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    Catalogue of mammals in China(2021)
    WEI Fuwen, YANG Qisen, WU Yi, JIANG Xuelong, LIU Shaoying, LI Baoguo, YANG Guang, LI Ming, ZHOU Jiang, LI Song, HU Yibo, GE Deyan, LI Sheng, YU Wenhua, CHEN Bingyao, ZHANG Zejun, ZHOU Caiquan, WU Shibao, ZHANG Li, CHEN Zhongzheng, CHEN Shunde, DENG Huaiqing, JIANG Tinglei, ZHANG Libiao, SHI Hongyan, LU Xueli, LI Quan, LIU Zhu, CUI Yaqian, LI Yuchun
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 487-501.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150595
    Abstract1162)      PDF (1771KB)(1171)       Save
    China is one of the countries with the highest diversity of mammalian species. Knowledge of mammalian diversity and their taxonomy is fundamental to mammalian research and is the basis of scientific conservation of wild populations. To clarify the species diversity and important taxonomic information such as the taxonomic position of mammals in China, the China Mammalogical Society organized an editorial committee consisting of taxonomists studying different taxonomic groups. Based on previous taxonomic studies and the latest morphological and genetic evidences, the editorial committee produced the latest catalogue of mammalian species in China. This catalogue includes 12 orders, 59 families, 254 genera, and 686 species. The catalogue uses the taxonomy system based on phylogeny and fully discusses the validity of species taxonomy.
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    A new record of mammal from the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region of North China— Mustela altaica
    HAN Sicheng, LU Daowei, MENG Hao, LEONG Chifong, LIU Yanlin, SONG Dazhao, LI Sheng, LUO Shujin
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (3): 361-364.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150487
    Abstract512)      PDF (15011KB)(1041)       Save
    An adult weasel was photographed in September 2019 during a camera-trapping survey in the Haituo-Songshan mountain area of Beijing. This species was identified as the mountain weasel (Carnivora;Mustelidae; Mustela altaica), a small mustelid native to the mountains of East and Central Asia, found on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and in some high-altitude regions of northern and southwestern China. However, the documented localities of M. altaica nearest to Beijing are from Shanxi and Inner Mongolia, while none was reported from Beijing or its adjacent Tianjin and Hebei. This finding therefore added a new record of mammalian species to the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region and the Yanshan Mountains, and also expanded the known range of M. altaica in China. It revealed the likely underestimated species richness in suburban Beijing and highlighted the importance of systematic biodiversity monitoring and conservation in urban ecosystems.
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    Second record of collared sprite( Thainycteris aureocollaris, Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) from China
    XIE Huixian, LI Yannan, LIANG Xiaoling, ZHANG Huiguang, ZHAN Liying, WU Yi, YU Wenhua
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (4): 476-482.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150533
    Abstract285)      PDF (12388KB)(890)       Save
    During a chiropteran survey in June 2020 in the Wuyi Mountain National Park, Fujian Province, a male bat was captured by a harp trap on a forest trail.It was a medium-sized vespertilionid bat with a forearm length of 45.9 mm and a distinct broad stripe of buffy hairs running across the top of its head between the bases of the ears.Its skull was robust with the greatest length of 17.42 mm, obvious supraorbital protuberances, and a dental formula of 2113/3123.These characteristics are consistent with those of the Collared sprite Thainycteris aureocollaris, a species rare in China.The morphology-based identification was also verified by phylogenetic inference using the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene segment. The calls of the specimen recorded during flight were the frequency modulation type with a dominant frequency of(30.05±0.94) kHz. T.aureocollaris has so far only been recorded in Libo County, Guizhou Province, China, therefore the current record represents the second known occurrence of the species in China, and a new chiropteran record from Fujian Province.
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    Diversity and functional characteristics of intestinal microflora of free-living wild boars in the Miaoling Mountain area in Guizhou Province, China
    YANG Xiongwei, PENG Caichun, GUO Qunyi, RAN Jingcheng, WANG Yeying, ZHANG Mingming, HU Canshi, LI Shize, SU Haijun
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (4): 365-376.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150515
    Abstract341)      PDF (7115KB)(855)       Save
    Wild boars( Sus scrofa), which are widely distributed in southern China, are one of the few large-hoofed species that populations are proliferating.In recent years, an increasing number of studies have been conducted on the intestinal microflora of wild animals, but none have investigated the intestinal microflora of the wild populations of S.scrofa.In this study, total DNA from the gastrointestinal tract(stomach, ileum, colon, and rectum) of four samples of free-living wild boars from the Miaoling Mountain area of Guizhou Province was extracted, and the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified using universal primer PCR.The amplification products were sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq platform to assess the community structure, diversity, and flora function of intestinal bacteria of wild boars.A total of 1 268 577 valid sequences remained after the results were filtered for quality, and the low-quality reads were discarded.After drawing out the minimum sample sequence number, 1 019 OTUs were identified at the 97% similarity level.All samples were categorized into 19 phyla and 292 genera.At the level of phylum classification, the key floras in the intestinal tract were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria and there were 15 dominant genera, including Prevotella, Lactobacillus, Escherichia- Shigella, and Bifidobacterium.Rarefaction curves indicated that the sequencing depth had basically covered all bacteria in the sample.Among alpha diversity indices, the Chao1 and Shannon indices of the colon and rectum were significantly higher than those of the stomach and ileum( P<0.05).This fully confirmed that the colon and rectum had a bacterial community structure relatively similar and greater floral richness and diversity to that of the stomach and ileum.The results of principal coordinates analysis(PCoA) and analysis of similarity(Anosim) showed a readily visible difference in distinct parts of the gastrointestinal tracts of wild boars.LEfSe analysis indicated that there were 22 bacterial genera with significant differences in distinct intestinal segments of boars, most of which were attributed to Firmicutes.In addition, PICRUSt showed that different intestinal segments also had unique metabolic functions and pathways.This study preliminarily revealed the characteristics of the intestinal flora of wild boars from Guizhou Province.We found that the intestinal flora of wild boars had a relatively complex structure and that there were significant differences between distinct intestinal segments.
