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    Catalogue of mammals in China(2021)
    WEI Fuwen, YANG Qisen, WU Yi, JIANG Xuelong, LIU Shaoying, LI Baoguo, YANG Guang, LI Ming, ZHOU Jiang, LI Song, HU Yibo, GE Deyan, LI Sheng, YU Wenhua, CHEN Bingyao, ZHANG Zejun, ZHOU Caiquan, WU Shibao, ZHANG Li, CHEN Zhongzheng, CHEN Shunde, DENG Huaiqing, JIANG Tinglei, ZHANG Libiao, SHI Hongyan, LU Xueli, LI Quan, LIU Zhu, CUI Yaqian, LI Yuchun
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 487-501.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150595
    Abstract12166)      PDF (1771KB)(6619)       Save
    China is one of the countries with the highest diversity of mammalian species. Knowledge of mammalian diversity and their taxonomy is fundamental to mammalian research and is the basis of scientific conservation of wild populations. To clarify the species diversity and important taxonomic information such as the taxonomic position of mammals in China, the China Mammalogical Society organized an editorial committee consisting of taxonomists studying different taxonomic groups. Based on previous taxonomic studies and the latest morphological and genetic evidences, the editorial committee produced the latest catalogue of mammalian species in China. This catalogue includes 12 orders, 59 families, 254 genera, and 686 species. The catalogue uses the taxonomy system based on phylogeny and fully discusses the validity of species taxonomy.
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    Preliminary studies on the home range and diurnal behaviour of Callosciurus erythraeus in an urban garden
    YUAN Yaohua, LIU Qunxiu, ZHANG Xin
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2019, 39 (6): 639-650.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150298
    Abstract2328)      PDF (2422KB)(3781)       Save
    From Dec 2015 to May 2016, nine Pallas's squirrels ( Callosciurus erythraeus) were radio tracked at Shanghai Zoo. Home range sizes, spatial shapes and overlaps between individuals were inferred via minimum convex polygon (MCP) and 95% kernel-based estimators. Behaviour was also observed and recorded from line transect surveys. The average home range size was found to be 12376㎡ (MCP)-18146㎡ (95%Kernel). The home range size of male individuals was not significantly larger than females (Independent-sample t test, t=-0.101, P=0.922). There is no significant difference between the overall ranges in winter and those observed in spring (One way ANOVA,MCP: F=3.900, P=0.070;95%FK: F=3.566, P=0.081). There were overlaps between home ranges of different individuals with OI 0.36-0.63 in winter and 0.02-0.43 in spring. The diurnal behaviour of Callosciurus erythraeus was observed to comprise travelling (29.4%), feeding (25.1%) and resting (24.7%), though in winter, time spent feeding (33.3%) was significantly higher than that observed in summer (16.4%) (One way ANOVA, F=119.268, P<0.001). Territorial behaviour also varied significantly between different seasons (One way ANOVA, F=140.416, P<0.001). The diurnal activities of Callosciurus erythraeus showed a “U” pattern with active periods from 05:00-08:00 and 15:00-18:00, and a primary resting period from 12:00-13:00. 
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    Taxonomic and systematic research progress of mammals in China
    YU Wenhua, HE Kai, FAN Pengfei, CHEN Bingyao, LI Sheng, LIU Shaoying, ZHOU Jiang, YANG Qisen, LI Ming, JIANG Xuelong, YANG Guang, WU Shibao, LU Xueli, HU Yibo, LI Baoguo, LI Yuchun, JIANG Tinglei, WEI Fuwen, WU Yi
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 502-524.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150535
    Abstract2668)      PDF (3119KB)(3446)       Save
    Rich mammalian diversity in China ranks it as one of the key groups in maintaining ecological function. Since Mr. John R. Reeves conducted the first mammalian survey in Guangdong, China, from 1829 to 1834, Chinese mammal taxonomic and systematic researches have made remarkable progress in the past 200 years. Presently, the number of mammal species in China has reached 686, representing about 10% of all mammals and making it one of the most diverse countries in mammal species in the world. As China attaches greater importance to ecological protection, the ecological environment is increasingly improved. Nevertheless, along with global climate change, increasing human activities and the emergence of major human-animal epidemics, the importance of mammal surveys and taxonomic clarification has become more apparent. Meanwhile, this traditional discipline is constantly incorporating state-of-art techniques, such as integrative taxonomy, digitization of specimens, type specimens sequencing technique, portable sequencing techniques and deep learning-based species identification, with the goals of verifying species identification, building proper taxonomic classifications, and promoting the application and transformation of taxonomic achievements to other discipline. Animal taxonomy, a traditional basic discipline, is also the basis for many branches in modern biology, such as genetics, physiology, ecology, medicine and pharmacology. However, due to distinct characteristics among disciplines, it has not received sufficient attention in recent years. It is thus necessary to value traditional taxonomy, morphology and other basic disciplines at the national level, and provide special policy and financial support on talent training and funding.
