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    Catalogue of mammals in China(2021)
    WEI Fuwen, YANG Qisen, WU Yi, JIANG Xuelong, LIU Shaoying, LI Baoguo, YANG Guang, LI Ming, ZHOU Jiang, LI Song, HU Yibo, GE Deyan, LI Sheng, YU Wenhua, CHEN Bingyao, ZHANG Zejun, ZHOU Caiquan, WU Shibao, ZHANG Li, CHEN Zhongzheng, CHEN Shunde, DENG Huaiqing, JIANG Tinglei, ZHANG Libiao, SHI Hongyan, LU Xueli, LI Quan, LIU Zhu, CUI Yaqian, LI Yuchun
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 487-501.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150595
    Abstract1162)      PDF (1771KB)(1171)       Save
    China is one of the countries with the highest diversity of mammalian species. Knowledge of mammalian diversity and their taxonomy is fundamental to mammalian research and is the basis of scientific conservation of wild populations. To clarify the species diversity and important taxonomic information such as the taxonomic position of mammals in China, the China Mammalogical Society organized an editorial committee consisting of taxonomists studying different taxonomic groups. Based on previous taxonomic studies and the latest morphological and genetic evidences, the editorial committee produced the latest catalogue of mammalian species in China. This catalogue includes 12 orders, 59 families, 254 genera, and 686 species. The catalogue uses the taxonomy system based on phylogeny and fully discusses the validity of species taxonomy.
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    Taxonomic and systematic research progress of mammals in China
    YU Wenhua, HE Kai, FAN Pengfei, CHEN Bingyao, LI Sheng, LIU Shaoying, ZHOU Jiang, YANG Qisen, LI Ming, JIANG Xuelong, YANG Guang, WU Shibao, LU Xueli, HU Yibo, LI Baoguo, LI Yuchun, JIANG Tinglei, WEI Fuwen, WU Yi
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 502-524.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150535
    Abstract444)      PDF (3119KB)(214)       Save
    Rich mammalian diversity in China ranks it as one of the key groups in maintaining ecological function. Since Mr. John R. Reeves conducted the first mammalian survey in Guangdong, China, from 1829 to 1834, Chinese mammal taxonomic and systematic researches have made remarkable progress in the past 200 years. Presently, the number of mammal species in China has reached 686, representing about 10% of all mammals and making it one of the most diverse countries in mammal species in the world. As China attaches greater importance to ecological protection, the ecological environment is increasingly improved. Nevertheless, along with global climate change, increasing human activities and the emergence of major human-animal epidemics, the importance of mammal surveys and taxonomic clarification has become more apparent. Meanwhile, this traditional discipline is constantly incorporating state-of-art techniques, such as integrative taxonomy, digitization of specimens, type specimens sequencing technique, portable sequencing techniques and deep learning-based species identification, with the goals of verifying species identification, building proper taxonomic classifications, and promoting the application and transformation of taxonomic achievements to other discipline. Animal taxonomy, a traditional basic discipline, is also the basis for many branches in modern biology, such as genetics, physiology, ecology, medicine and pharmacology. However, due to distinct characteristics among disciplines, it has not received sufficient attention in recent years. It is thus necessary to value traditional taxonomy, morphology and other basic disciplines at the national level, and provide special policy and financial support on talent training and funding.
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    Research advances and perspectives of mammalogy in China in the past 40 years
    WANG Dehua, WEI Fuwen, ZHANG Zhibin, WANG Zuwang
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 483-486.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150602
    Abstract499)      PDF (1229KB)(288)       Save
    It has been 40 years since the establishment of the Branch of Mammalogical Society of China Zoology Society in 1980 and the official founding of the journal Acta Theriologica Sinica in 1981. Most areas of mammalogy experienced great and healthy developments in China, especially in taxonomy and phylogeny, population ecology, physiological ecology, behavioral ecology, conservation ecology, conservation genetics, molecular evolution, and habitats assessments. Here we invited 11 review papers to reveal the main advances of these areas in the past 40 years in China and proposed some potential developmental directions for the future. Based on the well developments of these areas, some new problems and areas such as diseases of wild mammals and their transmission ecology, the roles of mammals in the ecosystem under climate changing, conservation physiology, and conservation metagenomics are the research fields that should be enhanced.