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    Survey on serotypes of Salmonella isolated from mink and its pathogenesis in mice
    ZHOU Guodong, ZHU Qian, SHI Wenjian, YUAN Peng, JIANG Shijin, XIE Zhijing
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (3): 245-253.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150468
    Abstract303)      PDF (17847KB)(830)       Save
    Thirty-five (66.04%) Salmonella strains were isolated from 53 farmed mink samples collected in Zhucheng, Shandong Province, China, which were identified using selective culture, biochemical assays, and serotyping assays. Thirty-four (97.14%) of the 35 isolates were identified as Salmonella enteritidis ( Se), named as Se-SD-1- Se-SD-34, followed by S. typhimurium ( St) (1/35), named as St-SD-1. The 10 virulence-associated genes of Salmonella were tested using PCR. The prevalence of invA and mgtC genes for the isolates were 100%(35/35), sopE and tolC genes 97.14%(34/35), stn gene 94.29%(33/35), avrA gene 88.57%(31/35), spiA gene 82.86%(29/35), hilC gene 68.57%(24/35), spvB gene 62.86%(22/35) and pefA genes 42.86%(15/35). It demonstrated that the virulence gene contents were different among the Salmonella isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility of 11 antimicrobials (amoxicillin etc.) for the isolates was performed using disk diffusion method. Thirty-four Se isolates exhibited multidrug resistance and cross resistance, and the highest level of resistance was found to kanamycin(15/34). The St isolate was only resistant to tetracycline. According to serotypes and virulence gene contents of the isolates, Se-SD-1 and St-SD-1 were selected for mouse experiments. As a result, Se-SD-1 and St-SD-1 caused the diseases in mice, and the inoculation doses could have influences on mouse mortality. This study enriches the research data of mink salmonellosis. It is necessary to further carry out the etiology and epidemiological surveillance of salmonella in mink for public health.
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    The inhibitory effect of triptolide on reproductive capacity of male Brandt's voles( Lasiopodomys brandtii)
    WANG Lewen, YING Yaqi, LIU Xiaohui, SONG Ying, LI Ning, WANG Dawei
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (3): 344-351.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150476
    Abstract289)      PDF (1550KB)(748)       Save
    To investigate the antifertility effect of triptolide on male Brandt's voles( Lasiopodomys brandtii), intragastric administration was conducted in four groups of male voles with different concentrations of triptolide, i. e. 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 mg per kilogram body weight, for seven successive days. Each male was paired with one female at 1 and 3 weeks after withdrawal. Male voles autopsied one week later and body weight and reproductive parameters were measured and recorded, including the weight of gonadal glands, epididymal sperm density, pregnancy rate, and fetus number of the paired female. Our results showed that the three treatment groups displayed non-significantly lower relative weight of reproductive organs, sperm density, as well as pregnancy rate and fetus number of paired female voles in the 4-week withdrawal group. However, we found a significant decrease of 66.7% in the pregnancy rate and 72.3% of fetus number of paired female voles in the 0.1 mg per kilogram body weight 2-week withdrawal group compared with the control group. These results suggested that low triptolide concentration displayed stronger inhibitory effects on the reproductive activity of male Brandt's voles than these high concentration levels. The antifertility effects of triptolide are probably due to its toxicity on the function of the epididymis and the parameters of sperm motility. Further research should be focused on the mechanism of different doses of triptolide on rodents and provide theoretical evidence for its intelligent use.
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    Review on the systematic taxonomy of Dipodoidea in China
    CHENG Jilong, XIA Lin, WEN Zhixin, ZHANG Qian, GE Deyan, YANG Qisen
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (3): 275-283.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150531
    Abstract373)      PDF (1737KB)(739)       Save
    In recent years, with the development of molecular systematics and the further research on species diversity and taxonomy in desert areas, new cryptic species have been discovered continuously, and the taxonomic status of some taxa has also changed. China has the highest species diversity of Dipodoidea in the world. It has been confirmed that there are 3 families, 6 subfamilies, 12 genera and 22 species in China after taxonomic study of Dipodoidea. We proved that there is a fifth kind of brich mouse in China-Gray Brich Mouse, Sicista pseudonapaea. The previous genus Allactaga of the Allactaginae is a paraphyly; and it should be divided into three genera, Allactaga, Orientallactaga, and Scarturus. The genus names of Siberian Jerboa, Gobi Jerboa, and Balikun Jerboa were changed to Orientallactaga. The Small Five-toed Jerboa changed into the genus Scarturus, which was proved as a species group containing cryptic species. The distribution of Great Jerboa in China is doubtful. The previous subspecies deasyi of North Three-toed Jerboa was promoted to species status——Tarim Jerboa, D. deasyi. The results show that Dzungarian Three-toed Jerboa, Stylodipus sungorus is distributed in China. A new genus and species Chimaera Jerboa, Chimaerodipus auratus, was named in recent years in China.
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    Analysis of host and vectors in the plague natural foci of Jianchuan County, Yunnan Province
    SU Chao, LI Yuqiong, WANG Qian, LI Shouqin, XU Lei, GAO Zihou
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (3): 235-244.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150519
    Abstract359)      PDF (15407KB)(696)       Save
    Understanding the host, vector community structure and population dynamics of the plague natural foci will provide evidence for proposing targeted plague prevention and control strategies and mechanisms. The Jianchuan County is located in the core area of the Apodemus chevrieri and Eothenomys miletus natural foci of plague. This area is rich in small mammal species and harbors two types of Yersinia pestis. This provides a very important field model for research on the evolution of the plague natural foci. This article collates and analyzes the plague surveillance data in Jianchuan County from 1976 to 2019. A total of 25 species of small mammals classified in 16 genera, 7 families and 4 orders were captured indoors in this natural focus of plague. Among them, the absolute dominant rodent species was Rattus norvegicus, while the other dominant rodents were Rattus tanezumi and Mus musculus. Outdoor surveys recorded 31 small mammal species classified in 21 genera, 8 families and 5 orders, among which the dominant species were Apodemus chevrieri and Eothenomys miletus. The indoor rodent density fluctuated around 3.75% before 2005, but decreased significantly from 2006 and remained at around 0.49%. The outdoor rodent density fluctuates at a high level of about 9.13% across the years. In this plague natural focus, the main parasitic fleas in the host animals were Ctenophthalmus quaadratus, Neopsylla specialis and Frontopsylla spadix, among which C. quaadratus was in an absolute dominant position. Yersinia pestis was detected in 72 samples and Plague F1 antibody was detected in 95 samples. The foci have existed for a long time, and the host animals and vectors are diverse and different. However, the structure is overall stable. Due to the existence of natural and geographical conditions for long-term preservation of Y. pestis, further research is needed to explore the relationships among population dynamics, epidemic occurrence and natural conditions.
