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    Catalogue of mammals in China(2021)
    WEI Fuwen, YANG Qisen, WU Yi, JIANG Xuelong, LIU Shaoying, LI Baoguo, YANG Guang, LI Ming, ZHOU Jiang, LI Song, HU Yibo, GE Deyan, LI Sheng, YU Wenhua, CHEN Bingyao, ZHANG Zejun, ZHOU Caiquan, WU Shibao, ZHANG Li, CHEN Zhongzheng, CHEN Shunde, DENG Huaiqing, JIANG Tinglei, ZHANG Libiao, SHI Hongyan, LU Xueli, LI Quan, LIU Zhu, CUI Yaqian, LI Yuchun
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 487-501.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150595
    Abstract5411)      PDF (1771KB)(3765)       Save
    China is one of the countries with the highest diversity of mammalian species. Knowledge of mammalian diversity and their taxonomy is fundamental to mammalian research and is the basis of scientific conservation of wild populations. To clarify the species diversity and important taxonomic information such as the taxonomic position of mammals in China, the China Mammalogical Society organized an editorial committee consisting of taxonomists studying different taxonomic groups. Based on previous taxonomic studies and the latest morphological and genetic evidences, the editorial committee produced the latest catalogue of mammalian species in China. This catalogue includes 12 orders, 59 families, 254 genera, and 686 species. The catalogue uses the taxonomy system based on phylogeny and fully discusses the validity of species taxonomy.
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    The relationship between boldness and aggression coupling and the fluctuation of rank in male Père David's Deer ( Elaphurus davidianus)
    MENG Qinghui, SONG Yuan, SHAN Yunfang, LI Junfang, BAI Jiade, MENG Xiuxiang, BAI Chao, ZHANG Chenglin
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (2): 159-167.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150473
    Abstract3714)   HTML737)    PDF (2097KB)(3323)       Save
    In estrus,male Père David's Deer ( Elaphurus davidianus) are divided into three ranks:king,challenger and bachelor.The order change was an intuitive performance of males'face to pressures.In this paper,the coupling degree of boldness and aggression in different stages of the life history of Père David's Deer was used to explain the rank development of Père David's Deer when they were young,the rank formation when they were sub-adults,and the rank fluctuations of the challenger during estrus.The behavior sampling method combines focus sampling and scanning sampling. Boldness was judged as the un-synchronization level of the behavior sample flow,and the early occurrence and low presynchronization rate of the same type of behavior.Aggression was judged by combination of aggressive behavior and winning index.Fecal testosterone levels were determined by radioimmunoassay.The results showed that there was a negative correlation between boldness and aggression coupling and grade development ( r=-0.111 8, P=0.018 3) in young Père David's Deer.There was a positive correlation between boldness and aggression coupling and rank fluctuation ( r=0.917 9, P=0.002 6) in sub-adults Père David's Deer.From sub-adult to adult estrus stage,four Père David's Deers achieved rank rise (boldness and aggression coupling r=0.852 3, P=0.000 3),and a Père David's Deer became the king.Four Père David's Deers did not change (boldness and aggression coupling r=0.482 9, P=0.006 3).Three Père David's Deers rank decreased (boldness and aggression coupling r=0.251 7, P=0.003 5).There was a positive correlation between testosterone level and rank of young Père David's Deer ( r=0.860 7, P=0.005 5).There was a positive correlation between testosterone level and rank of sub-adult Père David's Deer ( r=0.8457, P=0.004 4).There was a positive correlation between testosterone level and rank of adult Père David's Deer in rut ( r=0.954 6, P=0.001 8).Con- clusion:The coupling strength of boldness and aggression is positively correlated with the rank fluctuation of male Père David's Deer during estrus.Elevated rank is associated with raised secretion of testosterone levels.