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    Motile Sperm Separation and Sperm Capacitation in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)
    CHEN Yongchang CHEN Xuejin
      
    Abstract887)      PDF (81KB)(708)       Save
    Selection of fine quality rhesus monkeys'semen is needed for in vitro fertilization protocol, which is an important method for studying the biology of monkey reproduction. Semen was separated by the swim up and Percoll density gradient centrifugation methods, after which intact sperm rate, motility rate, concentration of sperm and fertility rate showed no great differences. Caffeine and dbcAMP were used during sperm capacitation, the result showed that rhesus oocyte can be fertilized when both caffeine and dbcAMP are added. The conclusion is that both caffeine and dbcAMP are necessary for inducing sperm capacitation, which affects the ability of sperm to bind to the zona and to undergo the acrosome reaction.
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    Marine mammal researches in China
    HAO Yujiang,WANG Kexiong,HAN Jiabo,ZHENG Jingsong,XIAN Yijie,YAO Zhiping,LU Zhichuang,LI Haiyan,ZHANG Xianfeng
      
    Abstract4371)      PDF (441KB)(2651)       Save
    Researchers in China have studied marine mammals for over 80 years. In recognition of Acta Theriologica Sinica’s
    30 year anniversary,we have reviewed the history of this research using an extensive published literature as well as our own research and experience,summarized its progress,and discuss future prospects. Marine mammals in this paper are divided into three groups:whales,pinnipeds,and other marine mammals. We have focused on research examining the ecology, rearing and breeding biology,conservation genetic,acoustics,and conservation biology for selected species. Two main points have been drawn from the review. First,Chinese research on marine mammals is at the forefront of some fields including research on rearing and breeding biology,c onservation biology,and bio-acoustics of river dolphin or porpoise. The second point,unfortunately,is that there is a lack of systematics studies on marine mammals in Chinese coastal waters. Finally, we expect to see significant breakthroughs and real progress on the protection of endangered species in the near future.
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    Research advances and prespectives in ethology and behavioral ecology of the mammals in China
    LI Baoguo, HOU Rong, ZHANG He, CHEN Guoliang, FANG Gu
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 525-536.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150529
    Abstract431)      PDF (2008KB)(154)       Save
    Ethology and behavioral ecology study the behavioral traits, behavior patterns and behavior mechanisms of animals, as well as the behavior strategies to adapt to environmental changes. Here, we briefly review some significant achievements of these two research fields over the past forty years in China by focusing specifically on mammalian taxa. The results indicate that more advanced technologies and methods have significantly improved the ways of data collection and experimental analysis over the past two decades. Chinese scholars have published many high-quality papers in international journals and books, which has narrowed the research gap between China and the developed nations. In particular, behavioral studies on the giant panda are playing a leading global role. Some other significant research achievements include those on interspecific interactions and behavioral adaptation mechanisms of rodents, primates' social behavior and adaptation mechanism of foraging strategy, and echolocation behaviors of bats. In contrast, behavioral studies on some groups, such as carnivores, ungulates, and marine mammals, are still lacking. The increasing national support on basic research, more high-level research bases and the growing number of scientists, as well as the application of interdisciplinary and advanced techniques, will facilitate the prosperous development of ethology and behavioral ecology in China.
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    Research advances and perspectives of conservation genomics and meta-genomics of threatened mammals in China
    WEI Fuwen, HUANG Guangping, FAN Huizhong, HU Yibo
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 581-590.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150518
    Abstract371)      PDF (1937KB)(127)       Save
    Understanding the evolutionary processes, endangered mechanisms and adaptive evolution are key scientific issues in conservation biology. During the past decades, advances in high-throughput sequencing and multi-disciplinary crossover provide deep insights into the evolutionary history, genetic structure, adaptive evolution, and host-microbiota coevolution of endangered species. The emergence of two new branches of conservation biology, Conservation Genomics and Conservation Metagenomics, provides novel insights into wildlife conservation. In this review, we summarize the important advances in the two fields and discuss the future research directions, aiming to promote the conservation biology of threa-tened animals in China.