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    Future effects of climate change and human footprint on the geographical distribution of three snub-nosed monkeys in China
    LI Xinrui, ZHAO Xumao, LI Ming
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (3): 310-320.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150513
    Abstract329)      PDF (28727KB)(696)       Save
    Climate change and the human activities on the environment are important drivers of biodiversity loss. Based on MaxEnt models, we studied the impacts of climate change and the human footprint on predicted range shift in the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey( Rhinopithecus roxellana), the Yunnan snub-nosed monkey( R. bieti), and the Guizhou snub-nosed monkey( R. brelichi). All three species are endemic to China. We found that areas of suitable habitat for the three snub-nosed monkey are shrinked and the elevation of the distribution area was increased from 2000 to 2050, of which suitable habitat for Guizhou snub-nosed monkey was contracted the most. And habitats of snub-nosed monkeys that are most vulnerable to human disturbance and climate change were principally located in Northeast Sichuan Province, Southwest Shaanxi Province, Northwest Hubei Province, Fanjingshan in Guizhou Province, and the western part of Yunnan Province. Human footprint index was an important factor leading to the decrease of suitable habitat area of golden snub-nosed monkey. And mean temperature of warmest Quarter, Precipitation Seasonality and Mean Temperature of Coldest Quarter were the most important climatic factors leading to the decrease of suitable habitat for Sichuan snub-nosed monkey, Yunnan snub-nosed monkey and the Guizhou snub-nosed monkey. In addition, the southwestern of habitat(Sichuan snub-nosed monkey) and the central part of habitat(Yunnan snub-nosed monkey) had high connectivity. We suggest that priority management policies should be directed to protecting vulnerable areas and building a biodiversity corridor between subpopulations in areas with high connectivity. This study provides a basis for predicting the location of vulnerable habitats that require protection in order to conserve endangered animals.
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    New records of Tibetan shrew( Sorex thibetanus Kastschenko,1905) and Gansu shrew( Sorex cansulus Thomas,1912) in Yunnan Province
    SONG Wenyu, WANG Hongjiao, LI Yixian, HE Shuiwang, JIANG Xuelong
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (3): 352-360.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150520
    Abstract374)      PDF (20628KB)(686)       Save
    Tibetan shrew( Sorex thibetanus) and Gansu shrew( Sorex cansulus) are two poorly known species of the genus Sorex. In 2017, 48 specimens of Sorex were collected in alpine areas of north-west Yunnan. The morphological characteristics and measurements of these specimens were compared with previous specimen records, and their phylogenetic relationships with other Sorex species were assessed based on Cyt b gene. Results show that 27 specimens from 4 sites are morphologically similar to S. thibetanus, while other 21 specimens from 2 sites are morphologically similar to S. cansulus, although with considerable differences. The intraspecific Kimura-2-parameter distance based on Cyt b was 0.46% for S. thibetanus and 0.42% for S. cansulus, while the distances between these two species to other Sorex species were 10.76%-17.04% and 6.59%-14.52%, respectively. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses support the two species are monophyletic to S. thibetanus(BS=71%) and S. cansulus (BS=100%), which both are new mammal records in Yunnan Province.
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    Effects of seasonality and social ranks on fecal cortisol levels in male Tibetan macaques( Macaca thibetana)
    WU Mingyang, CHEN Shiwang, SUN Binghua, WANG Xi, XIA Dongpo, LI Jinhua
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (4): 398-405.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150524
    Abstract220)      PDF (1535KB)(681)       Save
    Many primate species are social, a consequence of long-term evolutionary processes.Despite natural selection favoring sociality, intragroup competition can generate stress for individuals.Cortisol level is one physiological indicator of an individual's stress.Seasonally-breading Tibetan macaques( Macaca thibetana) are ideal candidates for the investigation of the potential relationships between social stressors, cortisol levels, and dominance rank.We collected 325 fresh feces from 13 males in Huangshan, Anhui Province, China, and quantified cortisol levels from the fecal samples.We analyzed individual variation in fecal cortisol levels to test the effects of season(i.e., the mating and non-mating seasons) and position in the dominance hierarchy.Our results show that the macaque subjects had higher fecal cortisol levels in the mating season.There was no significant difference in the cortisol levels of high-ranked, middle-ranked, and low-ranked males in the non-mating season, but in the mating season, cortisol levels of middle-ranked males were significantly higher than those of both high- and low-ranked males.As we have known, this is the first study to investigate the cortisol levels in wild Tibetan macaques, and analyze the effects of seasonality and social ranks on cortisol.
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    Research advances of the host DNA enrichment from noninvasively collected samples
    WANG Liling, HU Jingyang, KUANG Weimin, YU Li
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (3): 284-295.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150485
    Abstract331)      PDF (2024KB)(674)       Save
    Noninvasive sampling has been widely used in conservation genetics, molecular ecology and molecular evolution study of animals. With the development of genome sequencing and the advent of the genomics era, how to obtain high quality DNA used for genome sequencing from noninvasively collected samples is a challenge for researchers. In this review, we summarized and compared the methods and applications of enriching host DNA in fecal samples and archaeological materials or museum specimens, which were the most common used sample sources in the noninvasive sampling. We aimed to provide an important reference for the future research and application of noninvasive sampling in the genomic study of the animals.
