANG Libiao
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (1): 125-130.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150521
    Abstract1627)   HTML317)    PDF (23206KB)(2151)       Save
    Between 2013 and 2019, we surveyed the bats of Macao aiming to shed further light on the local bat diversity and to evaluate the bat population size. By undertaking a roost survey, and recording bat morphological characteristics and echolocation calls, we were able to identify bat species and estimate their population size. We identified six previously unrecorded species for Macao belonging to 5 genera and 3 families. The newly recorded bats were Rhinolophus affinis and R. sinicus (Rhinolophidae), Chaerephon plicatus (Molossidae), Tylonycteris fulvida, Scotophilus kuhlii, and Vespertilio sinensis (Vespertilionidae). Together with the previously recorded species, the diversity of bats in Macao now totals 16 species (11 genera, 5 families). We describe the distributions, morphological characteristics and echolocation calls of the six newly added bats species. Finally, the population and conservation status of the bats in Macao are also discussed.
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    Review on the systematic taxonomy of Dipodoidea in China
    CHENG Jilong, XIA Lin, WEN Zhixin, ZHANG Qian, GE Deyan, YANG Qisen
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (3): 275-283.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150531
    Abstract1626)      PDF (1737KB)(3204)       Save
    In recent years, with the development of molecular systematics and the further research on species diversity and taxonomy in desert areas, new cryptic species have been discovered continuously, and the taxonomic status of some taxa has also changed. China has the highest species diversity of Dipodoidea in the world. It has been confirmed that there are 3 families, 6 subfamilies, 12 genera and 22 species in China after taxonomic study of Dipodoidea. We proved that there is a fifth kind of brich mouse in China-Gray Brich Mouse, Sicista pseudonapaea. The previous genus Allactaga of the Allactaginae is a paraphyly; and it should be divided into three genera, Allactaga, Orientallactaga, and Scarturus. The genus names of Siberian Jerboa, Gobi Jerboa, and Balikun Jerboa were changed to Orientallactaga. The Small Five-toed Jerboa changed into the genus Scarturus, which was proved as a species group containing cryptic species. The distribution of Great Jerboa in China is doubtful. The previous subspecies deasyi of North Three-toed Jerboa was promoted to species status——Tarim Jerboa, D. deasyi. The results show that Dzungarian Three-toed Jerboa, Stylodipus sungorus is distributed in China. A new genus and species Chimaera Jerboa, Chimaerodipus auratus, was named in recent years in China.
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    Canine distemper and wildlife
    WU Qiaoxing, TANG Liubin, ZHU Qifeng, JIN Xuelin, JIN Yipeng
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (3): 261-274.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150456
    Abstract1623)      PDF (3717KB)(3180)       Save
    Canine distemper is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by canine distemper virus, outbreaks of this disease have occurred multiple times among domestic dogs and wildlife worldwide. Cross-species transmission of canine distemper has been threatening various wildlife populations severely such as Siberian tiger, African lion, snow leopard and giant panda. At the same time, the range of infectious hosts is still expanding. Recent studies showed that wildlife in China, especially populations in the wild, are facing serious threats from infection of canine distemper due to the constant variation of canine distemper virus and increase of stray dog population. In order to better cope with the hazard brought by canine distemper to wildlife, this study summarized the research progress on pathogenic characteristics, epidemiology, pathogenic mechanism, diagnosis and treatment of canine distemper in wildlife. Based on the above research, we proposed prevention and control measures aimed at canine distemper in wildlife from three aspects including source of infection, transmission route and susceptible animals. At present, due to the lack of scientific research and technology in nature reserves in China and the low awareness toward the risk of wildlife canine distemper transmission, little has been done in monitoring wildlife canine distemper, which undoubtedly increases the difficulty to its prevention and control. Therefore, in order to secure the existence of wildlife population in China, the research about wildlife canine distemper monitoring and epidemiology should be enhanced, establishing an effective monitoring and control system to protect wildlife population from canine distemper.
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