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    Research advances and prepectives on habitat assessment and protection of endangered mammals of China
    JIANG Guangshun, LI Jingzhi
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 604-613.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150501
    Abstract387)      PDF (2121KB)(133)       Save
    At present, global, species are facing increasing extinction risk at an unprecedented rate. The effective assessment and scientific protection of wildlife habitat are important prerequisites and means to prevent endangered wildlife from extinction and maintain their sustainable survivals and development. This article summarizes the current status and achievements of research progress on habitat assessment and protection from five categories of endangered wildlife in China:carnivores, ungulates, primates, small mammals, and marine mammals. This article summarizes and analyzes related acade-mic achievements in order to reveal systematic and valuable methods and technical means for the scientific protection and management of habitats. This article also offers prospects for the theoretical and technical challenges of habitat assessment and protection research. It proposes that the habitat assessment and protection research of endangered mammals in China should move towards a ‘precise’ development direction of integration, quantification, intelligence, and multi-disciplinary cross-integration applications, to provide technical support for the effective implementation of national ecological construction projects.
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    ARCHITECTURE AND FUNCTION OF BADGER (MELES MELES) SETTS IN BASIN OF YI SHU, AND SI SHUI IN CHINA
    YE Xiaodi,MA Yong,WANG Hairun,Dong Anyu
      
    Abstract680)      PDF (121KB)(379)       Save
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    Mammal specimen collection in China
    WEI Fuwen
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 614-616.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150603
    Abstract369)      PDF (1017KB)(142)       Save
    China is rich in mammal diversity, with 12 orders, 59 families, 254 genera and 686 species. In the past 40 years, the number of mammal specimens in Chinese museums has increased rapidly. According to the newly published catalogue of mammals in China, 19 museums were investigated and a total of 166 178 mammal specimens are preserved. The top 5 museums, which accounted for 84.9% of all preserved specimens, are the Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences(CAS); Institute of Zoology, CAS; Sichuan Academy of Forestry Sciences; Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, CAS; and China West Normal University. Among the specimens in the 19 museums, small mammals accounted for 91.5%. Large- and medium-sized mammal specimens, especially cetaceans, are relatively low. The specimen collection and preservation of these groups should be increased in the future.
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    Research advances and perspectives of conservation genetics of threatened mammals in China
    WEI Fuwen, MA Tianxiao, HU Yibo
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 571-580.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150517
    Abstract357)      PDF (1840KB)(114)       Save
    China is one of the world's mega-diverse countries. There are diverse terrestrial and marine mammals in China, including endemic and flagship species like the giant panda, snub-nosed monkey, South China tiger, Milu, and Baiji. However, habitat loss and fragmentation, poaching, pollution, and climate change imposed direct threats to mammals' survival, which resulted in the genetic diversity loss of species. Genetic diversity is the basic component of biodiversity and affects the long-term survival of species and populations. Therefore, conservation genetics was established as an important branch subject of conservation biology, aiming to investigate the population genetic variation and genetic mechanisms of species endangerment and extinction. With rapid development in research techniques and methods, great progress has been made in China in the past 40 years in the evaluation of genetic diversity and inbreeding, landscape genetics, ecological genetics, and genetic management on threatened mammals. Meanwhile, the threats to mammals' survival caused by human activities still exist. The further development of new techniques, such as high-throughput sequencing, could deepen our understanding of the genetic adaptation and endangerment processes of threatened mammals, and lead to more effective management and conservation.