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    Effects of repeated exposure to cat odor on anti-predator and anxiety-like behaviors of juvenile Brandt's voles( Lasiopodomys brandtii)
    PENG Yan, WU Yongzhen, GU Chen, YANG Shengmei, YIN Baofa, WEI Wanhong
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (4): 451-458.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150469
    Abstract231)      PDF (1823KB)(673)       Save
    The predator odor has an important effect on the behavior and physiology of the prey.This paper aimed to investigate the change of anti-predator, anxiety-like behaviors and endocrine level of juvenile Brandt's voles( Lasiopodomysbrandtii) after repeated exposure to cat odor for 18 days.We also discuss the response strategy of juvenile Brandt's voles affected by the cat odor.The results showed that juvenile Brandt's voles significantly increased concealing behavior and decreased the locomotion, jumping, grooming and contact behaviors after exposed to cat odor for one day.However, after repeated exposure to cat odor for 18 days, they developed a behavioral adaptation to the cat odor and their anti-predator behaviors were not significantly different to that of the control group.The open field test showed that the repeated exposure to cat odor significantly reduced the total distance moved and average velocity of juvenile Brandt's voles, while increased their immobility time.In the light-dark box test, female Brandt's vole in the cat-odor group visited more frequently the light area than the male, however, there was no significant difference in time in the light box between genders and treatments.There were no significant changes in plasma corticosterone(CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH) concentrations for the juvenile Brandt's voles after repeated exposure to cat odor.These findings indicate that when juvenile Brandt's voles are initially exposed to cat odor, their anti-predator behaviors increased, but subsequently diminished over repeated exposures.On the other hand, their anxiety-like behaviors did not vary.
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    Effects of visual and olfactory density signals on social stress in Brandt's voles
    HE Chen, HUANG Shuli, LIU Jing, SONG Yiran, LU Wei, ZHANG Zhibin
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (4): 416-430.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150532
    Abstract268)      PDF (4114KB)(672)       Save
    Rodents have the density-dependent behavior-endocrine regulation mechanism.When their population density increases, it will increase social stress, nervous anxiety, aggression behaviors, as well as alter neuroendocrine in the brain.Social stress caused by increased density may involve different senses such as visual, olfactory, touch, hearing, andtaste, however, their distinct effects on social stress have never been evaluated.Our previous study indicates that high population density decreases the expression of oxytocin(OT) in the brain of male Brandt's voles( Lasiopodomys brandtii), increases the expression of arginine-vasopressin(AVP), and increases serum corticosteroid(CORT), which are linked to the increase of aggressive behavior.However, the role of olfactory and visual signals in triggering social stress is unknown.Because the olfactory signal is involved in marking the territory or dominance of animals, while the visual signal is involved in collective cooperation for defending territory against intruders or predators, the social stress effects may be different.We used nest pads and mirrors to simulate olfactory and visual density.To test the distinct effects of olfactory and visual density signals on social stress of Brandt's voles, we analyzed the behavioral(open-field test, elevated plus-maze test, and three-chamber sociability test), body weight, organs, serum physiological indicators, and brain neurotransmitter expression changes.We found that nest-pads treatment groups with high olfactory density decreased OT expression but increased AVP expression in specific brain regions of Brandt's voles, which is similar to the density effect(except for the OT increase in males).This result generally supported the hypothesis that high-density olfactory is the main signal path of density-dependent social stress.High visual density group treatment increased OT expression in males, but decreased expression of glucocorticoid receptor(GR), serum adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH), and anxiety behavior in females, supporting the hypothesis that high-density visual is the main signal path for reducing social stress.Our study suggests that visual and olfactory signals play a different, or even opposite role in the density-dependent behavioral or population regulation of social Brandt's voles, which may be beneficial in maintaining an optimal population density or group size.
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    Activity pattern of Transbaikal zokor( Myospalax psilurus) and its relationship with soil temperature and humidity
    Manduhu, YUAN Shuai, YANG Suwen, JI Yu, Chaoketu, WEI Jun, FU Heping, WU Xiaodong
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (4): 441-450.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150523
    Abstract260)      PDF (2146KB)(666)       Save
    The activity rhythm of animals is a comprehensive adaptation to environmental conditions.Subterranean rodents live in relatively low oxygen and dark environment all year round.How their activity rhythm and intensity are affected by soil temperature and humidity of their habitat, and whether there are gender differences, has received extensive attention.The influence of these factors can objectively reflect the long-term life-history strategies of subterranean rodents to adapt to their habitats.Transbaikal zokor ( Myospalax psilurus) is a dominant rodent species in the meadow steppe of northern China.It is very important to study the diurnal and seasonal activity intensity of zokor and their relationships with soil temperature and humidity for understanding its survival and reproductive strategies and ecological controlling factors.This study was conducted in May(spring), July(summer), and September(autumn) of 2016 and 2017 in the meadow grassland of Hulunbeier city, Inner Mongolia, China, using radio-tracking methods to monitor the diurnal and seasonal activity intensity of Transbaikal zokor.We analyzed the daily activity intensity and sex differences among zokor in different seasons, and the relationships between activity intensity and soil temperature and soil relative humidity were analyzed.The results showed that(1) the daily activity rhythm of zokor was unimodal.The activity peak appeared from night to morning in different seasons, and the duration of peak activity varied between seasons:12 hours in spring, 7 hours in summer and 6 hours in autumn.There was no significant difference in the daily and seasonal activity intensity between male and female individuals, which exhibited a high synchronization.(2) The activity intensity of zokor was significantly correlated with soil temperature( P<0.01).The activity intensity of zokor was highest when soil temperature was at 7℃-10℃(20:00 to 08:00 the next day) in spring, 17℃-22℃(20:00 to 03:00 the next day) in summer and 10℃-12℃(22:00 to 04:00 the next day) in autumn, and then gradually decreased with increasing soil temperature.There was no significant correlation between activity intensity and soil relative moisture.
