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    Population size and distribution of western black crested gibbon ( Nomascus concolor) in Ailao Mountain, Chuxiong Prefecture, Yunnan Province
    LI Genhui, QIN Zhongyi, LU Lixiong, GAO Wenjun, LUO Wenfu, LI Han, LI Yuwu, YIN Cunquan, XU Ping, YIN Guanghua, LI Fabao, NIU Xiaowei, JIANG Xuelong
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2023, 43 (5): 513-522.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150749
    Abstract425)   HTML10)    PDF (5140KB)(1055)       Save
    From November to December 2020, we conducted the second field survey on the population and distribution of the western black crested gibbon ( Nomascus concolor) in Ailao Mountain, Chuxiong Prefecture, Yunnan by interviews and loud morning calls counting method. The survey recorded 61 groups and 14 individuals of western black crested gibbon, a total of about 270 individuals in the National Nature Reserve and its surrounding state forest areas. The gibbon population was mainly found (59 groups and 13 individuals) from the central part of Chuxiong City to the south part of Shuangbai County, while from the central to the north part of Nanhua County it was represented by a small isolated population (two groups and one individual). Compared with the previous survey in 2005, the population of the western black crested gibbon in Ailao Mountains, Chuxiong Prefecture increased significantly but still facing threats from population isolation and human disturbance such as grazing by cattle and goats. According to the current population and distribution pattern, we propose to conduct long-term population dynamic monitoring for concentrated populations, regular and irregular patrolling for isolated and marginal distributed groups, habitat assessment and restoration, and assign the groups in state forests managed by national nature reserve management and protection bureau for protection and conservation of western black crested gibbons in Ailao Mountains, Chuxiong Prefecture, Yunnan.
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    Human-large mammals conflicts:A new challenge of wildlife conservation
    CAI Jing,JIANG Zhigang
    Abstract1644)      PDF (357KB)(2448)       Save
    Human-mammals conflict has become a problem worldwide. It not only brings damage to those people who live near the wildlife,but also causes problems to the conservation for wildlife. Main species causing problems include the wildelephants in Africa and Asia,the deer in North America and most of the large and median sized carnivores worldwide. The factors causing human and large mammals conflicts include the human population increases,wildlife habitat losses,change of land use pattern and wildlife population growth after effective implementation of conservation measures. Quite often several factors are involved in the human-large mammals conflicts. To resolve this problem,the government should enhance the management of large mammals and try to reduce the damage caused by those wild animals. On the other hand,the government
    should care the indigenous communities that are near the nature reserves and to help to develop the local economy while raising conservation awareness in the indigenous communities.
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    Advances in reproductive isolation mechanisms during animal speciation
    ZHANG Yuxing, WU Hong, YU Li
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2023, 43 (6): 627-643.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150838
    Abstract70)   HTML1)    PDF (4322KB)(84)       Save
    The process of speciation and its mechanism is not only the‘mystery of mysteries’of Darwin, but also a key to understanding the biological diversity in nature, and it is also one of the scientific focuses in the field of evolutionary biology. Speciation refers to the evolutionary process in which a new species diverges from its ancestors, and it is also the process of reproductive isolation or barrier establishment among populations. The exploration and revelation of this process and its inherent genetic mechanism are the key to understanding the phenomenon of biodiversity. By focusing on animal groups, this review systematically describes the ways of reproductive isolation establishment and their molecular mechanisms, then discusses the bottlenecks, challenges and potential opportunities faced by current research on animal reproductive isolations, with a view to providing reference and inspiration for subsequent research on animal speciation.
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    KONG Linglu, LAN Minjian, YANG Shikui, YANG Zhiyong, DENG Yinghong
    Abstract1277)      PDF (158KB)(1787)       Save
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    Marine mammal researches in China
    HAO Yujiang,WANG Kexiong,HAN Jiabo,ZHENG Jingsong,XIAN Yijie,YAO Zhiping,LU Zhichuang,LI Haiyan,ZHANG Xianfeng
    Abstract7766)      PDF (441KB)(5034)       Save
    Researchers in China have studied marine mammals for over 80 years. In recognition of Acta Theriologica Sinica’s
    30 year anniversary,we have reviewed the history of this research using an extensive published literature as well as our own research and experience,summarized its progress,and discuss future prospects. Marine mammals in this paper are divided into three groups:whales,pinnipeds,and other marine mammals. We have focused on research examining the ecology, rearing and breeding biology,conservation genetic,acoustics,and conservation biology for selected species. Two main points have been drawn from the review. First,Chinese research on marine mammals is at the forefront of some fields including research on rearing and breeding biology,c onservation biology,and bio-acoustics of river dolphin or porpoise. The second point,unfortunately,is that there is a lack of systematics studies on marine mammals in Chinese coastal waters. Finally, we expect to see significant breakthroughs and real progress on the protection of endangered species in the near future.