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    A preliminary study of wolverine in Altay, Xinjiang
    LIU Xu, MA Ming, XU Fujun, XIONG Jiawu, Zhu Shibing, CUI Shaopeng, JIANG Zhigang, ZHANG Tong, GUO Hong, ERBOLAT Tuoliuhan
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2018, 38 (5): 519-524.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150161
    Abstract1877)      PDF (7555KB)(2950)       Save
    Wolverine ( Gulo gulo) distribution in China is small, being found only in the Great Khingan Mountains, northeast China and the Altay Mountains, northwest China. It had been category Ⅰstate key protected wild animals because of the rarely population. Some studies of wolverines have been done in the Great Khingan Mountains but few in the Altay Mountains. In 2013-2016, we surveyed six chosen ranges to estimate the population size and density of wolverine in the Altay Mountains using a line transect method, a trace method, a questionnaire survey and infrared cameras. As a result, we directly observed and captured wolverines in Kaba, Burjin (Kanas Nature Reserve), Altai (Xiao donggou), Fuyun (Kurmut), Qinghe (Qinggil River). The population size in Altay Mountains was estimated approximately to be 97-166 individuals, from which the density was estimated to be 2.57-4.39 individuals/ 1000 km2. This scarce population may be related to grazing pressure, reduced food resources, habitat loss, or the increasing interference of human activity. As well, the conflict between wolverines and livestock and the border fencecould be another reason.
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    Behavioral adaptability for maintaining consortship in male Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana)
    FANG Xingli, ZHANG Qixin, XIA Dongpo, LI Jinhua
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2020, 40 (1): 19-26.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150296
    Abstract1695)      PDF (1427KB)(2755)       Save
    In primates, consortship is an intersexual relationship in multi-male and multi-female groups, it is usually observed when an estrous/ receptive female is followed by an adult male, especially in the mating season among seasonally breeding species. Consortship is one of the behavioral strategies for males to improve their mating success. In order to investigate the constraints of energetic costs on this behavior, we studied 8-10 adult male Tibetan macaques ( Macaca thibetana) of YA1 group at Mt. Huangshan, Anhui. We used focal animal sampling, behavioral sampling and all occurrence recording to record adult male Tibetan macaque’s social behavior from August 2017 to January 2018. Here, we studied how male individuals maintain consortship by analyzing moving time, feeding time, mating frequency and urinary C-peptide levels (UCP: physiological indicator of the individual energy state) by using noninvasive measuring method . The results showed that there is no significant difference in moving time, but when males were in consortships, the feeding time and mating frequency increased significantly; when facing potential male-male competition in consortships, males’ feeding time was significantly decreased. In addition, there was no significant difference between consortships and non-consortships in UCP levels. These results suggest that male Tibetan macaques may adjust their behaviors according to energetic consumption situation and social environment surrounding females, this change can cause reduction in energetic cost in consortship and improve
    the behavioral adaptability for maintaining consortships.
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    Nutritional Content of Dry Season Foods and Its Influences on Food Choice of François’ Langurs at Nonggang
    Li Xiuju, WU Qian, HUANG Zhonghao, Huang Chengming, ZHOU Qihai
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2016, 36 (2): 241-247.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201602013
    Abstract1694)      PDF (695KB)(3192)       Save
    The PROT / ADF ratio, energy, and some minerals have been suggested as important factors influencing the food choice of primates. However, whether these factors influence the food choice of colobines has been in debate. We collected leaf samples of 12 major food species and 26 non-food species for François’ langurs (Trachypithecus francoisi) during the dry season at Nonggang National Nature Reserve, Guangxi, China, on December 2005 for analysis. We measured the contents of water, crude fat, crude protein, crude fiber, acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), minerals (Ca、Mg、Cu、Zn、Fe、Mn), and calculated the ratio of crude protein and acid detergent fiber (PROT / ADF) for each sample, as well as compared their variations between major food species and non-food species, to explore how food nutritional contents influence on the food choice of François’ langurs. Our results indicated that, except for the content of water, there were no significant differences between major food species and non-food species in nutritional content, as well as the PROT/ADF ratio. We compared the relationship between nutritional content of main food species and percentage of feeding records for these species, and found that only Mg content was a factor determining the food choice of François’ langurs during the dry season. These results indicate that the food choice of François’ langurs during the dry season is not influenced by the content of main nutritional components and minerals.