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    Research advances and prespectives in mammal physiological ecology in China
    WANG Dehua, ZHAO Zhijun, ZHANG Xueying, ZHANG Zhiqiang, XU Deli, XING Xin, YANG Shengmei, WANG Zhengkun, GAO Yunfang, YANG Ming
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 537-555.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150558
    Abstract383)      PDF (2869KB)(115)       Save
    After more than 70 years of development, mammalian physiological ecology in China has made great progress in the study of physiological adaptation of animals living in different geographical environments, such as the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Inner Mongolia Grassland, and the Hengduan Mountains. The main research topics include energy metabolism and body temperature regulation, hibernation physiology, water metabolism, ecological immunology, and the thermoregulatory role of gut microbiota. Some topics and areas still require more effort, such as physiological adaptation of mammals to extreme environments, large mammals physiology and conservation physiology. The new technologies need to be better integrated including the multi-omics technology, isotope technology, and remote sensing technology. This paper reviews the main advances of mammalian physiological ecology in China.
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    Research advances and perspectives on mammal population ecology in China
    BIAN Jianghui
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 556-570.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150500
    Abstract369)      PDF (2704KB)(130)       Save
    Mammal population ecology is key component of model ecology. Charles Sutherland Elton's 1924 article on periodic fluctuations in animal populations marked the beginning of modern population ecological research. What factors regulate population fluctuation has always puzzled ecologists and many hypotheses were put forward to explain mechanism underlying population fluctuation, but there is no one hypothesis that can perfectly explain its mechanism. The study of mammal population ecology in China began in the 1950s, and has gone through 70 years of development, and has made some important achievements. In this paper, we summarize research findings and progress in rodent and other mammal populations during the past 70 years on various aspects, including pattern of population dynamics, changes in demography, effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, and interaction of those factors. Meanwhile, future research directions are suggested.
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    Research advances and perspectives in the genetics and evolution of mammals in China
    YANG Guang, TIAN Ran, XU Shixia
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 591-603.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150538
    Abstract366)      PDF (2179KB)(125)       Save
    China has a rich resource of mammals, about 150 of which are endemic species. This review summarizes research on the evolutionary genetics of mammals in China for the past 60 years, including phylogenetic reconstruction, genetic diversity, population structure, adaptive evolution, and molecular mechanisms of convergent evolution. We especially focus on the significant research achievements in some key taxa such as Carnivora (giant panda and red panda), Ungulate, Chiroptera, Primates, small mammals, and marine mammals, providing useful information for the conservation of Chinese mammals. We also propose several suggestions for future studies on the evolution of Chinese mammals, including utilizing multi-omics technologies, screening new genetic markers and candidate genes or regulatory elements, integrating methods of epigenetics and evolutionary developmental biology. This review aims to help understand the taxonomy, origin, as well as the developmental and genetic mechanisms in specific phenotypes and unique adaptations of Chinese mammals, further realizing the new vision and conceptual framework of ‘Unity of Nature and Man’ in conservation biology.
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    Distribution pattern and zoogeographical division of mammals on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    HUANG Wei,XIA Lin,YANG Qisen,FENG Zuojian
      
    Abstract5111)      PDF (513KB)(2834)       Save
    The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is located in southwestern China. 250 species of mammals belonging to 10 orders and
    30 families have been recorded by the authors on the plateau. On the basis of comprehensive physical factors,the whole plateau was divided into 24 basic units identified as Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) for clustering. The information on mammals in each was used to compute composition similarity for the 24 OTU using Ward’s methods. Our study indicated that Palaearctic species were mainly distributed in Qiangtang and the northern plateau while the Oriental species were mainly distributed in southern Tibet and the Hengduan Mountains. The Palaearctic species in Qiangtang and the northern plateau comprised 88.6% of those on the whole plateau while the Oriental species in southern Tibet and the Hengduan Mountains comprised 97.7% . Based on clustering analysis and the landform on the plateau etc. , the zoogeographic distributions can be classified into fourth-level divisions. First,the zoogeographic distribution of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau can be divided into two first-level divisions with the linkage distance between 0.6219 and 1.0738. Second,the zoogeographic distribution of the whole plateau can be divided into four second-level divisions with the linkage distances between 0.5034 and 0.6219.