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    Catalogue of mammals in China(2021)
    WEI Fuwen, YANG Qisen, WU Yi, JIANG Xuelong, LIU Shaoying, LI Baoguo, YANG Guang, LI Ming, ZHOU Jiang, LI Song, HU Yibo, GE Deyan, LI Sheng, YU Wenhua, CHEN Bingyao, ZHANG Zejun, ZHOU Caiquan, WU Shibao, ZHANG Li, CHEN Zhongzheng, CHEN Shunde, DENG Huaiqing, JIANG Tinglei, ZHANG Libiao, SHI Hongyan, LU Xueli, LI Quan, LIU Zhu, CUI Yaqian, LI Yuchun
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 487-501.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150595
    Abstract12166)      PDF (1771KB)(6619)       Save
    China is one of the countries with the highest diversity of mammalian species. Knowledge of mammalian diversity and their taxonomy is fundamental to mammalian research and is the basis of scientific conservation of wild populations. To clarify the species diversity and important taxonomic information such as the taxonomic position of mammals in China, the China Mammalogical Society organized an editorial committee consisting of taxonomists studying different taxonomic groups. Based on previous taxonomic studies and the latest morphological and genetic evidences, the editorial committee produced the latest catalogue of mammalian species in China. This catalogue includes 12 orders, 59 families, 254 genera, and 686 species. The catalogue uses the taxonomy system based on phylogeny and fully discusses the validity of species taxonomy.
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    The current distribution and prediction of suitable habitat of Eurasian lynx ( Lynx lynx) in China
    LIU Ke, LIU Yanlin, LI Sheng
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2023, 43 (6): 652-663.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150801
    Abstract324)   HTML0)    PDF (11663KB)(191)       Save
    Eurasian lynx ( Lynx lynx) is widely distributed in northern Eurasia and, is one of the top predators in arid and semi-arid ecosystems in China and plays a significant role in maintaining ecosystem balance. Since the mid-20th century, the Eurasian lynx in China has experienced dramatic population decline and range contraction. However, our knowledge on its distribution status and dynamics is still very limited, which is a critical obstacle to developing specific conservation planning and action. To determine the current distribution of Eurasian lynx in China, we conducted a comprehensive search from multiple sources, including camera-trapping datasets, literature databases, and news reports, on the occurrence records of this species in China from 2010 to 2022. A total of 155 confirmed occurrence records of Eurasian lynx were obtained and were used to construct a species distribution model to predict its suitable habitat across China using MaxEnt with 24 environmental variables of 4 categories. The results showed that Eurasian lynx is currently distributed in 9 provinces, among which Neimenggu has the most occurrence records ( n = 28). The result of cluster analysis showed that these occurrence sites could be grouped into three distinct spatial clusters: northeast, northwest, and southwest China. The averaged model AICc was the lowest when the regularization multiplier (RM) was 4 for the MaxEnt model and the mean AUC of the 10 candidate models was 0.814, indicating good performance of model prediction. The total area of the model predicted suitable habitat in China is 328.74×10 4 km 2, mainly located in northern Heilongjiang, northeastern Neimenggu, northwestern Sichuan, eastern Xizang, Altai, Tianshan and Kunlun Mountains in Xinjiang, and the Qilian Mountains along the border of Qinghai and Gansu. Annual mean temperature, precipitation of driest month and land cover type were the most important factors affecting the habitat suitability of Eurasian lynx in China. Compared to the species range map provided by IUCN, the Tianshan-Altai Mountain Region, northeastern Neimenggu, parts of western Sichuan, and the Qilian Mountains were probably omitted during the IUCN species assessment, and further studies are urgently needed to examine the population and distribution status of Eurasian lynx in these regions.
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    Transcriptomics analysis of lungs in yaks breeding at different altitudes
    FU Fang, GUAN Jiuqiang, QU Xiulong, WANG Li, LUO Xiaolin, AN Tianwu, ZHANG Xiangfei
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2020, 40 (5): 475-484.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150414
    Abstract1893)      PDF (5974KB)(2659)       Save
    This study was aimed to explore the characteristics and regularity of gene expression of yaks adapting to high-altitude hypoxic environment. Transcriptome sequencing was performed in 2.5-3-year-old healthy male Maiwa yaks bred at high and low altitudes for 4 months. The average altitudes were 3 560 m and 478 m, respectively. Lungs of yaks were sequenced by RNA-Seq technology using Illumina II High-throughput Sequencing Platform (HiSeqTM 2500/4000). Then, the expressions of differentially expressed genes in lungs of yaks were verified by qRT-PCR. The results indicated that there were approximately 576, 610 million Clean Reads in lung transcriptome of yaks bred in high and low altitudes, respectively. The numbers of reads mapped to the reference genome accounted for more than 91.74% and 91.28% percentages, respectively. And 2 047 new transcripts were discovered in lung RNA-Seq. There were 199 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the two test groups, including 89 up-regulated DEGs and 110 down-regulated DEGs. The differentially expressed genes were enriched in 297 GO terms and 146 KEGG pathways, which contained 62 GO terms and 35 KEGG pathways related to hypoxic adaptation. The cell adhesion, protein complex and calcium ion binding were the largest proportions of biological processes, cellular component and molecular function in hypoxia-related GO terms. Meanwhile, TNF signaling pathway were the largest proportion of KEGG pathways related to hypoxia, followed by HIF-1 signaling pathway. In addition, qRT-PCR results showed that the expressions of HLA-DOA, HLA-DRA, C2 and MASP1 were consistent with those of RNA-Seq. This study will benefit for a global and in-depth understanding of gene expression of yak lung response to high altitude hypoxia.