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    Taxonomic and systematic research progress of mammals in China
    YU Wenhua, HE Kai, FAN Pengfei, CHEN Bingyao, LI Sheng, LIU Shaoying, ZHOU Jiang, YANG Qisen, LI Ming, JIANG Xuelong, YANG Guang, WU Shibao, LU Xueli, HU Yibo, LI Baoguo, LI Yuchun, JIANG Tinglei, WEI Fuwen, WU Yi
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 502-524.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150535
    Abstract1335)      PDF (3119KB)(1389)       Save
    Rich mammalian diversity in China ranks it as one of the key groups in maintaining ecological function. Since Mr. John R. Reeves conducted the first mammalian survey in Guangdong, China, from 1829 to 1834, Chinese mammal taxonomic and systematic researches have made remarkable progress in the past 200 years. Presently, the number of mammal species in China has reached 686, representing about 10% of all mammals and making it one of the most diverse countries in mammal species in the world. As China attaches greater importance to ecological protection, the ecological environment is increasingly improved. Nevertheless, along with global climate change, increasing human activities and the emergence of major human-animal epidemics, the importance of mammal surveys and taxonomic clarification has become more apparent. Meanwhile, this traditional discipline is constantly incorporating state-of-art techniques, such as integrative taxonomy, digitization of specimens, type specimens sequencing technique, portable sequencing techniques and deep learning-based species identification, with the goals of verifying species identification, building proper taxonomic classifications, and promoting the application and transformation of taxonomic achievements to other discipline. Animal taxonomy, a traditional basic discipline, is also the basis for many branches in modern biology, such as genetics, physiology, ecology, medicine and pharmacology. However, due to distinct characteristics among disciplines, it has not received sufficient attention in recent years. It is thus necessary to value traditional taxonomy, morphology and other basic disciplines at the national level, and provide special policy and financial support on talent training and funding.
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    Research advances and perspectives of mammalogy in China in the past 40 years
    WANG Dehua, WEI Fuwen, ZHANG Zhibin, WANG Zuwang
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 483-486.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150602
    Abstract1383)      PDF (1229KB)(1144)       Save
    It has been 40 years since the establishment of the Branch of Mammalogical Society of China Zoology Society in 1980 and the official founding of the journal Acta Theriologica Sinica in 1981. Most areas of mammalogy experienced great and healthy developments in China, especially in taxonomy and phylogeny, population ecology, physiological ecology, behavioral ecology, conservation ecology, conservation genetics, molecular evolution, and habitats assessments. Here we invited 11 review papers to reveal the main advances of these areas in the past 40 years in China and proposed some potential developmental directions for the future. Based on the well developments of these areas, some new problems and areas such as diseases of wild mammals and their transmission ecology, the roles of mammals in the ecosystem under climate changing, conservation physiology, and conservation metagenomics are the research fields that should be enhanced.
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    Diversity and functional characteristics of intestinal microflora of free-living wild boars in the Miaoling Mountain area in Guizhou Province, China
    YANG Xiongwei, PENG Caichun, GUO Qunyi, RAN Jingcheng, WANG Yeying, ZHANG Mingming, HU Canshi, LI Shize, SU Haijun
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (4): 365-376.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150515
    Abstract912)      PDF (7115KB)(1587)       Save
    Wild boars( Sus scrofa), which are widely distributed in southern China, are one of the few large-hoofed species that populations are proliferating.In recent years, an increasing number of studies have been conducted on the intestinal microflora of wild animals, but none have investigated the intestinal microflora of the wild populations of S.scrofa.In this study, total DNA from the gastrointestinal tract(stomach, ileum, colon, and rectum) of four samples of free-living wild boars from the Miaoling Mountain area of Guizhou Province was extracted, and the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified using universal primer PCR.The amplification products were sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq platform to assess the community structure, diversity, and flora function of intestinal bacteria of wild boars.A total of 1 268 577 valid sequences remained after the results were filtered for quality, and the low-quality reads were discarded.After drawing out the minimum sample sequence number, 1 019 OTUs were identified at the 97% similarity level.All samples were categorized into 19 phyla and 292 genera.At the level of phylum classification, the key floras in the intestinal tract were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria and there were 15 dominant genera, including Prevotella, Lactobacillus, Escherichia- Shigella, and Bifidobacterium.Rarefaction curves indicated that the sequencing depth had basically covered all bacteria in the sample.Among alpha diversity indices, the Chao1 and Shannon indices of the colon and rectum were significantly higher than those of the stomach and ileum( P<0.05).This fully confirmed that the colon and rectum had a bacterial community structure relatively similar and greater floral richness and diversity to that of the stomach and ileum.The results of principal coordinates analysis(PCoA) and analysis of similarity(Anosim) showed a readily visible difference in distinct parts of the gastrointestinal tracts of wild boars.LEfSe analysis indicated that there were 22 bacterial genera with significant differences in distinct intestinal segments of boars, most of which were attributed to Firmicutes.In addition, PICRUSt showed that different intestinal segments also had unique metabolic functions and pathways.This study preliminarily revealed the characteristics of the intestinal flora of wild boars from Guizhou Province.We found that the intestinal flora of wild boars had a relatively complex structure and that there were significant differences between distinct intestinal segments.