    Third, the zoogeographic distribution of the whole plateau can be divided into seven third-level divisions with the linkage distances between 0.2236 and 0.2684. Fourth,the zoogeographic distribution of the whole plateau can be divided into sixteen fourth-level divisions with the linkage distances between 0.0930 and 0.1245. Finally,according to the mammalian distribution and the evolution of the plateau,we discussed how the distribution pattern of the mammals in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau formed. It is suggested that the formation of the distribution pattern is closely related to the uplift of the plateau.
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    Research progress of bat biology and conservation strategies in China
    JIANG Tinglei, ZHAO Huabin, HE Biao, ZHANG Libiao, LUO Jinhong, LIU Ying, SUN Keping, YU Wenhua, WU Yi, FENG Jiang
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150430
    The application of infrared camera in mammal research in Guanyinshan Nature Reserve,Shaanxi
    WU Pengfeng,LIU Xuehua,CAI Qiong,HE Xiangbo,Melissa Songer,ZHU Yun,SHAO Xiaoming
      
    Abstract3401)      PDF (410KB)(1823)       Save
    Since July 2009,the total 18 cameras were installed in the Guanyinshan Nature Reserve (GNR),Shaanxi Province.During our 24 months’monitoring from August 2009 to July 2011,we have collected a total of 1 755 mammal photos.The results show (1)a total of 22 mammal species were photographed. The first 6 species selected for analysis based
    on a relative abundance index (RAI)were Budorcas taxicolor,Naemorhedus goral,Elaphodus cephalophus,Sus scrofa,Capricornis sumatraensis and Muntiacus reevesi;their total percentage reaches 86.04% . (2)The monthly RAI (MRAI)for the whole year varies among months. The greatest value of MRAI is acquired in July and the lowest in February. (3)Three of the six selected species demonstrated similar daily activity patterns,which has two peaks,one at dawn and one at dusk.The daily pattern of Naemorhedus goral also has two peaks,but they differe from those of the previous three species. The daily activity pattern of Sus scrofa shows a peak at noon and Capricornis sumatraensis was less active at the period of 10∶ 00- 16∶00. (4)The NRAI gave a clear indication of variation in nocturnality among the 6 species. Capricornis sumatraensis was most active at night and Sus scrofa was opposite.
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    Individual identification and population size assessment for Asian elephant based on camera-trapping techniques
    YANG Zicheng, CHEN Ying, LI Junsong, WANG Lifan, PIAO You, SONG Zhiyong, SHI Kun
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150109
    Advances in ecological research on the limestone langurs in China
    ZHOU Qihai, HUANG Chengming
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    2021, 41 (1): 59-70.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150422
    Abstract1160)      PDF (1892KB)(630)       Save
    Limestone hill is a unique habitat. Animals inhabiting limestone hills have evolved unique behavioral mechanisms to adapt to specific conditions. The limestone langurs of the genus Trachypithecus are rare and endangered primate species, restricted to the habitats characterized by Karst topography. There are seven allopatric taxa of limestone langurs:François' langur ( Trachypithecus francois), white-headed langur ( T. leucocephalus), Delacour's langur ( T. delacouri), Cat Ba langur ( T. policephalus), Hatinh langur ( T. hatinhensis), black langur ( T. ebenus), and Lao langur ( T. laotum).There are no systematic research on the ecology of limestone langurs, except for François' langurs and white-headed langurs in China. This paper reviews the research advances on the poulation, behavior ecology, and conservation of François' langurs and white-headed langurs in China. These efforts will improve our understanding of these species and provide important baseline information for the conservation of such rare and endangered species endemic to China. Further research should focus on the population history of limestone langurs, as well as the adaptive mechanisms in response to habitat fragmentation and climate change.
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    Present Status of Studies on Eco-Biology of Takin
    ZENG Zhigao ZHONG Wenqin SONG Yanling LI Junsheng ZHAO Leigang GONG Huisheng
      
    Abstract1035)      PDF (172KB)(438)       Save
    Takin ( Budorcas taxicolor) is a large ungulate belonging to the Bovidae. Taxonomically it is regarded as a special species between sheep and cattle. Four subspecies of the takin have been identified in the world and China holds the significant proportion for this species. Most research work on this species has been conducted in China by Chinese researchers since 1960s. In this review , major results of research on takin have been summarized in ten areas : geographical distribution , population size , habitat , seasonal movement , grouping behaviour , home range , daily activity rhythm , feeding habit , breeding , and defending behaviour.