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    Group composition and seasonal changes of Bharal( Pseudois nayaur) in Wanglang National Nature Reserve,China
    LIU Mingxing, CHEN Xing, HOU Xingyu, LI Yunxi, JIANG Wenlong, YANG Kong, LI Sheng, GUAN Tianpei
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (3): 321-329.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150471
    Abstract378)      PDF (1737KB)(664)       Save
    The Bharal( Pseudois nayaur) is a common herbivore across the Tibetan Plateau, but little is known about the population at the eastern edge of its distribution. From June 2018 to August 2019, we studied the composition and seasonal changes of bharal groups in Wanglang National Nature Reserve using passive infrared camera traps. We recorded a total of 6 623 individuals belonging to 1 921 groups, with a mean group size of 3.45±2.16. The largest group comprised 23 individuals, and the smallest groups were formed by solitary individuals(both female and male). We classified six group types based on sex and age:mixed age/sex groups, ewe-lamb groups, adult male groups, adult female groups, solitary adult males, and solitary adult females. Small herd sizes(2-5 individuals) are typical of the bharal population of Wanglang National Nature Reserve, and no significant differences in group size existed among seasons. We analyzed group composition and seasonal changes of bharal and found that mixed groups were the most frequently observed, comprising 45.3% of all observations, followed by ewe-lambs, adult male groups, adult solitary males, adult solitary females, and adult female groups. The proportion of each group type varied seasonally. In spring, the highest proportion of observations were of adult male groups(29.5%) and adult solitary males(22.6%), whereas in summer, autumn, and winter mixed(58.5%, 41.8%, and 36.7%, respectively) and ewe-lamb(21.4%, 24.7%, and 18.6%, respectively) groups predominated. Observations of the individual bharal group types varied between seasons, for example, mixed groups were most frequently observed during summer, but ewe-lamb groups showed no significant change among seasons. Changes in the local environmental conditions, as well as physiological phases and their associated resource requirements are likely the mechanisms driving these temporal changes in group types and sizes.
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    Activity patterns of Asiatic black bear( Ursus thibetanus) on the Mt.Lasha Yunling Nature Reserve
    ZHANG Yongjun, HE Yuchao, ZHAO Juanjun, CHEN Yao, LI Yanpeng, HUANG Zhipang, CUI Liangwei, XIAO Wen
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    2021, 41 (2): 136-143.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150444
    Abstract410)      PDF (2465KB)(488)       Save
    The Mountains of Southwest China is an important distribution area of the Asiatic black bear( Ursus thibetanus),but the activity pattern of this species is rarely studied.This study focused on Asiatic black bear.Total 218 Camera traps were set up a grid 250 m×250 m in Mt.Lasha area of Yunling Nature Reserve,Lanping,Yunnan,from July 2017 to August 2019.Our study lasted for 2 years,with 36 175 trapping days,the cumulative monitoring period averaged to 238±100.31 days and a total of 77 Independent photographs(IPs) obtained.The annual rhythm of Asiatic black bear is unimodal,mainly animals are active in the summer rainy season(May-October).The hibernation occurred from February to April,so the hibernation period is 3 months.Double activity peaks were found in daily activity rhythms,with no difference in day and night activities.The main elevation range of the activity is from 3 100 m to 3 400 m,and there is no obvious vertical migration.The main vegetation types are mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forests(50%),followed by mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forests(30%).Compared to the previous studies,we found that the hibernation pattern of Asiatic black bears was affected by its distribution latitude,the higher latitude that it distributed,the hibernation started earlier and lasted for a longer time.Our results reveal the hibernation pattern with latitude of Asiatic black bear on a large scale,and provide reference for conservation and management of this species.
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    A preliminary study on the molecular mechanism of hypoxic tolerance in cetaceans: bioinformatic analysis based on HIF1α and TSC1 genes
    LIU Rui, CAO Yang, LIU Xing, TIAN Ran, XU Shixia
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (3): 296-309.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150449
    Abstract304)      PDF (18309KB)(654)       Save
    Cetaceans are distinguished by their excellent diving ability. However, hypoxia is recognized as one of the biggest challenges for prolonged diving in cetaceans. Although cetaceans have evolved a series of anatomical and physiological traits related to hypoxic tolerance, the molecular mechanism of these adaptations are still unclear. In this study, we investigated two genes:hypoxia-inducible factor 1α ( HIF1α) involved in cell sensing and adaptation to changes of oxygen partial pressure and tuberous sclerosis complex 1( TSC1) related to inhibition of energy metabolism in hypoxic environment. Our results revealed six positively selected sites of TSC1 gene in cetaceans that were detected by at least two ML methods. Moreover, compared with the homologous sequences of terrestrial mammals, seven specific amino acid mutations were identified in cetaceans. Additionally, 30.77% of these positively selected sites and specific mutation sites possessed radical amino acid changes. These positively selected sites were located in or closed to functional domains. Notably, signals of positive selection for HIF1α and TSC1 were mainly concentrated in cetacean lineages, suggesting that these two genes might have experienced functional changes to protect cells from hypoxia damage during adapting to aquatic environment. Interestingly, 66 parallel or convergent amino acid changes were detected among different hypoxic-tolerant species, which provides molecular evidence for the convergent hypoxic adaptation in mammals.