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    Studies on Destruction , Prevention and Control of Plateau Pikas in Kobresia pygmaea Meadow
    LIU Wei WANG Xi ZHOU Li ZHOU Huakun
    Abstract1238)      PDF (169KB)(1777)       Save
    This paper studied effects of various plateau pika population sizes in different levels of degraded grasslands , planted grassland and weeds control treatment , and analyzed the response of plateau pikas to environmental changes.The results indicated that plateau pika population sizes increased with the degrees of grassland deterioration1 Population sizes of plateau pika were relative low in heavily degraded grassland because of limited food resource. Population sizes show significant differences among different treatments of non-degraded grassland (NDG) , lightly degraded grassland (LDG) , moderately degraded grassland (MDG) , and heavily degraded grassland (HDG) , i.e. , ( t NDG- LDG = 25.369 7 , t NDG- MDG = 25.55 , t NDG- HDG = 36.406 0 , t LDG- MDG =23.279 4 , t LDG- HDG = 14.343 9 , and t MDG- HDG = 20.178 5 , df = 3 , P < 0.001) . Areas destroyed by plateau pikas had significantly positive correlation with area per hollow ( F = 220.46 , df = 3 , P < 0.001) . Before grassland became heavily degraded grassland , the degree of degradation aggravate when population sizes increased. The changes of the spatial structure of plant community could cause the changes of population sizes of plateau pika. Population sizes were decreased when height and coverage of plant community were reduced.
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    XIA Jingshi
    Abstract1752)      PDF (588KB)(2355)       Save
    This paper deals with the historical conditions of Mi-lu ( Elaphurus davidianus) which has been stamped out in China since the end of the 19th century. The author has studied a nmber of records and narratives on Mi-lu from Chinese ancient books and holds the following views:1. Mi-lu existed in China widely in ancient times, sometimes a herd of thousands could be found in wild. It still existed in the Ming and Qing Dynasties.2. The distribution range of Mi-lu extended to the centre and south of Shaanxi, east of Sichuan, north of Hunan and Jiangxi in the old days.3. 22 Mi-lu have been returned to China from England and 20 of them were sent to Nanhaizi of Peking and the other two were sent to Shanghai Zoo in 1985.4 . Meat of Mi-lu is edible, its oil and young pilose antler as well as antler are one of the traditional Chinese medicines.
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    WEI Fuwen 1, XU Guangzan 1, HU Jinchu 1, LI Pei 2
    Abstract1325)      PDF (1577KB)(1920)       Save
    This paper reports the age determination methods for giant panda. The results are as follows:Having studied the incisor sections of known-age panda specimens,we find their age in years corresponds to the number of cementum annuli. The true age of a panda can be obtained by adding one to the number of cementum annuli,as the incisors drop away after they are one-year-old.Having studied the wear of molars we find the older the panda is, the more the molars wear. According to the wear of molars and skull growth we can divide the panda into six age classes: 0-2 years old, 3-4,5-9,10-14,15-19 and 20-26. It's more convenient to determine approximate age in the field by age classes without sectioning the incisors.
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    History,current situation and prospects on nature reserves for giant pandas ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in China
    HU Jinchu,ZHANG Zejun ,WEI Fuwen
    Abstract9114)      PDF (190KB)(4821)       Save
    The giant panda,a tribute to emperors in ancient China,is an endemic species and regarded as a modern national
    treasure. Contributing to extensive illegal hunting,it has become endangered before liberation. During 1950s,Chinese
    government initiated the establishment of nature reserves to conserve wildlife and their habitats,and in 1960s,five reserves,
    including Wolong,Wanglang,Baihe,Labahe and Taibaishan,were established for the giant panda. Seven more
    reserves were established in 1970s,based on the first national ground survey for the giant panda,and the reserves for the
    species summed up to thirteen. The second national ground survey (1985 - 1988)indicated that the population of wild giant
    pandas was decreased as much as 54% . In 1990s,the total of panda reserves was increased to 36,and by now,there
    have been 63 reserves established to protect giant pandas and their habitats,covering about 85% of the remaining habitats
    and 50% of individuals. The extant population was estimated about 2000,sparsely distributed in remote western mountane
    ranges in China. Chinese government has developed many in-situ and ex-site conservation strategies to conserve the animal
    by now. Giant pandas should deserve a promising future.