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    Preliminary study on habitat suitability of snow leopard ( Panthera uncia) in central Tianshan Mountains
    MA Bing, PAN Guoliang, LI Leiguang, CHEN Ying, LI Yibin, LIU Yizheng, BALIKE·Jiekeyi, SUN Shiwei, SHI Kun
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    2021, 41 (1): 1-10.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150436
    Abstract1178)      PDF (9794KB)(584)       Save
    Habitat loss and fragmentation due to anthropogenic pressure have a detrimental impact on the long-term population viability of endangered species, especially for snow leopards ( Panthera uncia) inhabiting plateau mountains.To evaluate the potential distribution and habitat quality for snow leopards in the Tianshan Mountains, 78 snow leopard presence records were collected covering an area of 2 425 km 2 in central Tianshan Mountains from November 2018 to June 2019.Eight species distribution models of snow leopard habitat selection were simulated.The results indicated that topographic roughness and altitude were the major factors influencing snow leopard distribution in the study area.Snow leopards preferentially occur in areas with topographic roughness greater than 70 and at altitudes range from 1 700-2 900 m.Ensemble model prediction results indicated that suitable habitat is concentrated between the west of Usu City and Banfanggou.This study obtained the potential distribution area of snow leopards in central Tianshan Mountains and evaluated the influence of environmental factors on it based on field investigation and model analysis.The study provides valuable baseline knowledge in the context of transboundary snow leopard conservation in the Tianshan Mountains.
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    Habitat suitability assessment of the white-headed langur ( Trachy-pithecus leucocephalus) based on MaxEnt modeling: a case study of the Chongzuo White-Headed Langur Nature Reserve, Guangxi
    WU Manfei, HU Zhanbo, ZHOU Qihai, WU Jianbao
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    2021, 41 (1): 20-31.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150416
    Abstract1128)      PDF (34244KB)(533)       Save
    The study of relationships between species distribution patterns and environmental variables is of great significance to the planning of ecological corridors and environmental restoration.We collected 51 distribution points of Trachypithecus leucocephalus and 11 environmental variables in the National Nature Reserve of the white-headed langur in Chongzuo, Guangxi.This paper makes a comprehensive evaluation of habitat suitability by using maximum entropy modeling, which generated habitat suitability indices through threshold delimitation.We delimited low-suitability area, suitable area and highly-suitable area, which covered 5 061.43 km 2, 42.80 km 2 and 20.63 km 2 respectively.The analysis of environmental variables showed that the comprehensive contribution values of annual precipitation, land use classification, slope and annual average temperature were 54.6%, 17.4%, 11.8% and 9.5% respectively.The cumulative contribution value of those four environmental variables was 93.3%, suggesting that these factors had greatest effect on the distribution of white headed langurs.In order to effectively protect the white-headed langur and its habitat, we suggest planning ecological corridors within the reserve in order to expand the suitable habitat into the restoration area and promote intergroup gene exchange between the langurs.