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    Spatiotemporal relationships between snow leopard( Panthera uncia) and red fox( Vulpes vulpes) in Qionglai Mountains, Sichuan Province
    SHI Xiaogang, SHI Xiaoyun, HU Qiang, FENG Xi, JIN Senlong, CHENG Yuehong, ZHANG Jing, YAO Meng, LI Sheng
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    2021, 41 (2): 115-127.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150475
    Abstract480)      PDF (19003KB)(745)       Save
    Carnivores is a key functional group in the ecosystem.Under the situation of global decline of large mammal populations,determining the interspecific interaction and co-existing mechanism between sympatric predators is essential to help us understand the underlying mechanisms driving ecosystem changes and species population dynamics.The spatial and temporal niches are the two most critical dimensions shaping an animal's ecological niche,and the interaction relationship of spatiotemporal niche between sympartric species is the basis to understand species co-existence.In this study,we took the Wolong National Nature Reserve in central Qionglai Mountains,Sichuan Province,as our study area.We collected spatiotemporal data of snow leopard( Panthera uncia,occurrence locations n=198) and red fox( Vulpes vulpes, n=68) from camera-trapping and fecal DNA surveys to construct species distribution models and conduct analysis on their daily activity patterns for both species.The results showed that,the area of overlapped suitable habitats of snow leopard and red fox in the study region was 404.08 km 2,which mainly located in the high-altitude area in the northwest part of the reserve,accounting for 77.74% and 80.79% of the total habitat area of snow leopard and red fox respectively.These two species had great overlap on vertical distributions as well and both showed a distribution peak approximately at 4 300 m above sea level,whereas the mean elevation of snow leopard was slightly higher than that of red fox,and the range of red fox's vertical distribution spanned slightly wider than that of snow leopard.The daily activity patterns of snow leopard(number of independent detections n=351) and red fox( n=155) were both bimodal.Snow leopards tended to be crepuscular,while red foxes were more nocturnal,with high level of overlap between the two species( Δ=0.68).At sites where snow leopards were present or where snow leopards had been previously detected within two weeks,red foxes increased their nocturnality,thus reducing the temporal overlap with snow leopards,although their daily activity pattern was not significantly changed.The results of this study preliminarily revealed the spatiotemporal niche relationship between snow leopard and red fox,which will provide examples and basic information for us to better understand the co-existing mechanism of apex predators and meso-predators in alpine ecosystems,and provide supports for the fine management of these carnivore populations in the nature reserves.
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    Canine distemper and wildlife
    WU Qiaoxing, TANG Liubin, ZHU Qifeng, JIN Xuelin, JIN Yipeng
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (3): 261-274.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150456
    Abstract304)      PDF (3717KB)(639)       Save
    Canine distemper is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by canine distemper virus, outbreaks of this disease have occurred multiple times among domestic dogs and wildlife worldwide. Cross-species transmission of canine distemper has been threatening various wildlife populations severely such as Siberian tiger, African lion, snow leopard and giant panda. At the same time, the range of infectious hosts is still expanding. Recent studies showed that wildlife in China, especially populations in the wild, are facing serious threats from infection of canine distemper due to the constant variation of canine distemper virus and increase of stray dog population. In order to better cope with the hazard brought by canine distemper to wildlife, this study summarized the research progress on pathogenic characteristics, epidemiology, pathogenic mechanism, diagnosis and treatment of canine distemper in wildlife. Based on the above research, we proposed prevention and control measures aimed at canine distemper in wildlife from three aspects including source of infection, transmission route and susceptible animals. At present, due to the lack of scientific research and technology in nature reserves in China and the low awareness toward the risk of wildlife canine distemper transmission, little has been done in monitoring wildlife canine distemper, which undoubtedly increases the difficulty to its prevention and control. Therefore, in order to secure the existence of wildlife population in China, the research about wildlife canine distemper monitoring and epidemiology should be enhanced, establishing an effective monitoring and control system to protect wildlife population from canine distemper.
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    Discrepancy of grooming sites of wild Tibetan macaques( Macaca thibetana) at Mt.Huangshan
    CHEN Shiwang, WU Mingyang, SUN Binghua, WANG Xi, XIA Dongpo, LI Jinhua
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (3): 330-337.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150516
    Abstract268)      PDF (6632KB)(635)       Save
    Grooming refers to the process by which an individual cleans its own body or the body of others using its hands or mouth. Grooming is widespread among primates. In this study, we investigated social grooming and auto-grooming behavior in a wild population of Tibetan macaques( Macaca thibetana), inhabiting Huangshan Mountain, Anhui Province, China. From July to December, 2019, behavioral data were collected using a focal sampling animal method. The results showed that the frequency and duration of social grooming were significantly higher than auto-grooming. Auto-grooming was generally accomplished using two-hands or one-hand, while social grooming principally involved the use of two-hands. Auto-grooming was directed to the legs, thighs and forearms, while social grooming focused on the back, face, arms and flanks. The selection of body parts during auto-grooming was strongly random, whereas there was a marked preferencein the body parts during social grooming. Tibetan macaques preferred initiating social grooming either on their partner's back or face, whereas the last part of the body allogroomed was the back. The results identified significant differences in behavior patterns, process, and site selection during auto-grooming and social grooming in wild Tibetan macaques. It appears that the process of social grooming reflects changing characteristics of the social relationship of the grooming partners, and offers critical insight into the social functions of grooming behavior.
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    Establishment and application of giant panda rotavirus PCR detection method
    SU Xiaoyan, LI Lin, YAN Xia, ZHANG Dongsheng, HOU Rong, LIU Songrui
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (3): 254-260.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150454
    Abstract302)      PDF (6859KB)(629)       Save
    Rotavirus is one of the main pathogenic microorganisms threatening the survival of giant pandas. In order to detect panda rotavirus antigens quickly, conveniently and accurately, it is necessary to develop a detection method suitable for ex-situ breeding centers and protection areas. In this study, the panda rotavirus Vp7 gene sequence was synthesized to construct the PUC-VP7 recombinant plasmid, and it was used as a positive control for PCR detection and analysis of panda rotavirus samples. The results showed that during the PCR amplification analysis, both the plasmid and the viral cDNA showed a specific band at 340 bp. In addition, when performing rotavirus antigen detection on forty-five panda rotavirus fecal samples, two samples showed a band at 340 bp, and the gene fragment was 99.89% homologous to the panda rotavirus CH-1 strain. The PUC-VP7 plasmid constructed in this study can not only be used as a positive quality control material in the PCR detection of giant panda rotavirus, but can also effectively improve the promotion and application of the PCR virus detection technology in ex-situ breeding centers and protected areas.