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    Abstract755)      PDF (309KB)(1465)       Save
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    Taxonomic and systematic research progress of mammals in China
    YU Wenhua, HE Kai, FAN Pengfei, CHEN Bingyao, LI Sheng, LIU Shaoying, ZHOU Jiang, YANG Qisen, LI Ming, JIANG Xuelong, YANG Guang, WU Shibao, LU Xueli, HU Yibo, LI Baoguo, LI Yuchun, JIANG Tinglei, WEI Fuwen, WU Yi
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 502-524.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150535
    Abstract2668)      PDF (3119KB)(3446)       Save
    Rich mammalian diversity in China ranks it as one of the key groups in maintaining ecological function. Since Mr. John R. Reeves conducted the first mammalian survey in Guangdong, China, from 1829 to 1834, Chinese mammal taxonomic and systematic researches have made remarkable progress in the past 200 years. Presently, the number of mammal species in China has reached 686, representing about 10% of all mammals and making it one of the most diverse countries in mammal species in the world. As China attaches greater importance to ecological protection, the ecological environment is increasingly improved. Nevertheless, along with global climate change, increasing human activities and the emergence of major human-animal epidemics, the importance of mammal surveys and taxonomic clarification has become more apparent. Meanwhile, this traditional discipline is constantly incorporating state-of-art techniques, such as integrative taxonomy, digitization of specimens, type specimens sequencing technique, portable sequencing techniques and deep learning-based species identification, with the goals of verifying species identification, building proper taxonomic classifications, and promoting the application and transformation of taxonomic achievements to other discipline. Animal taxonomy, a traditional basic discipline, is also the basis for many branches in modern biology, such as genetics, physiology, ecology, medicine and pharmacology. However, due to distinct characteristics among disciplines, it has not received sufficient attention in recent years. It is thus necessary to value traditional taxonomy, morphology and other basic disciplines at the national level, and provide special policy and financial support on talent training and funding.
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    Research progress in conservation biology of endangered mammals in China
    Wei Fuwen
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2016, 36 (3): 255-.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201603001
    Abstract4324)      PDF (1562KB)(4767)       Save
    Research progress achieved by Chinese scientists in conservation biology of endangered mammals (e.g. Carnivores, primates, ungulates and cetaceans) from 2010-2015 was reviewed. These researches are mainly related to different branches of the conservation biology, such as evolutionary biology, ecology, behavior, physiology, genetics, genomics and meta-genomics, as well as policy and practices. The remarkable research achievements have been made in Conservation Biology of endangered mammals in China, especially for giant pandas and golden monkeys. Evidence from multidisciplinary researches indicated that the giant panda is not an evolutionary cul-de-sac, remaining evolutionary potential. Although the panda is facing environmental problems such as habitat fragmentations, its population is growing and available habitat is expanding. It turned out that its Red List Category could be downlisted from
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    LIU Xiaoming LI Ming WEI Fuwen
    Abstract1971)      PDF (163KB)(1934)       Save
    Females cannot produce more offspring than the number of their eggs. herefore, from the theoretical perspective, one or a few matings are sufficient for females to fertilize all eggs and maximize their potential reproductive abilities for one estrus period. Contrary to the prediction, however, females of many animal species often mate multiply with a single male or more males. Because mating often carries relatively high cost, it is difficult to understand why females mate multiply. Adaptive and non-adaptive hypotheses to explaining female multiple mating are reviewed in the paper. Adaptive hypotheses are separated into two parts: obtaining both direct benefits and 'indirect (genetic) benefits' from mating partners. Direct benefits may take the form of courtship feeding , nuptial gifts, fertilization assurance, paternal care, stimulation of reproduction and female of guarding of mating right with males. Specifically, this review emphasizes on discussing the three hypotheses on genetic benefits, i. e. 1 acquisition of good genes, increased genetic diversity within clutches, and genetic compatibility. Two non-adaptive hypotheses such as the genetic related and compliance with male behavior are also discussed.