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    The relative role of climate, land-use and spatial structure on spatial distribution pattern of species richness of large and medium mammals sympatric with giant pandas
    LI Dan, WANG Xiaojun, ZHAO Xuzhe, ZHOU Hong, HONG Mingsheng, WEI Wei, HAN Han, TANG Junfeng, ZHANG Zejun
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (4): 377-387.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150512
    Abstract718)      PDF (4487KB)(1148)       Save
    Climate and land-use are recognized as the two main driving factors of biodiversity distribution patterns.However, most studies on the effects of climate and land-use have primarily focused on the species level, while their role on community diversity remains poorly understood.In this paper, combining species richness, climate and, land-use data as well as latitude and longitude data, we investigated the relative importance of climate, land-use, and spatial structure vari-ables on the species richness of large and medium mammals sympatric with giant pandas by using model comparison and variation partitioning.Our results show that(1) the number of genera and species of large and medium mammals differs in the five mountains of Sichuan Province.Minshan mountain has the highest number of genera(25) and species(28), while Liangshan mountain has the lowest number of genera(19) and species(20).The top five dominant species in the five mountains are the giant panda, takin, wild boar, Chinese goral, and Chinese serow.(2) We observed high spatial variation in species richness of large and medium mammals sympatric with giant pandas.The number of species in all 10×10 km grids ranged from 1 to 14, with an average of 6.199±3.475.(3) The full model(including all the climatic, land-use, and spatial structure variables, CLS) performed significantly better than all other six models, and the models including land-use covariates performed significantly better than those not including land-use covariates.(4) Climatic, land-use, and spatial structure variables together explained 43.0% of the variation in species richness, among which land-use variables accounted for the largest proportion, explaining 23.0% of the variation in species richness.Climatic and spatial variables explained only 6.3% and 9.3% of the variation in species richness, respectively.These findings indicated that the species richness of large and medium mammals sympatric with giant pandas was predominantly determined by land-use factors.Therefore, good forest stewardship to reduce anthropogenic threats and increase forest cover is the key to achieve comprehensive protection of large and medium mammals sympatric with giant pandas.
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    Habitat utilization and spatial patterns of pre-released giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca)
    ZHOU Yanshan, HOU Rong, LIU Jiabin, BI Wenlei, Jacob R. Owens, ZHANG Zhihe, HUANG Feng, LUO Wei, QI Dunwu
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (6): 641-648.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150457
    Abstract1247)   HTML365)    PDF (12681KB)(1322)       Save
    Understanding the habitat and space utilization patterns of wildlife provides a foundation for designing effective strategies for successful conservation translocations. To clarify these patterns in captive born giant pandas ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca) being prepared for the wild, the movement data of two pre-released individuals with GPS collars were studied in the Liziping National Nature Reserve. The GPS data were extracted and calculated using animal movement module in the geographic information system (GIS) through a digital elevation model (DEM). We found the following results:the two giant pandas gradually migrated from the broad-leaved forest on the southwest slopes of low altitude areas to the mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forests on the high altitude southern slopes. There were significant differences in the slope selection of the two giant pandas, but both of them tended to choose the gentle areas with a slope of 17°-20°. The average daily movement distance of the two giant pandas gradually decreased through the study, then stabilized with time spent in the wild habitat. Their home ranges were also significantly different both within any given month and throughout the study duration. Both individuals had several primary use patches of varied areas and distances between each site, which indicated that the pre-released giant pandas had an unstable random selection mode in the initial stage of acclimation to the wild habitat.
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    Research advances and prespectives in mammal physiological ecology in China
    WANG Dehua, ZHAO Zhijun, ZHANG Xueying, ZHANG Zhiqiang, XU Deli, XING Xin, YANG Shengmei, WANG Zhengkun, GAO Yunfang, YANG Ming
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 537-555.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150558
    Abstract1174)      PDF (2869KB)(1010)       Save
    After more than 70 years of development, mammalian physiological ecology in China has made great progress in the study of physiological adaptation of animals living in different geographical environments, such as the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Inner Mongolia Grassland, and the Hengduan Mountains. The main research topics include energy metabolism and body temperature regulation, hibernation physiology, water metabolism, ecological immunology, and the thermoregulatory role of gut microbiota. Some topics and areas still require more effort, such as physiological adaptation of mammals to extreme environments, large mammals physiology and conservation physiology. The new technologies need to be better integrated including the multi-omics technology, isotope technology, and remote sensing technology. This paper reviews the main advances of mammalian physiological ecology in China.