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    Seed-hoarding preferences of rodents for cork oak( Quercus variabilis) and Henry's chestnut( Castanea henryi): testing the high-tannin hypothesis
    LI Yuan, SHEN Youbi, WANG Minghui, YI Xianfeng, WANG Zhenyu
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (3): 338-343.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150363
    Abstract299)      PDF (1425KB)(610)       Save
    Tannin in seeds particularly affects the feeding and hoarding strategies of rodents. The high tannin hypothesis suggests that rodents prefer to eat more low-tannin food but hoard more high-tannin food for later consumption. However, the question of whether the hoarding and eating preferences of sympatric rodent species follow the high tannin hypothesis still remains poorly understood. In order to further test the high-tannin hypothesis, we investigated the feeding and hoarding preferences of sympatric rodent species ( Leopoldamys edwardsi, Niveventer fulvescens, N. confucianus, Apodemus chevrieri, A. draco) on cork oak, Quercus variabilis and Henry's chestnut, Castanea henryi under enclosure condition in the Banruosi Experimental Forest in Dujiangyan City of Sichuan Province, Southwest China. Seeds of cork oak and Henry's chestnut show similar traits but varying tannin levels (11.7% versus 0.6%). The result showed that(1) the five sympatric rodents preferred to eat acorns of C. henryi rather than those of Q. variabili;2) larder hoarding N. fulvescens and N. confucianus preferred to larder-hoard C. henryi nuts;whereas scatter hoarding L. edwardsi and A. chevrieri tended to hoard C. henryi nuts;3) scatter hoarding A. draco which larder-hoard and scatter-hoard food preferred to scatter-hoard Q. variabili nuts and larder-hoard C. henryi nuts. These results failed to support the high-tanning hypothesis, indicating that seed-hoarding and eating preferences of sympatric rodents for seeds show interspecific differentiation, and do not necessarily follow the high tannin hypothesis.
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    Motile Sperm Separation and Sperm Capacitation in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)
    CHEN Yongchang CHEN Xuejin
    Abstract887)      PDF (81KB)(708)       Save
    Selection of fine quality rhesus monkeys'semen is needed for in vitro fertilization protocol, which is an important method for studying the biology of monkey reproduction. Semen was separated by the swim up and Percoll density gradient centrifugation methods, after which intact sperm rate, motility rate, concentration of sperm and fertility rate showed no great differences. Caffeine and dbcAMP were used during sperm capacitation, the result showed that rhesus oocyte can be fertilized when both caffeine and dbcAMP are added. The conclusion is that both caffeine and dbcAMP are necessary for inducing sperm capacitation, which affects the ability of sperm to bind to the zona and to undergo the acrosome reaction.
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    The relative role of climate, land-use and spatial structure on spatial distribution pattern of species richness of large and medium mammals sympatric with giant pandas
    LI Dan, WANG Xiaojun, ZHAO Xuzhe, ZHOU Hong, HONG Mingsheng, WEI Wei, HAN Han, TANG Junfeng, ZHANG Zejun
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (4): 377-387.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150512
    Abstract219)      PDF (4487KB)(407)       Save
    Climate and land-use are recognized as the two main driving factors of biodiversity distribution patterns.However, most studies on the effects of climate and land-use have primarily focused on the species level, while their role on community diversity remains poorly understood.In this paper, combining species richness, climate and, land-use data as well as latitude and longitude data, we investigated the relative importance of climate, land-use, and spatial structure vari-ables on the species richness of large and medium mammals sympatric with giant pandas by using model comparison and variation partitioning.Our results show that(1) the number of genera and species of large and medium mammals differs in the five mountains of Sichuan Province.Minshan mountain has the highest number of genera(25) and species(28), while Liangshan mountain has the lowest number of genera(19) and species(20).The top five dominant species in the five mountains are the giant panda, takin, wild boar, Chinese goral, and Chinese serow.(2) We observed high spatial variation in species richness of large and medium mammals sympatric with giant pandas.The number of species in all 10×10 km grids ranged from 1 to 14, with an average of 6.199±3.475.(3) The full model(including all the climatic, land-use, and spatial structure variables, CLS) performed significantly better than all other six models, and the models including land-use covariates performed significantly better than those not including land-use covariates.(4) Climatic, land-use, and spatial structure variables together explained 43.0% of the variation in species richness, among which land-use variables accounted for the largest proportion, explaining 23.0% of the variation in species richness.Climatic and spatial variables explained only 6.3% and 9.3% of the variation in species richness, respectively.These findings indicated that the species richness of large and medium mammals sympatric with giant pandas was predominantly determined by land-use factors.Therefore, good forest stewardship to reduce anthropogenic threats and increase forest cover is the key to achieve comprehensive protection of large and medium mammals sympatric with giant pandas.
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    Preliminary study on habitat suitability of snow leopard ( Panthera uncia) in central Tianshan Mountains
    MA Bing, PAN Guoliang, LI Leiguang, CHEN Ying, LI Yibin, LIU Yizheng, BALIKE·Jiekeyi, SUN Shiwei, SHI Kun
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    2021, 41 (1): 1-10.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150436
    Abstract1178)      PDF (9794KB)(584)       Save
    Habitat loss and fragmentation due to anthropogenic pressure have a detrimental impact on the long-term population viability of endangered species, especially for snow leopards ( Panthera uncia) inhabiting plateau mountains.To evaluate the potential distribution and habitat quality for snow leopards in the Tianshan Mountains, 78 snow leopard presence records were collected covering an area of 2 425 km 2 in central Tianshan Mountains from November 2018 to June 2019.Eight species distribution models of snow leopard habitat selection were simulated.The results indicated that topographic roughness and altitude were the major factors influencing snow leopard distribution in the study area.Snow leopards preferentially occur in areas with topographic roughness greater than 70 and at altitudes range from 1 700-2 900 m.Ensemble model prediction results indicated that suitable habitat is concentrated between the west of Usu City and Banfanggou.This study obtained the potential distribution area of snow leopards in central Tianshan Mountains and evaluated the influence of environmental factors on it based on field investigation and model analysis.The study provides valuable baseline knowledge in the context of transboundary snow leopard conservation in the Tianshan Mountains.