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    Distribution of suitable habitat for ungulates in Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve, Guizhou Province
    MENG Bingshun, HUANG Xiaolong, XIE Bo, WANG Weixi, HUANG Jichi, ZHANG Tao, RAN Jingcheng, ZHANG Mingming
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2023, 43 (6): 664-675.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150756
    Abstract90)   HTML0)    PDF (20894KB)(179)       Save
    The spatial distribution of species and habitat suitability play an important role in the research on interspecific relationships, as well as research on relationships between species and environment. We evaluated and predicted the suitable habitats of four ungulates, Elaphodus cephalophus, Muntiacus reevesi, Pricornis milneedwardsii and Sus scrofa, distributed in Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve. Species occurrence data was based on the monitoring data by infrared cameras deployed in the study area from 2017 to 2022 and we used MaxEnt to model the suitable habitat for each species. The results showed that (1) the suitable habitats for Elaphodus cephalophus were mainly distributed in the eastern part of the reserve, covering an area of 19 993.17 hm 2, accounting for 46.1% of the protected area. The suitable habitats for Muntiacus reevesi covered an area of 15 470.97 hm 2 ( 35.6% of the protected area), distributed in the northern and southern parts of the reserve. The suitable habitats for Capricornis milneedwardsii were mainly distributed in the northern and eastern parts of the reserve, covering an area of 13 884.78 hm 2 (32.0% of the protected area), and the suitable habitats for Sus scrofa covered an area of 20 339.98 hm 2 (46.9% of the protected area), mainly distributed in the northern, eastern and southern parts of the reserve. (2) The suitable habitats of all four ungulates were mainly distributed in the core area of Fanjingshan Reserve. (3) The distribution of Elaphodus cephalophus was mainly influenced by altitude and vegetation type and the distribution of Capricornis milneedwardsii was mainly influenced by altitude, mean diurnal air temperature range and vegetation type. The characteristics of suitable habitats for Muntiacus reevesi and Sus scrofa were relatively similar, affected by mean diurnal air temperature range, isothermality and slope. In general, the distribution of suitable habitats for these four ungulates in Fanjingshan Reserve was the result of the interaction among the biological properties of species, natural environment, human activities and interspecific relationships. These results provide some insight into habitat suitability characteristics and influencing factors of ungulates in Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve.
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    Coprophagy in Herbivorous Small Mammals
    LIU Quansheng WANG Dehua
    Abstract1982)      PDF (163KB)(1808)       Save
    Coprophagy is widespread among small-and medium-sized mammalian herbivores. These animals have a colonic separation mechanism , by which they can form two kinds of feces. Coprophagy provides another avenue for some species to recover nutrients , vitamins , microbial proteins and short chain fatty acids which produced in the hindgut. The digestibility of high fibre food is improved by caecotrophy. The daily rhythm of reingestion is the result of trade-off between the risk of feeding and coprophagy. The ingestion of soft feces is more strongly related to diet than to taxonomic association. This paper reviewed the coprophagy and its evolutionary and nutritional significance in herbivorous small mammals.
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    Tai Fadao,Wang Tingzheng,Zhao Yajun
    Abstract1526)      PDF (145KB)(1146)       Save
    According to the study on the reproduction of mandarin voles aised in laboratory, the results showed that: through observing vagina smear and appearance of vagina, it is found that the adult female induced by male had obvious estrous cycle. The mean gestational period of female vole is about 21.11±0.11 days and mean litter size is 3.43 ±0.18. If several litters were continiously reproduced by adult female, mean interval between the second and first litter was longer. If the pairs that the female and male were captured in same hole were compared with pairs that the female and male were unfamiliar, we could find that the mean interval between reproductions of the former was longer than the later and the mean survival offsprings and percent of pairs producing litters were less than the later. Thus,familiarity, kin recognition and inbreedingavoidance may play important roles in vole population breeding.
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    A preliminary study of wolverine in Altay, Xinjiang
    LIU Xu, MA Ming, XU Fujun, XIONG Jiawu, Zhu Shibing, CUI Shaopeng, JIANG Zhigang, ZHANG Tong, GUO Hong, ERBOLAT Tuoliuhan
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2018, 38 (5): 519-524.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150161
    Abstract1877)      PDF (7555KB)(2950)       Save
    Wolverine ( Gulo gulo) distribution in China is small, being found only in the Great Khingan Mountains, northeast China and the Altay Mountains, northwest China. It had been category Ⅰstate key protected wild animals because of the rarely population. Some studies of wolverines have been done in the Great Khingan Mountains but few in the Altay Mountains. In 2013-2016, we surveyed six chosen ranges to estimate the population size and density of wolverine in the Altay Mountains using a line transect method, a trace method, a questionnaire survey and infrared cameras. As a result, we directly observed and captured wolverines in Kaba, Burjin (Kanas Nature Reserve), Altai (Xiao donggou), Fuyun (Kurmut), Qinghe (Qinggil River). The population size in Altay Mountains was estimated approximately to be 97-166 individuals, from which the density was estimated to be 2.57-4.39 individuals/ 1000 km2. This scarce population may be related to grazing pressure, reduced food resources, habitat loss, or the increasing interference of human activity. As well, the conflict between wolverines and livestock and the border fencecould be another reason.