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    ON THE GEOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION TAXONOMIC STATUS OF SPECIES AND EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF SIKA DEER IN CHINA
    QUO Yanshu , ZHENQ Huizhen
      
    Abstract1784)      PDF (506KB)(1689)       Save
    In early Pleistocene, sika deer was only found in north China region and Taiwan; in middle pleistocene to holocence it extended to northeast region the east of Mongolia-Xinkian region the central China region the south China region, the east of southwest region and Qinghai-Tibet region. There is only one species ( Cervus nippon) in the east Asia from early pleistocene to holocene. It is devided into nine subspecies in China (C. n. sintikuensis, C. n. taicxuanus, C. n.grayi,C. n .hortulorum,C. n .mandarinu, C. n. grassianus,C. n. sinchuanrinus, C. n . kopschi C. n . pseudxis). Sika deer whose home is on the edge of the forest has better adaptabililty. Its distribution regions are abruptly shrinking with the continuous rising of Qinghai-Tibet plateau and man’s action after ice age. Now, there are only 1500 wild sika deers in China. It is discussed evolutionary history of sika deer yet.
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    Effects of repeated exposure to cat odor on anti-predator and anxiety-like behaviors of juvenile Brandt's voles( Lasiopodomys brandtii)
    PENG Yan, WU Yongzhen, GU Chen, YANG Shengmei, YIN Baofa, WEI Wanhong
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (4): 451-458.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150469
    Abstract716)      PDF (1823KB)(1434)       Save
    The predator odor has an important effect on the behavior and physiology of the prey.This paper aimed to investigate the change of anti-predator, anxiety-like behaviors and endocrine level of juvenile Brandt's voles( Lasiopodomysbrandtii) after repeated exposure to cat odor for 18 days.We also discuss the response strategy of juvenile Brandt's voles affected by the cat odor.The results showed that juvenile Brandt's voles significantly increased concealing behavior and decreased the locomotion, jumping, grooming and contact behaviors after exposed to cat odor for one day.However, after repeated exposure to cat odor for 18 days, they developed a behavioral adaptation to the cat odor and their anti-predator behaviors were not significantly different to that of the control group.The open field test showed that the repeated exposure to cat odor significantly reduced the total distance moved and average velocity of juvenile Brandt's voles, while increased their immobility time.In the light-dark box test, female Brandt's vole in the cat-odor group visited more frequently the light area than the male, however, there was no significant difference in time in the light box between genders and treatments.There were no significant changes in plasma corticosterone(CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH) concentrations for the juvenile Brandt's voles after repeated exposure to cat odor.These findings indicate that when juvenile Brandt's voles are initially exposed to cat odor, their anti-predator behaviors increased, but subsequently diminished over repeated exposures.On the other hand, their anxiety-like behaviors did not vary.
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    Research advances and prepectives on habitat assessment and protection of endangered mammals of China
    JIANG Guangshun, LI Jingzhi
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 604-613.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150501
    Abstract1147)      PDF (2121KB)(1003)       Save
    At present, global, species are facing increasing extinction risk at an unprecedented rate. The effective assessment and scientific protection of wildlife habitat are important prerequisites and means to prevent endangered wildlife from extinction and maintain their sustainable survivals and development. This article summarizes the current status and achievements of research progress on habitat assessment and protection from five categories of endangered wildlife in China:carnivores, ungulates, primates, small mammals, and marine mammals. This article summarizes and analyzes related acade-mic achievements in order to reveal systematic and valuable methods and technical means for the scientific protection and management of habitats. This article also offers prospects for the theoretical and technical challenges of habitat assessment and protection research. It proposes that the habitat assessment and protection research of endangered mammals in China should move towards a ‘precise’ development direction of integration, quantification, intelligence, and multi-disciplinary cross-integration applications, to provide technical support for the effective implementation of national ecological construction projects.
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    Research advances and prespectives in ethology and behavioral ecology of the mammals in China
    LI Baoguo, HOU Rong, ZHANG He, CHEN Guoliang, FANG Gu
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 525-536.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150529
    Abstract1261)      PDF (2008KB)(985)       Save
    Ethology and behavioral ecology study the behavioral traits, behavior patterns and behavior mechanisms of animals, as well as the behavior strategies to adapt to environmental changes. Here, we briefly review some significant achievements of these two research fields over the past forty years in China by focusing specifically on mammalian taxa. The results indicate that more advanced technologies and methods have significantly improved the ways of data collection and experimental analysis over the past two decades. Chinese scholars have published many high-quality papers in international journals and books, which has narrowed the research gap between China and the developed nations. In particular, behavioral studies on the giant panda are playing a leading global role. Some other significant research achievements include those on interspecific interactions and behavioral adaptation mechanisms of rodents, primates' social behavior and adaptation mechanism of foraging strategy, and echolocation behaviors of bats. In contrast, behavioral studies on some groups, such as carnivores, ungulates, and marine mammals, are still lacking. The increasing national support on basic research, more high-level research bases and the growing number of scientists, as well as the application of interdisciplinary and advanced techniques, will facilitate the prosperous development of ethology and behavioral ecology in China.