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    Opportunities and challenges of fecal DNA technology in molecular ecology researches
    SHAN Lei, HU Yibo, WEI Fuwen
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2018, 38 (3): 235-246.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150194
    Abstract2036)      PDF (1829KB)(3571)       Save
    Advances in fecal DNA technology have expanded its usages in molecular ecology, especially in genetic assessment of wild animals. The technology allows researchers to understand ecological issues without contacting, disturbing, or even seeing animals, thus avoided invasions to the animal studied, and greatly promotes studies in molecular ecology of wild animals. Although this technology could yield poor DNA and relatively high genotyping errors in its early stages, these problems have been overcome gradually with the technological achievements being made in the past 25 years. Nowadays, fecal DNA technology yields good DNA and low genotyping errors, allowing researchers to address questions in reliability. Here, we share our knowledge about technological pitfalls on fecal sampling, preservation, DNA extraction, PCR, and genotyping in detail, and discuss opportunities and challenges of its applications, aiming to increase the power and role of the technology in molecular ecology of wild animals.
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    Phylogenetic study of Ochotona based on mitochondrial Cytb and morphology with a description of one new subgenus and five new species
    LIU Shaoying, JIN Wei, LIAO Rui, SUN Zhiyu, ZENG Tao, FU Jianrong, LIU Yang, WANG Xin, LI Panfeng, TANG Mingkun, CHEN Liming, DONG Li, HAN Mingde, GOU Dan
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2017, 37 (1): 1-43.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201701001
    Abstract3136)      PDF (31573KB)(3661)       Save
    of the new subgenus include yarlungensis sp. n. were identified in addition to the 3 assigned to Alienauroa. The identifying characteristics of O. huanglongnensis (collected at the Huanglong National Scenic Reserve; Sichuan) include: front part of incisive foramen parallel; skull flat, the height of skull (SH) only 33.5% of the greatest length of skull (GLS); ears large averaging over 20 mm; congenial tragus triangular and the distal part circular; back hairs coarse and long averaging over 20 mm; the ventral hairs gray white; the back of the palms gray white; the ventral palm gray black; finger and digital pads large and orange, exposed out of hairs, and claws translucent. The identifying characteristics of O. flatcalvariam (collected from the Longmen mountains, Sichuan province) include: skull very flat, average SH 11 mm, SH only 31% of GLS; eye sockets very small, only 6.7 mm in length and 5.6 mm in breadth; body length less than 140 mm; back hairs coarse and long averaging over 22 mm; ears small averaging over 17 mm, congenial tragus triangular and small, the distal part of congenial tragus broad-round; dorsal pelage sandy yellow, ventral pelage yellow white. The identifying characteristics of O. dabashanensis (collected from Dabashan Mountains, Sichuan province) include: congenial tragus sickle-liked; ear small, less than 17 mm on average, which is similar to O. sacraria and O. flatcalvariam, but less than O. huanglongensis and O. xunhuaensis; SH relatively large and bulged, posing the largest SH and eye sockets in Alienauroa, average SH 12.45 mm; eye sockets 8.52 mm×7.13 mm. O. yarlungensis (subgenus Ochotona; collected from the middle of the Yarlung Zangbo River; Xizang) has its closest relationship with O. curzoniae and O. nubrica lhasaensis. Its characteristics include: margin of lips lined with very narrow gray black hair, surrounding with gray white hair; soles and palms covered with dense black hairs, long hairs cover the claws, the digital pads and claws hidden in the hairs; head and body length average 150 mm, much less than that of O. curzoniae and O. nubrica lhasaensis; skull flatter than that of O. curzoniae; dorsal pelage gray brown. O. qionglaiensis (subgenus Ochotona; collected from the Qionglai Mountains; Sichuan) has its closest genetic relationship with O. curzoniae, although its measurements and appearance are close to that of O. thibetana. Compared with O. thibetana, O. qionglaiensis has a very narrow interorbital width (4.05 mm on average; range: 3.64 - 4.19 mm), while that of O. thibetana is >4.2mm (4.45 mm on average). O. qionglaiensis is covered with sandy yellow, coarse and long hairs, while O. thibetana is covered with black brown and relatively short hairs. The backs of the palms and feet of O. qionglaiensis are a withered grass yellow, while those of O. thibetana are yellow white.