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    New records of Crocidura dongyangjiangensis and Crocidura anhuiensis in Jiangxi Province
    Jiangxiao HU, Yifan XU, Zhian ZOU, Wei ZENG, Jie DAI, Xueyang REN, Hongfeng YAO, Zhongzheng CHEN
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2023, 43 (3): 352-356.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150723
    Abstract503)   HTML750)    PDF (4007KB)(487)       Save

    In June 2022, four specimens of Crocidura were collected from Wuyi Mountain, Yanshan County, Jiangxi Province. Morphological and phylogenetic analyses showed that one specimen is C. dongyangjiangensis, and the other three are C. anhuiensis. Both species are the first records in Jiangxi Province. The specimen of C. dongyangjiangensis exhibits a light gray-brown color, has a small body type head-body length of 63 mm, tail length of 40 mm, cranial length of 16.57 mm, and a narrow skull. These morphological features are consistent with the description of specimens from Dongyangjiang, Zhejiang Province. The maximum likelihood (ML) tree based on Cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene showed a monophyletic group between this specimen and C. dongyangjiangensis, and the genetic distance (p-distance) between them ranged from 0.6% to 1.8%. The other three specimens identified as C.anhuiensis from Jiangxi are medium-sized shrews. They have head-body length of 75 ? 87 mm and tail length of 52 ? 62 mm (68% ? 77% of head-body length), which are consistent with the morphology of the specimens from Huangshan, Anhui Province. The ML tree showed these three specimens formed a monophyletic group with the C. anhuiensis from Anhui, and their genetic difference (p-distance) was 1.2%.

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    Estimating the population size of wild boar ( Sus scrofa) in Kaihua County, Zhejiang Province using camera-trapping data
    CHEN Xiaonan, TIAN Jia, LIU Mingzhang, SHEN Yunyi, YU Jianping, LIU Feng, SHEN Xiaoli, LI Sheng
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2023, 43 (5): 523-532.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150785
    Abstract195)   HTML4)    PDF (5317KB)(123)       Save
    Wild boar ( Sus scrofa) has high fecundity and strong adaptability to various environments. In recent years, the populations of wild boar in China have been increasing dramatically, causing numerous human-wildlife conflicts primarily due to crop damages and people injuries by the boars. To provide a scientific basis for future planned hunting and population management, we took Kaihua County, Zhejiang Province as an example to estimate the population size of wild boar using camera-trapping data. The camera-trapping data, collected during September and October 2020, contained 964 independent records of wild boar from 429 camera stations with an extensive sampling effort of 23 690 camera days. We used the Royle-Nichols model, combining environmental factors including terrain, vegetation and human impacts and the species’home range parameter, to estimate the population and distribution of wild boars in Kaihua. The results showed that the population size of wild boar within the study area was estimated as 5548 ±2343 (mean ±95% C. I. ), with an average density of 2. 38 ±0. 61 (mean ±SD) ind. /km 2, which was negatively associated with altitude and resident density, and slightly positively associated with forest coverage. Based on the results, we suggest that wild boar hunting, as a management measure to control its population, in the study area should be conducted in farmland, plantations, and ecotone areas of forest and farmland, where the boar densities are high. In the future, local administrations and the Qianjiangyuan National Park shall integrate data from the systematically designed camera-trapping network, as well as those from hunting records and other sources, into this management framework, so that the population dynamics model of target species can be continuously updated and improved, and a long-term population dynamics monitoring system can be established.
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    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2023, 43 (6): 701-701.  
    Abstract27)      PDF (1344KB)(35)       Save
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    New records of Paguma larvata in Liaoning Province, China
    ZHANG Lei, CHANG Jin, FENG Chaofan, WAN Dongmei
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2023, 43 (6): 760-700.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150815
    Abstract50)   HTML0)    PDF (4273KB)(35)       Save
    Paguma larvata is mainly distributed in the central and southern regions in China. It is listed as a near-threatened species in the Red List of China’ s Vertebrates. In the past, there were no records of distribution of this species Liaoning Province. During the camera trapping survey of animal diversity in the Qinglonghe, Bailangshan, and Wuhuading National Nature Reserves in the western region of Liaoning, 215 independent detections of Paguma larvata were captured by camera-trapping with 584 photographs and 106 video clips from January 2022 to May 2023. These image data represent the first record of Paguma larvata in Liaoning Province, which not only plays an important role in the study of biodiversity and species integrity in this province but also provides the basic data for the distribution of Paguma larvata in China.