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    Marine mammal researches in China
    HAO Yujiang,WANG Kexiong,HAN Jiabo,ZHENG Jingsong,XIAN Yijie,YAO Zhiping,LU Zhichuang,LI Haiyan,ZHANG Xianfeng
      
    Abstract5519)      PDF (441KB)(3525)       Save
    Researchers in China have studied marine mammals for over 80 years. In recognition of Acta Theriologica Sinica’s
    30 year anniversary,we have reviewed the history of this research using an extensive published literature as well as our own research and experience,summarized its progress,and discuss future prospects. Marine mammals in this paper are divided into three groups:whales,pinnipeds,and other marine mammals. We have focused on research examining the ecology, rearing and breeding biology,conservation genetic,acoustics,and conservation biology for selected species. Two main points have been drawn from the review. First,Chinese research on marine mammals is at the forefront of some fields including research on rearing and breeding biology,c onservation biology,and bio-acoustics of river dolphin or porpoise. The second point,unfortunately,is that there is a lack of systematics studies on marine mammals in Chinese coastal waters. Finally, we expect to see significant breakthroughs and real progress on the protection of endangered species in the near future.
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    Research advances and perspectives on mammal population ecology in China
    BIAN Jianghui
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 556-570.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150500
    Abstract1154)      PDF (2704KB)(976)       Save
    Mammal population ecology is key component of model ecology. Charles Sutherland Elton's 1924 article on periodic fluctuations in animal populations marked the beginning of modern population ecological research. What factors regulate population fluctuation has always puzzled ecologists and many hypotheses were put forward to explain mechanism underlying population fluctuation, but there is no one hypothesis that can perfectly explain its mechanism. The study of mammal population ecology in China began in the 1950s, and has gone through 70 years of development, and has made some important achievements. In this paper, we summarize research findings and progress in rodent and other mammal populations during the past 70 years on various aspects, including pattern of population dynamics, changes in demography, effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, and interaction of those factors. Meanwhile, future research directions are suggested.
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    Comparative on the salt-licking behavior of three species of deer in the Tianmushan National Nature Reserve
    ZHOU Hu, LIU Zhou, PANG Chunmei, CHEN Kangmin, ZHANG Shusheng, YANG Shuzhen, XU Aichun
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    2021, 41 (1): 99-107.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150394
    Abstract1841)      PDF (3771KB)(1261)       Save
    To study the salt-licking behavior of South China sika deer ( Cervus nippon kopschi), black muntjac ( Muntiacus crinifrons) and Chinese muntjac( M. reevesi), twelve artificial salt fields were set up in the Tianmushan National Nature Reserve in Zhejiang Province, China.Two cameras were set up in each site to monitor the visits of deers from April 2018 to March 2019.The frequency and duration of each visits were recorded to reveal the daily salt-licking rhythm and seasonal pattern of different species, and the allometricl model was employed to test the gender differences of visitors.The results show that:(1) all the three species use artificial salt fields, but Chinese muntjac and South China sika deer have relatively high frequency of visiting;(2) The South China sika deer and black muntjac prefer to use salt fields at high and low altitude, respectively, however Chinese muntjac have no preference for altitude;(3) Chinese muntjac is a typical morning-dusk animal to visit salt fields, and South China sika deer and black muntjac mainly at dusk and night;(4) most identifiable visitors are single sex, and no more than two species appear in a same record;(5) the three species have different salt-licking patterns:South China sika deer has relatively low frequency but large quantity, black muntjac with low frequency and small quantity, and Chinese muntjac with high frequency and large quantity.Accordingly, We suggest that the wildlife management departments could set up more artificial salt fields in spring and summer, and appropriately reduce the salt bricks in autumn and winter.
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    Research advances and perspectives of conservation genomics and meta-genomics of threatened mammals in China
    WEI Fuwen, HUANG Guangping, FAN Huizhong, HU Yibo
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 581-590.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150518
    Abstract1153)      PDF (1937KB)(966)       Save
    Understanding the evolutionary processes, endangered mechanisms and adaptive evolution are key scientific issues in conservation biology. During the past decades, advances in high-throughput sequencing and multi-disciplinary crossover provide deep insights into the evolutionary history, genetic structure, adaptive evolution, and host-microbiota coevolution of endangered species. The emergence of two new branches of conservation biology, Conservation Genomics and Conservation Metagenomics, provides novel insights into wildlife conservation. In this review, we summarize the important advances in the two fields and discuss the future research directions, aiming to promote the conservation biology of threa-tened animals in China.