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    Comparison of the Tibetan fox ( Vulpes ferrilata) home range size using methods the fixed kernel estimation and the minimum convex polygon
    LIU Xiaoqing,WANG Xiaoming,WANG Zhenghuan,LIU Qunxiu,MA Bo
      
    Abstract2325)      PDF (861KB)(2265)       Save
    The minimum convex polygon (MCP)and the fixed kernel estimator (FKE)are the two methods most used for
    home range estimation. However,because of the problems like spatial data dependence and extreme data points,the usage of these two methods is limited. In this paper,we attempted to analyze and compare the results from these two methods, and discuss how to avoid the disadvantages of each method to make the home range estimation more accurate. We documented 352 locations of 7 adult Tibetan foxes (Vulpes ferrilata) in Shiqu County,Sichuan Province and Dulan County,Qinghai Province during 2006 and 2007. Both MCP and FKE were used to calculate the home range. We found:(1)when the utility probability percentage was set ≤95% ,the difference of the home range size calculated by these two methods had no significant difference;(2)although FKE was more robust than MCP,extreme data points influenced the calculation of both the two methods in higher utilization probability percentage (i. e.,85% - 100% ); (3)home range size calculated by FKE was influenced significantly by the setting of smoothing parameter h which could be determined arbitrarily and the least squares cross validation did not always provide the best evaluation of h. We recommended that both of the FKE and 95% MCP should be used in the same home range study. FKE can be the better home range estimator when the autocorrelation of data spatial distribution is not significant. However,95% MCP can be the only choice especially when the comparison of the results from different telemetry studies is needed.
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    MECHANISMS AND THE EVOLUTION OF FEMALE MULTIPLE MATING BEHAVIOR
    LIU Xiaoming LI Ming WEI Fuwen
      
    Abstract795)      PDF (163KB)(412)       Save
    Females cannot produce more offspring than the number of their eggs. herefore, from the theoretical perspective, one or a few matings are sufficient for females to fertilize all eggs and maximize their potential reproductive abilities for one estrus period. Contrary to the prediction, however, females of many animal species often mate multiply with a single male or more males. Because mating often carries relatively high cost, it is difficult to understand why females mate multiply. Adaptive and non-adaptive hypotheses to explaining female multiple mating are reviewed in the paper. Adaptive hypotheses are separated into two parts: obtaining both direct benefits and 'indirect (genetic) benefits' from mating partners. Direct benefits may take the form of courtship feeding , nuptial gifts, fertilization assurance, paternal care, stimulation of reproduction and female of guarding of mating right with males. Specifically, this review emphasizes on discussing the three hypotheses on genetic benefits, i. e. 1 acquisition of good genes, increased genetic diversity within clutches, and genetic compatibility. Two non-adaptive hypotheses such as the genetic related and compliance with male behavior are also discussed.
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    Seasonal changes of the activity patterns of Brandt,s vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii) in the typical steppe in Inner Mongolia
    WAN Xinrong,LIU Wei,WANG Guanghe,WANG Mengjun,ZHONG Wenqin
      
    Abstract1132)      PDF (409KB)(432)       Save
    Capture-recapture, hair-dying, and direct sighting techniques were conducted on the field population of Brandt's vole ( Lasiopodomys brandtii) in typical steppe in Inner Mongolia. Four activity indices (daily-discrepancy index θ,diurnal-nocturnal index λ,peak-type index, absolute-active index η)were used to analysis the seasonal changes of the activity patterns of voles. Result show that the diurnal-nocturnal index (λ)of voles is higher than 0.542 through out the year which suggest the vole is a typical diurnal animal. The seasonal change of activity patterns is related to the environmental temperature. In January, February, March, April, November, and December, as the environmental temperature is low, the activity patterns of the Brandt's vole exhibit a single-peak feature. On the contrary, in May, June, and July, as the environmental temperature is high, the activity patterns possess a double-peak feature. Furthermore, the activity types of August, September, and October are between the single-peak and double-peak. There is a significant positive correlation between the peak-type index and the mean temperature ( r= 0.89, n = 12, P < 0,05). Moreover, the absolute-active index η is also apparently correlated with the environmental temperature ( r=0. 94, n=12, P< 0.05). From May to September, the daily active time of the Brandt's vole is more than 6 hours. In cold season, however, the daily active time of Brandt's vole is highly reduced. In January and February, the average daily active time on the ground is not more than one minute. Additional lab experiments show that the Brandt's vole is able to be active in dark. However, the night activity is seldom happened in the field population.