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    Mating behavior of captive wolves (Canis lupus) in Heilongjiang,China
    SHA Weilai,ZHANG Honghai,KONG Fanfan,CHEN Lei,ZHANG Chengde
    Abstract6778)      PDF (237KB)(3604)       Save
    In order to better understand mating patterns and processes of captive wolves ( Canis lupus), we observed 4 pairs in the Harbin North Forest Zoo for about 25 days (225 hours in total)from October 2005 to April 2006. We used focal animal sampling and all occurrence recording. Mating behaviors usually occurred during 8∶ 00 - 10∶00 am and 14∶00 -16∶ 00 pm. Among 741 mounts recorded,46 copulations were observed (6. 2% ). The mating period lasted for 5 - 14 days. We observed copulatory locks during copulations. After copulatory lock and several repeated twitches,male wolves would ejaculate. Female wolves displayed obvious sexual solicitations and acted in concert with male mounts by standing
    still with their tails to one side,and haunches bent forward. There were no differences in the twitching times ( P = 0. 827), but we did observe differences in the durations of copulatory locks (one-way ANOVA, F = 71.43, P < 0.001) among the four male wolves. The mean mating duration was 534 ±402 seconds,with the longest 1 588 seconds and the shortest 28 seconds.
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    Preliminary study on breeding periodicity of wild francois' langurs (Trachypithecus francoisi francoisi)in Mayanghe Nature Reserve,Guizhou
    WU Ankang,LUO Yang,WANG Shuangling,CHEN Zhengren,WANG Bin
    Abstract1324)      PDF (306KB)(1818)       Save
    Francois’ langur, the Black-headed leaf monkey ( Trachypithecus francoisi francoisi), is a rare species of monkey, occurring in isolated small groups in China. Breeding periodicity of wild Francois’ langur in Mayanghe National Nature Reserve in Yanhe County, Guizhou, China, was studied. For the subject group,known as Gandong group, they were artificial fed periodically due to shortage of natural food since August,1997. From the latter half of the year of 1998,they were adapted to artificial feeding and fed once per day. Because of the same feeder, a trust relationship between the group and the feeder was established, and the group could be observed within fifteen meters. Through artificial feeding, Gandong group monkeys were individual recognized according to characteristics of stature, posture and appearance, and the females were differentiated by the way of F1,F2,…. The first dates of seeing newborn monkeys of the group were recorded and regarded as birth dates. The error was not beyond twenty-four hours because of daily observation and record. Birth dates of eleven newborn monkeys of Gandong group from 1999 to 2005 were recorded. The genders of the newborn monkeys were identified by observing male genitals fifteen days after born. In addition, birth dates of six other groups were combined with that of Gandong group. The six groups included Xiangguba group, Leijia group, Banqiaozi group, Shibanxi group, Dashandong group and Longdongtang group. For the six groups, the first dates of finding new baby monkeys were recorded by patrolmen who patrolled once every five days, and then verified by the authors within two days. According to characteristic of baby monkey whose hair was bright orange at first and then became gradually black one month later, birth dates of nine baby monkeys of these six groups were estimated from 2003 to 2004. The error was not beyond one week. By record, eight offspring were added into Gandong group from 1999 to 2005. At present, this group was consisted of seven males and five females, including three baby monkeys and nine non-baby monkeys. Six other groups produced nine offspring totally from 2003 to 2004. The analysis results showed that seasonal birth of wild Francois’langur distributed from January to June, and no newborns were given birth from July to December, seventeen monkeys born from February to April in proportion with 85% in total, eight in March in proportion with 40% determined as the peak of whole year, five in April and four in February as the secondary birth peak. This distribution pattern was different significantly from that of captive Francois' langurs whose birth failed in seasonality. Under captive conditions, food sources were secure, the surrounding was stable and there was little change of annual cycle. However it was difficult for the wild to have the above all conditions. The breeding interval of wild Francois' langurs was 704±50 days averagely, namely twenty-three months, longer seven months than that of captive. Francois' langurs, indicating that natural environmental stresses that the wild populations were subject to might have a long-term influence on reproduction of Francois' langurs. Meanwhile breeding periodicity was linked with difference of species, climate, habitat, and female reproductive biology.
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    Behavior coding and ethogram of the free-ranging giant pandas ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca)
    HOU Jin, YAN Linlu, LI Liang, LI Yujie, LIAO Yushan, ZHANG Jindong
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2020, 40 (5): 446-457.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150392
    Abstract3058)      PDF (6550KB)(2884)       Save
    Ethograms are the foundation of animal behavior studies. The giant panda is a flagship species for biodiversity protection, and its behavioral ecology is of widespread concern. However, due to their limited population size and avoidance of people, it is difficult to observe giant pandas in the wild. As a result, basic behavioral research, such as the specification of ethograms, has been mainly done by observing captive giant pandas. In order to promote further development of giant panda behavioral research, we constructed an ethogram of giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca) behavior using the PAE (Posture, Act and Environment) coding system based on infrared camera trap data collected in Wolong Nature Reserve during January 2015 to June 2016 and August 2018 to April 2019. In total, we identified and recorded 12 types of postures, 52 acts and 56 behaviors. This study not only recorded the major behaviors of giant pandas, but also discovered unrecorded behaviors of captive pandas in any past research, such as using plant stems to clear snow from the body. In general, our results enriched knowledge of the impact of environmental factors on giant panda behavior. This study provides basic information for behavioral ecology of giant pandas.