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    Second record of collared sprite( Thainycteris aureocollaris, Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) from China
    XIE Huixian, LI Yannan, LIANG Xiaoling, ZHANG Huiguang, ZHAN Liying, WU Yi, YU Wenhua
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (4): 476-482.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150533
    Abstract718)      PDF (12388KB)(1462)       Save
    During a chiropteran survey in June 2020 in the Wuyi Mountain National Park, Fujian Province, a male bat was captured by a harp trap on a forest trail.It was a medium-sized vespertilionid bat with a forearm length of 45.9 mm and a distinct broad stripe of buffy hairs running across the top of its head between the bases of the ears.Its skull was robust with the greatest length of 17.42 mm, obvious supraorbital protuberances, and a dental formula of 2113/3123.These characteristics are consistent with those of the Collared sprite Thainycteris aureocollaris, a species rare in China.The morphology-based identification was also verified by phylogenetic inference using the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene segment. The calls of the specimen recorded during flight were the frequency modulation type with a dominant frequency of(30.05±0.94) kHz. T.aureocollaris has so far only been recorded in Libo County, Guizhou Province, China, therefore the current record represents the second known occurrence of the species in China, and a new chiropteran record from Fujian Province.
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    New records of Tibetan shrew( Sorex thibetanus Kastschenko,1905) and Gansu shrew( Sorex cansulus Thomas,1912) in Yunnan Province
    SONG Wenyu, WANG Hongjiao, LI Yixian, HE Shuiwang, JIANG Xuelong
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (3): 352-360.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150520
    Abstract986)      PDF (20628KB)(1602)       Save
    Tibetan shrew( Sorex thibetanus) and Gansu shrew( Sorex cansulus) are two poorly known species of the genus Sorex. In 2017, 48 specimens of Sorex were collected in alpine areas of north-west Yunnan. The morphological characteristics and measurements of these specimens were compared with previous specimen records, and their phylogenetic relationships with other Sorex species were assessed based on Cyt b gene. Results show that 27 specimens from 4 sites are morphologically similar to S. thibetanus, while other 21 specimens from 2 sites are morphologically similar to S. cansulus, although with considerable differences. The intraspecific Kimura-2-parameter distance based on Cyt b was 0.46% for S. thibetanus and 0.42% for S. cansulus, while the distances between these two species to other Sorex species were 10.76%-17.04% and 6.59%-14.52%, respectively. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses support the two species are monophyletic to S. thibetanus(BS=71%) and S. cansulus (BS=100%), which both are new mammal records in Yunnan Province.
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    Investigation on the population of wild Bengal tiger ( Panthera tigris tigris) in Medog, Tibet
    WANG Yuan1, LIU Wulin1, LIU Feng, LI Sheng, ZHU Xuelin, JIANG Zhigang, FENG Limin,, LI Bingzhang
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150265
    Discussion on the taxonomy and distribution of the Micromys Dehne, 1841 in China
    PEI Xiaoxin, QU Weiying, ZHANG Min, SHAO Jiangshan, FANG Lei, CHEN Zhongzheng
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (6): 631-640.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150554
    Abstract1506)   HTML50)    PDF (8638KB)(992)       Save
    Micromys Dehne, 1841 is part of the Muridae family and is one of the smallest rodents. Previous studies have shown that the genus consists of two species, M. minutus and M. erythrotis. However, due to the lack of data, the species status of M. erythrotis is still controversial, and the geographical distribution of the two species in China is uncertain. In this study, a number of specimens of the genus Micromys were recently collected from Qingliangfeng National Nature Reserve in Anhui Province. They were identified as M. minutus and M. erythrotis based on morphology and molecular analyses. Both species occur in sympatry at altitude 1 600 m in Qingliangfeng. Our findings therefore support the species status of M. erythrotis. Based on the morphological characteristics of the M. minutus and M. erythrotis individuals collected in Qingliangfeng, we analyzed the photos of Micromys specimens housed in the National Animal Collection Resource Center and, combined with the data available in the literature, reorganized the geographical distribution of the genus Micromys in China and provided updated distribution maps. The results showed that M. minutus is mainly distributed in Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, Hebei, Shaanxi, Gansu, Xinjiang, Jiangsu, Anhui, Zhejiang, Hunan, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Fujian and Taiwan. M. erythrotis is mainly distributed in Yunnan, Sichuan, Shaanxi, Hubei, Tibet, Guizhou, Chongqing, Anhui, Fujian and Guangxi. Qingliangfeng in Anhui Province and Zhenba and Chenggu counties in Shaanxi Province are the overlapping distribution areas of the two species. In addition, the results of the molecular phylogenetic analysis show that the diversity of the genus is still underestimated in China and it is very likely that there are undescribed taxa in the genus.