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    Cognitive behavior and neuroendocrine differences between male and female gerbils ( Meriones meridianus)
    GONG Dajie, CAO Ruidong, ZHAO Haochi, ZHANG Mingyu, MIAO Fei, YU Peng
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2019, 39 (5): 496-503.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150287
    Abstract2311)      PDF (5281KB)(2651)       Save
    This research investigated the cognitive and neuroendocrine differences between male and female midday gerbils (Meriones meridianu) in novel object and social recognition test. Immunohidtochemistry method was used to detect the number of neurons involved in the synthesis of oxytocin (OT), vasopressin (AVP) and dopamine (DA). And the serum levels of OT and AVP were detected by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that the time of exploring new objects both male and female gerbils was significantly higher than that of old objects, and the identification indexes were no significant difference between the male and female ( P>0.05). The male gerbils decreased the exploring time to the repeated stimulus a with the increasing of exploring number, and the exploration time for strange stimulus b is significantly higher than that of the stimulus a ( P <0.05); however, the female gerbils did not have such a performance. The number of OT neurons in the Paraventricular Nucleus (PVN) and Supraoptic Nucleus (SON) in males gerbils were significantly lower than these in females ( P < 0.05) and the number of DA neurons in the Substantia Nigra (SN) ( P <0.01) in males gerbils were significantly higher than these in females; however, the number of DA neurons in the Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) in males were significantly lower than these in females ( P <0.01). There was no significant different in serum OT and AVP levels between male and female gerbils. In summary, there was no significant difference in new object cognition between male and female gerbils, but the social cognition of male gerbils was stranger than that of female gerbils. On the neuroendocrine level, the number of OT neurons in PVN and SON as well as the number of DA neurons in SN and VTA showed gender differences between male and female midday gerbils.
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    Application of infrared cameras for wildlife surveys in the Bulong Nature Reserve, Xishuangbanna Prefecture, Yunnan Province
    WANG Qiaoyan, HE Youcai, ZHANG Mingxia, SONG Junping, TAO Yongxiang, ZHANG Zhongyuan, YAN Zhangjian, YANG Hongpei
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2018, 38 (5): 513-518.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150143
    Abstract1935)      PDF (2236KB)(3239)       Save
    Biodiversity inventorying is fundamental for the monitoring of wildlife in nature reserves, as well as for the formulation of conservation strategies, research, and environmental education. Bulong Nature Reserve is a new prefectural protected area established in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan in 2008. Using the kilometre-grid sampling method, from March 2014 to March 2015, we set up several infrared cameras in 137 locations in the Bulong Nature Reserve. During the monitoring period of 10675 days, 19757 shots were triggered with 984 valid photos (70.8% with mammals, 27.6% with birds, and 1.6% of human activities). We identified 17 mammal species belonging to 5 orders and 10 families and 14 bird species belonging to 4 orders and 9 families, including 3 species under Class I priority and 10 species under Class II priority of national protection. Amongst the identified species, 2 are classified as Endangered (EN), 4 as Vulnerable (VU), and one species as Near-Threatened (NT) by IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. In this survey, the most frequently recorded mammal species belonged to Carnivora (four species) and Artiodactyla (five species). Wild boars (Sus scrofa) and barking deers (Muntiacus muntjak) were found at the highest relative abundance .The most frequently recorded bird species belonged to the Galliformes (four species). The silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera) and the red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) had the highest relative abundance. This study provides the first record of large and mid-sized mammals and terrestrial birds for future    biodiversity research, monitoring, and management in the Bulong Nature Reserve.