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    WANG Zuwang, WEI Shanwu, JIANG Yongjin, WANG Dehua, YANG Futun, HU Defu
    Abstract2076)      PDF (454KB)(1389)       Save
    The root voel(Microtus oeconomus)is the dominant rodent species in Haibei alpine bushland(Potentilla fruticosa),and various aspects of its bioenergetics have been extensively studied.In order to come to a better understanding of the vole's bioenergetics and a more reasonable evaluation of its role in the alpine meadow ecosystem ,We conducted a comprehensive investigation of its energetics including net primary production,population density,population production,average metabolic rate (ADM R),reproductive cost,daily activity rhythm ,energy intake,digestion,assimilation,daily energy budget,yearly energy budget, and energy flow through the vole population.The daily energy budget(DEB)model was constructed on the basis of ADMR (Table 3)and by concurrent consideration of huddling effect,surface activity time,and reproductive effort(Table5).DEB is the highest during the green up period,and this can be illustrated by the fact that in this period almost all voles comprise the population are overwintered adults,they are heavier and more involved in reproductive and surface activities (thus meet higher thermoregulatory demand).Yearly energy intake of the vole population(Table 6) ranges from 568.175×10 3to 1541.692×10 3KJ/ha.yr,and we concluded that the vole's food resource is relatively abundant compared with the net primary production (Pn)of the bushland(Table 1)and the food availabe (Fa) for the vole (70.12% Pn of the herb layer).Population assimilationis 398.576×10 3 to1081.230 ×10 3KJ/ha.yr,of which 1.22%- 2.23% is transformed into population production,and no significant difference was found be tween the production due to growth(Pg)and production due to reproduction(Pr) (Table6).Finally,the potential errors the two ways,namely A=C- F- U andA =P+R ,traditionally used to estimate energy flow were discussed,and we suggest that for more precise estimation of respiration and energy flow ,the doubly labelled water(DLW )method be employed in future studies.
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    CHEN Daoquan, ZHAO Qingzhong, LIU Renjun
    Abstract1160)      PDF (124KB)(1475)       Save
    The paper first reported the investigative results of some serum reproductive hormones on Neophocaena phocaenoides from Yangtze River during March and April. The serum testosterone levels from tested sexual active matured male animals were between 2.64 ng/m l and 9.40 ng/m l. The est radio l cou ld no t be found out from immature female animals dolph in sand could be found out from mature female animals. The serum progesterone levels in pregnant female dolphins may reach as high as 30.59 ng/ml
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    Seasonal changes in serum reproductive steroids levels of red-bellied squirrels ( Callosciurus erythraeus)
    JIA Yiping, JIN Wei, ZUO Zhicai, WANG Zhengyi, YU Shumin, DENG Junliang
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2018, 38 (4): 426-432.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150092
    Abstract1703)      PDF (1435KB)(2955)       Save
    We examined variation of some hormones reflecting reproductive function in the blood plasma of red-bellied squirrels ( Callosciurus erythraeus). 70 males and 74 females were captured from February to December 2015 from Yingjing County, Sichuan Province. We measured the levels of reproductive hormones (testosterone: T, estradiol: E 2, follicle-stimulating hormone: FSH, luteinizing hormone: LH, gonadotropin-releasing hormone: GnRH, progesterone: P 4) by ELISA, and analyzed the data from the different sexes and months. In addition, impacts of reproductive status were also analyzed. These indices were analyzed by two-way ANOVA or ANCOVA. If some indices showed significant sex differences, monthly variations of those indices for any gender were further examined by one-way ANOVA or ANCOVA. The results were as follows: (1)There were sex differences in the levels of serum reproductive hormones in female and male squirrels that changing with reproductive status (except GnRH), and were lowest in October. (2)The serum concentrations of FSH, LH, T, E 2 and P 4 in males peaked in February or March and July or August, shortly before mating. Concentrations of FSH, LH and E 2 in females and GnRH of both sexes peaked in February and July during the mating period, whereas T concentrations in females were low throughout the year, and serum P 4 was highest in May. (3)Compared with non-reproductive squirrels, the concentrations of all serum reproductive hormones were significantly higher in pregnancy, mating and lactating female squirrels, or mating males. These results indicate that the levels of serum reproductive hormones in female and male squirrels can vary with the seasons and the reproductive status, which is of great significance to understanding the reproductive characteristics of the red-bellied squirrels and control their damage to plantations.
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