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    Effects of seasonality and social ranks on fecal cortisol levels in male Tibetan macaques( Macaca thibetana)
    WU Mingyang, CHEN Shiwang, SUN Binghua, WANG Xi, XIA Dongpo, LI Jinhua
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (4): 398-405.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150524
    Abstract654)      PDF (1535KB)(1364)       Save
    Many primate species are social, a consequence of long-term evolutionary processes.Despite natural selection favoring sociality, intragroup competition can generate stress for individuals.Cortisol level is one physiological indicator of an individual's stress.Seasonally-breading Tibetan macaques( Macaca thibetana) are ideal candidates for the investigation of the potential relationships between social stressors, cortisol levels, and dominance rank.We collected 325 fresh feces from 13 males in Huangshan, Anhui Province, China, and quantified cortisol levels from the fecal samples.We analyzed individual variation in fecal cortisol levels to test the effects of season(i.e., the mating and non-mating seasons) and position in the dominance hierarchy.Our results show that the macaque subjects had higher fecal cortisol levels in the mating season.There was no significant difference in the cortisol levels of high-ranked, middle-ranked, and low-ranked males in the non-mating season, but in the mating season, cortisol levels of middle-ranked males were significantly higher than those of both high- and low-ranked males.As we have known, this is the first study to investigate the cortisol levels in wild Tibetan macaques, and analyze the effects of seasonality and social ranks on cortisol.
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    Comparative Space Use Patterns of Wild Giant Pandas and Livestock
    ZHOU Shiqiang,Vanessa HULL,ZHANG Jindong,HUANG Jinyan,LIU Dian,HUANG Yan,LI Desheng,ZHANG Hemin
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201602002
    Camera-trapping survey of the mammal diversity in the Qilian Mountains National Nature Reserve, Gansu Province
    MA Duifang, SUN Zhangyun, HU Dazhi, AN Bei, CHEN Liuyang, ZHANG Dexi, DONG Kai, ZHANG Lixun
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    2021, 41 (1): 90-98.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150418
    Abstract1672)      PDF (25885KB)(1382)       Save
    From August 2017 to August 2018, 60 infrared cameras were set up in three monitoring sample areas in Gansu Qilian Mountains National Nature Reserve.A total of 1 619 independent wildlife photographs were collected from 14 999 camera-days.Nineteen species were identified and belonged to 5 orders and 9 families.Three domestic animal species were captured.Among the detected wildlife species, 3 species are listed as Class Ⅰ state key protected wild animals in China and five species as Class Ⅱ.Two species are endemic to China.One specie is assessed as endangered(EN), one specie near threatened(NT) and four species as vulnerable(VU) by the IUCN Red List.The fauna analysis of mammals in the reserve showed that the Palaearctic species occupies 53% and the widespread occupies 47%.These 19 species were captured when any single camera had worked for 204 days.The four highest relative abundance indexes(RAI) species were red deer( Cervus yarkandensis) (5.16), bharal( Pseudois nayaur) (2.01), Siberian roe deer( Capreolus pygargus) (0.96) and Alpine musk deer( Moschus chrysogaster) (0.71).Their activity rhythm showed that the daily activity rhythm of red deer, bharal and Alpine musk deer showed double peak with morning and night peak, while Siberian roe deer only had one morning peak.The highest relative activity intensity was in summer.Our study provides basic status of current mammal species.These findings may contribute to understanding the behavioral adaptation of the four important species, and provide baseline information for the formulation of relevant protection strategies in the reserve.
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    Discussion of taxonomic status of Crocidura dongyangjiangensis Liu Y, Chen SD, and Liu SY, 2020 and Crocidura huangshanensis Yang, BW Zhang and Li, 2020
    CHEN Shunde, CHEN Dan, TANG Keyi, QIN Boxin, XIE Fei, FU Changkun, LIU Yang, LIU Shaoying
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    2021, 41 (1): 108-114.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150503
    Abstract1578)      PDF (11648KB)(1186)       Save
    From the morphological and molecular comparison of the two recently published Crocidura species ( Crocidura huangshanensis and Crocidura dongyangjiangensis) based on specimens collected from geographically close locations, it is found that the two species are similar in overall description, and the appearance and morphological measurements are overlapped in many skull characteristics.Phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial and nuclear genes showed the two species were clustered and did not form an independent clade from each other.The uncorrected p-distance of Cyt b holotypes of the two taxon was only 1.1%.In GenBank, the BLAST similarity of Cyt b genes of the two species was 99.56%.Therefore, it is determined that the two taxon should recognized as the same species.Since the publication of Crocidura dongyangjiangensis was earlier than Crocidura huangshanensis, thus we suggest Crocidura huangshanensis Yang, BW Zhang and Li, 2020 as a junior synonym of Crocidura dongyangjiangensis Liu Y, Chen SD, and Liu SY, 2020.