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    Seasonal changes in serum reproductive steroids levels of red-bellied squirrels ( Callosciurus erythraeus)
    JIA Yiping, JIN Wei, ZUO Zhicai, WANG Zhengyi, YU Shumin, DENG Junliang
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2018, 38 (4): 426-432.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150092
    Abstract1703)      PDF (1435KB)(2955)       Save
    We examined variation of some hormones reflecting reproductive function in the blood plasma of red-bellied squirrels ( Callosciurus erythraeus). 70 males and 74 females were captured from February to December 2015 from Yingjing County, Sichuan Province. We measured the levels of reproductive hormones (testosterone: T, estradiol: E 2, follicle-stimulating hormone: FSH, luteinizing hormone: LH, gonadotropin-releasing hormone: GnRH, progesterone: P 4) by ELISA, and analyzed the data from the different sexes and months. In addition, impacts of reproductive status were also analyzed. These indices were analyzed by two-way ANOVA or ANCOVA. If some indices showed significant sex differences, monthly variations of those indices for any gender were further examined by one-way ANOVA or ANCOVA. The results were as follows: (1)There were sex differences in the levels of serum reproductive hormones in female and male squirrels that changing with reproductive status (except GnRH), and were lowest in October. (2)The serum concentrations of FSH, LH, T, E 2 and P 4 in males peaked in February or March and July or August, shortly before mating. Concentrations of FSH, LH and E 2 in females and GnRH of both sexes peaked in February and July during the mating period, whereas T concentrations in females were low throughout the year, and serum P 4 was highest in May. (3)Compared with non-reproductive squirrels, the concentrations of all serum reproductive hormones were significantly higher in pregnancy, mating and lactating female squirrels, or mating males. These results indicate that the levels of serum reproductive hormones in female and male squirrels can vary with the seasons and the reproductive status, which is of great significance to understanding the reproductive characteristics of the red-bellied squirrels and control their damage to plantations.
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    Investigation on the population of wild Bengal tiger ( Panthera tigris tigris) in Medog, Tibet
    WANG Yuan, LIU Wulin, LIU Feng, LI Sheng, ZHU Xuelin, JIANG Zhigang, FENG Limin, LI Bingzhang
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2019, 39 (5): 504-513.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150265
    Abstract4845)      PDF (100104KB)(3769)       Save
    Bengal tiger ( Panthera tigris tigris) used to be commonly distributed in Medog County, southeast Tibet, whereas no occurrence record has been reported across this area since 2002. In 2013—2018, we conducted field surveys in nine potential distribution areas of Bengal tigers in Medog using integrative approaches including camera-trapping, information network collection method and footprint identification method. The results suggested that there are only 1~3 non-resident individuals of Bengal tiger existing in Medog, occurring only during the dry season (October to March) in the south bank of the Yalu Zangbo River in the town of Beibeng, the south bank of the Yarlung Zangbo River in the Medog Town, and the south bank of the Jinzhu Zangbo in the Gedang Township. The prospects of the subsistence of wild Bengal tiger in Medog are not optimistic, subjected to various conditions and causes. Actions we proposed to conserve the wild tigers in this region include: (1) Conduct systematically designed basic monitoring on Bengal tigers and their prey;(2) Strengthen field patrolling and law enforcement against wildlife poaching; (3)Strengthen the protection of the intact forests; (4) Promote the livelihood and education of indigenous peoples to reduce their consumption of nature resources; (5) Develop landscape corridors for wild tigers to increase the habitat connectivity and facilitate their dispersal; (6) Strengthen cooperation on research and technical exchanges among different institutions and parties.
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    Human-large mammals conflicts:A new challenge of wildlife conservation
    CAI Jing,JIANG Zhigang
    Abstract1644)      PDF (357KB)(2447)       Save
    Human-mammals conflict has become a problem worldwide. It not only brings damage to those people who live near the wildlife,but also causes problems to the conservation for wildlife. Main species causing problems include the wildelephants in Africa and Asia,the deer in North America and most of the large and median sized carnivores worldwide. The factors causing human and large mammals conflicts include the human population increases,wildlife habitat losses,change of land use pattern and wildlife population growth after effective implementation of conservation measures. Quite often several factors are involved in the human-large mammals conflicts. To resolve this problem,the government should enhance the management of large mammals and try to reduce the damage caused by those wild animals. On the other hand,the government
    should care the indigenous communities that are near the nature reserves and to help to develop the local economy while raising conservation awareness in the indigenous communities.