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    Comparative on foraging behavior between white-headed langurs( Trachypithecus leucocephalus) and François'langurs( T.francoisi) in Guangxi, China
    LIAO Rong, LU Shiyi, HUANG Zhonghao, LI Youbang
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (4): 406-415.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150470
    Abstract214)      PDF (1585KB)(391)       Save
    Comparing the foraging behavior of sibling species can reveal similarity in behavioral plasticity and adaptability.White-headed langur( Trachypithecus leucocephalus) and François'langurs( T.francoisi) are sibling species sharing similar body size, social structure and habitat environment.They are neighboring primates distributed in the karst seasonal rain forest of the white-headed Langur National Nature Reserve in Chongzuo, Guangxi.In order to explore whether the two langurs have similar foraging strategies in response to karst habitat, we studied their foraging behavior from January to December 2012 using instantaneous scanning sampling.The results revealed that the feeding habits of the white-headed langur and the François'langur did not vary across day time.Leaves were the main food items for these two species, which accounted for 77.0%±4.4% of annual diet for the white-headed langurs and 68.9%±8.3% of annual diet for the François'langurs.There was no significant change in the eating time of leaves for both langurs(white-headed langur: χ 2=6.602, df=11, P=0.830;François'langurs: χ 2=11.393, df=11, P=0.411).Foraging behaviors of both species occurred frequently after leaving the sleeping cave in the early morning and before entering the sleeping cave in the later afternoon.Specifically, at 09:00-10:59 and 16:00-17:59, white-headed langur spent 41.7% and 46.3% of day time on feeding, whereas François'langurs devoted 31.3% and 38.0% of day time to feeding at 09:00-10:59 and 16:00-17:59, respectively.In addition, there was no significant difference in foraging time between the two langurs.Our result suggests that the white-headed langur and François'langurs share similar foraging strategy in the limestone forest, implying that the similar conservation efforts based on feeding ecology should be considered for both langurs.
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    Research advances and perspectives on the ecology of wild giant pandas
    WEI Fuwen,ZHANG Zejun,HU Jinchu
    Abstract2996)      PDF (325KB)(2480)       Save

    Among the order Carnivora, the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the most attractive animals, possessing high value for scientific research and being a symbol of worldwide nature conservation. In early 1980s, the Chinese government, cooperating with the WWF in initiated a research project on wild giant pandas in Wolong Nature Reserve. Since then, extensive research activities have been conducted in different mountain ranges inhabited by the animal. The application of new techniques such as 3S (GIS, RS, GPS)and molecular markers in the ecological study of the giant panda has greatly improved our understanding of its ecology. To date,a huge body of knowledge and information has been accumulated, potentially helpful for developing adaptive conservation strategies. In this paper, we summarize research findings and progress in understanding the ecology of wild giant pandas during the past 30 years on various aspects, including habitat ecology, feeding ecology, reproductive ecology, behavioral ecology, molecular ecology, population ecology and community ecology. Meanwhile, given the demands of research and management, future research directions are suggested.

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    The influence of group size and foraging environment on the daily path length of a critically endangered primate Nomascus nasutus
    LI Xingkang, ZHONG Xukai, WEI Shaogan, CUI Liangwei, FAN Pengfei, GUAN Zhenhua, MA Changyong
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (4): 388-397.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150495
    Abstract183)      PDF (5042KB)(386)       Save
    Daily path length can reflect animals'foraging efforts and offer insights into their foraging strategy, which is essential for implementing effective conservation plans for endangered species.The Cao Vit gibbon( Nomascus nasutus) is a small, critically endangered arboreal ape living in polygynous social groups(average group size 6.3).Research on its daily path length related to foraging habits is still limited.During two distinct periods, one from April 2008 to December 2009 and the other from October 2016 to August 2017, we followed two gibbon groups(G1 and G4) in Bangliang National Nature Reserve, Guangxi Province, China.We collected feeding behavioral and dietary data using instantaneous scan sampling at 5 min intervals on gibbon groups and mapped the gibbon groups' positions every 30 minutes.A total of 157 full-day observations were used to analyze the dietary changes and calculate the gibbons' daily path lengths.The gibbons changed their diet significantly in the two observation periods, and we found that they traveled on average 1 373 m per day(range:354-2 837 m), similarly to monogamous gibbon species living in low-latitude areas with smaller group sizes(3.8 in average).These findings indicate that, despite Cao Vit gibbons' relatively bigger group sizes, their daily foraging effort is not higher than other species, conflicting with the ecological constraints model.The availability of larger food patches, lower inter-species competition, and low group density might be the main reason for allowing Cao Vit gibbons to survive in bigger groups without increasing foraging efforts.Furthermore, the gibbons fed more fruits and traveled longer distances when anthropogenic disturbances were lower, while they significantly decreased their movements during the fruit-scarce dry season.This points to a potential energy conservation strategy employed by Cao Vit gibbons as an adaptation to cope with limited high-quality food.The large amount of data provided by the present work significantly amplified our understanding of Cao Vit gibbons travel patterns related to their foraging behavior when facing food scarcity, and improved the scientific knowledge that fosters the conservation of critically endangered wildlife.
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    Copulation calls and its influencing factors of Tibetan macaques ( Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China
    LI Biaobiao, WANG Xi, XIA Dongpo, ZHANG Qixin, LI Jinhua
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    2021, 41 (1): 32-41.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150408
    Abstract1298)      PDF (1592KB)(447)       Save
    Copulation call has been defined as an unique and rhythmic vocalization which can be performed by males and/or females during their copulations in mammals.Copulation calls are taken as a mating strategy of males and females.The studies of copulation calls will help us to reveal the differences of mating strategies among varieties of species.In this study, we recorded the frequency of copulation calls between mating males and females when copulatory behavior occurred in Tibetan macaques ( Macaca thibetana).We further analyzed the related elements along with copulation calls and whether copulatory behaviors had an impact on the following friendly behavior between mating males and mating females.The results showed that the adult higher-ranking males performed more copulation calls than other classes.There is no difference on copulation calls between dominated females and subordinated females.Moreover, copulation calls contributed to more friendly behavior and closer spatial distance between males and famales after mating.This study provided a fundamental datum about communication process for copulation calls in Tibetan macaques, and it helped to understand the theoretical significance of function and evolution in muti-males and muti-females society.
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