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    A new species of the genus Crocidura (Eulipotyphla: Soricidae) from Zhejiang Pvovince, eastern China
    LIU Yang, CHEN Shunde, LIU Baoquan, LIAO Rui, LIU Yingxun, LIU Shaoying
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150340
    Activity pattern of Transbaikal zokor( Myospalax psilurus) and its relationship with soil temperature and humidity
    Manduhu, YUAN Shuai, YANG Suwen, JI Yu, Chaoketu, WEI Jun, FU Heping, WU Xiaodong
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (4): 441-450.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150523
    Abstract883)      PDF (2146KB)(1353)       Save
    The activity rhythm of animals is a comprehensive adaptation to environmental conditions.Subterranean rodents live in relatively low oxygen and dark environment all year round.How their activity rhythm and intensity are affected by soil temperature and humidity of their habitat, and whether there are gender differences, has received extensive attention.The influence of these factors can objectively reflect the long-term life-history strategies of subterranean rodents to adapt to their habitats.Transbaikal zokor ( Myospalax psilurus) is a dominant rodent species in the meadow steppe of northern China.It is very important to study the diurnal and seasonal activity intensity of zokor and their relationships with soil temperature and humidity for understanding its survival and reproductive strategies and ecological controlling factors.This study was conducted in May(spring), July(summer), and September(autumn) of 2016 and 2017 in the meadow grassland of Hulunbeier city, Inner Mongolia, China, using radio-tracking methods to monitor the diurnal and seasonal activity intensity of Transbaikal zokor.We analyzed the daily activity intensity and sex differences among zokor in different seasons, and the relationships between activity intensity and soil temperature and soil relative humidity were analyzed.The results showed that(1) the daily activity rhythm of zokor was unimodal.The activity peak appeared from night to morning in different seasons, and the duration of peak activity varied between seasons:12 hours in spring, 7 hours in summer and 6 hours in autumn.There was no significant difference in the daily and seasonal activity intensity between male and female individuals, which exhibited a high synchronization.(2) The activity intensity of zokor was significantly correlated with soil temperature( P<0.01).The activity intensity of zokor was highest when soil temperature was at 7℃-10℃(20:00 to 08:00 the next day) in spring, 17℃-22℃(20:00 to 03:00 the next day) in summer and 10℃-12℃(22:00 to 04:00 the next day) in autumn, and then gradually decreased with increasing soil temperature.There was no significant correlation between activity intensity and soil relative moisture.
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    The influence of group size and foraging environment on the daily path length of a critically endangered primate Nomascus nasutus
    LI Xingkang, ZHONG Xukai, WEI Shaogan, CUI Liangwei, FAN Pengfei, GUAN Zhenhua, MA Changyong
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (4): 388-397.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150495
    Abstract404)      PDF (5042KB)(1025)       Save
    Daily path length can reflect animals'foraging efforts and offer insights into their foraging strategy, which is essential for implementing effective conservation plans for endangered species.The Cao Vit gibbon( Nomascus nasutus) is a small, critically endangered arboreal ape living in polygynous social groups(average group size 6.3).Research on its daily path length related to foraging habits is still limited.During two distinct periods, one from April 2008 to December 2009 and the other from October 2016 to August 2017, we followed two gibbon groups(G1 and G4) in Bangliang National Nature Reserve, Guangxi Province, China.We collected feeding behavioral and dietary data using instantaneous scan sampling at 5 min intervals on gibbon groups and mapped the gibbon groups' positions every 30 minutes.A total of 157 full-day observations were used to analyze the dietary changes and calculate the gibbons' daily path lengths.The gibbons changed their diet significantly in the two observation periods, and we found that they traveled on average 1 373 m per day(range:354-2 837 m), similarly to monogamous gibbon species living in low-latitude areas with smaller group sizes(3.8 in average).These findings indicate that, despite Cao Vit gibbons' relatively bigger group sizes, their daily foraging effort is not higher than other species, conflicting with the ecological constraints model.The availability of larger food patches, lower inter-species competition, and low group density might be the main reason for allowing Cao Vit gibbons to survive in bigger groups without increasing foraging efforts.Furthermore, the gibbons fed more fruits and traveled longer distances when anthropogenic disturbances were lower, while they significantly decreased their movements during the fruit-scarce dry season.This points to a potential energy conservation strategy employed by Cao Vit gibbons as an adaptation to cope with limited high-quality food.The large amount of data provided by the present work significantly amplified our understanding of Cao Vit gibbons travel patterns related to their foraging behavior when facing food scarcity, and improved the scientific knowledge that fosters the conservation of critically endangered wildlife.
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