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    The relative role of climate, land-use and spatial structure on spatial distribution pattern of species richness of large and medium mammals sympatric with giant pandas
    LI Dan, WANG Xiaojun, ZHAO Xuzhe, ZHOU Hong, HONG Mingsheng, WEI Wei, HAN Han, TANG Junfeng, ZHANG Zejun
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (4): 377-387.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150512
    Abstract219)      PDF (4487KB)(407)       Save
    Climate and land-use are recognized as the two main driving factors of biodiversity distribution patterns.However, most studies on the effects of climate and land-use have primarily focused on the species level, while their role on community diversity remains poorly understood.In this paper, combining species richness, climate and, land-use data as well as latitude and longitude data, we investigated the relative importance of climate, land-use, and spatial structure vari-ables on the species richness of large and medium mammals sympatric with giant pandas by using model comparison and variation partitioning.Our results show that(1) the number of genera and species of large and medium mammals differs in the five mountains of Sichuan Province.Minshan mountain has the highest number of genera(25) and species(28), while Liangshan mountain has the lowest number of genera(19) and species(20).The top five dominant species in the five mountains are the giant panda, takin, wild boar, Chinese goral, and Chinese serow.(2) We observed high spatial variation in species richness of large and medium mammals sympatric with giant pandas.The number of species in all 10×10 km grids ranged from 1 to 14, with an average of 6.199±3.475.(3) The full model(including all the climatic, land-use, and spatial structure variables, CLS) performed significantly better than all other six models, and the models including land-use covariates performed significantly better than those not including land-use covariates.(4) Climatic, land-use, and spatial structure variables together explained 43.0% of the variation in species richness, among which land-use variables accounted for the largest proportion, explaining 23.0% of the variation in species richness.Climatic and spatial variables explained only 6.3% and 9.3% of the variation in species richness, respectively.These findings indicated that the species richness of large and medium mammals sympatric with giant pandas was predominantly determined by land-use factors.Therefore, good forest stewardship to reduce anthropogenic threats and increase forest cover is the key to achieve comprehensive protection of large and medium mammals sympatric with giant pandas.
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    ON THE GEOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION TAXONOMIC STATUS OF SPECIES AND EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF SIKA DEER IN CHINA
    QUO Yanshu , ZHENQ Huizhen
      
    Abstract1410)      PDF (506KB)(710)       Save
    In early Pleistocene, sika deer was only found in north China region and Taiwan; in middle pleistocene to holocence it extended to northeast region the east of Mongolia-Xinkian region the central China region the south China region, the east of southwest region and Qinghai-Tibet region. There is only one species ( Cervus nippon) in the east Asia from early pleistocene to holocene. It is devided into nine subspecies in China (C. n. sintikuensis, C. n. taicxuanus, C. n.grayi,C. n .hortulorum,C. n .mandarinu, C. n. grassianus,C. n. sinchuanrinus, C. n . kopschi C. n . pseudxis). Sika deer whose home is on the edge of the forest has better adaptabililty. Its distribution regions are abruptly shrinking with the continuous rising of Qinghai-Tibet plateau and man’s action after ice age. Now, there are only 1500 wild sika deers in China. It is discussed evolutionary history of sika deer yet.
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    Investigation on the population of wild Bengal tiger ( Panthera tigris tigris) in Medog, Tibet
    WANG Yuan1, LIU Wulin1, LIU Feng, LI Sheng, ZHU Xuelin, JIANG Zhigang, FENG Limin,, LI Bingzhang
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150265
    INFLUENCING FACTORS ON BASAL METABOLIC RATE IN MAMMALS
    SONG Zhigang WANG Dehua
      
    Abstract762)      PDF (103KB)(458)       Save
    The factors influencing basal metabolic rate (BMR) of mammals were reviewed. They include body size ,phylogeny , food habits , climate , season , habits and activities , and reproduction. They also include sub-organism characteristics such as hormone , active organs , mitochondrial density and proton leak. The possible mechanisms were analysed as well.
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    STRANDING OF AN INDO-PACIFIC HUMP-BACKED DOLPHIN ON A SANDBANK IN THE YANGTZE RIVER
    ZHOU Kaiya, GAO Anli, XU Xinrong
      
    Abstract705)      PDF (168KB)(321)       Save
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