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    Seed-hoarding behaviours of three sympatric rodent species on two tree species under semi-natural enclosure conditions
    HOU Xiang, ZHANG Bo, CHEN Xiaoning, WANG Jing, HAN Ning, CHANG Gang
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2016, 36 (2): 207-214.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201602009
    Abstract1823)      PDF (887KB)(3160)       Save
    Seed-hoarding is believed to be an adaptive strategy for survival during periods of food shortage for many seed-eating rodents. Sympatric rodents may evolve different hoarding strategies which may be beneficial to their coexistence. This study investigated hoarding behaviours of three sympatric rodent species (Chinese white-bellied rats, Niviventer confucianus, south China field mice, Apodemus draco, Gansu hamster, Cansumys canus) on seeds of two co-occurring trees (Chinese chestnut, Castanea mollissima and Oriental white oak, Quercus aliena ) under enclosure conditions in Foping National Nature Reserve, Qinling China, during October-December 2014. Seeds of C. mollissima have higher protein and fat (hereafter high nutrition seeds), but fewer tannins than do seeds of Q. aliena (hereafter high tannin seeds). The results showed that, 1) N. confucianus larder-hoarded C. mollissima seeds, A. draco mainly larder-hoarded Q. aliena seeds as well as scatter-hoarded a few seeds of this species, whereas C. canus larder-hoarded seeds of the two tree species only; 2) N. confucianus and C. canus preferred to hoard the high nutrition seeds (C. mollissima), whereas A. draco tended to hoard the high tannin seeds (Q. aliena); 3) All three rodent species preferred to eat the high nutrition seeds (C. mollissima), rather than the high tannin seeds (Q. aliena). These results suggest that sympatric rodent species have different hoarding strategies for seeds of co-occurring trees, and such differences are largely affected by seed traits.
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    Seasonal variation of daily activity patterns and diet of yellow-throated marten ( Martes flavigula)
    ZHU Bowei, WANG Bin, RAN Jianghong, LI Bo, HUANG Feng, LI Xiaoqing, GU Xiaodong
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2019, 39 (1): 52-61.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150178
    Abstract2757)      PDF (6510KB)(3212)       Save
    From April 2016 to April 2017, seasonal variation of daily activity patterns and diet of yellow-throated martens ( Martes flavigula) were studied using fecal analyses (frequency of occurrence and relative weight of remains) and Infrared Triggered Camera Technology in Liziping National Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province, China. We found that the activity of yellow-throated martens mainly occurred during the daytime, diurnal activity accounting for 85.64% of the total independent photographs. Pearson's chi-squared test showed that there was no significant difference in activity patterns of yellow-throated marten in different seasons ( χ 2=126.950, df=132, P=0.608). However, the peak time of activity patterns showed a certain difference among different seasons. The peak of the activity density occurred at 16:00-19:00 in spring (31.65%), 15:00-18:00 in summer (26.32%), 13:00-16:00 in autumn (34.31%), and 11:00-14:00 in winter (25.00%). In addition, there was more nocturnal activity in winter than that of the other three seasons. The content of yellow-throated marten feces could be classified into 4 groups: mammals, birds, insects and plants. Mammals(95.28% occurrence and 80.99% dry weight)were the major food of yellow-throated martens throughout the year. The food habits of yellow-throated martens varied in different seasons. Mammal remains in the feces appeared most frequently in spring, summer and autumn. Bird remains also appeared frequently in spring. The proportion of plants in the feces of yellow-throated martens was obviously increased in winter. Our results show that both daily activity patterns and diet of yellow-throated marten have certain differences in different seasons, which might be related to its seasonal breeding characteristics and physiological metabolism. These results are very helpful to a better understanding about the life history and survival strategy for yellow-throated martens, and provide a fundamental data and study for the protection of yellow-throated martens.
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    Advances in ecological research regarding rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta) in China
    LU Jiqi, TIAN Jundong, ZHANG Peng
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2018, 38 (1): 74-84.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150128
    Abstract2357)      PDF (1626KB)(3601)       Save
    Research on primates in China started in the middle of the 19th century, and thrived from the 1980s to date. As a widely distributed non-human primate species worldwide, rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta) was listed Grade 2 within Key Protected Wildlife of China. Researchers have published a cluster of works on macaques, including geographical distribution, population dynamics, food habits, social ecology, conservation ecology etc. In this paper, we reviewed the research advances in rhesus macaques in China. (1) geographical distribution and habitats: rhesus macaques occurred in 17 Provinces in China, and their habitats range from about 250 m a.s.l. to about 4000 m a.s.l. (2) populations and population increase: the current total population of rhesus macaques in China is about 96000 individuals. We have limited knowledge for population parameters of rhesus macaques except the Hainan macaques. (3) food habits: rhesus macaques in China feed on variety of food items which is in line with wide-spread distribution in various habitats; (4) activity rhythms: the published works mainly focused on the rhythm of foraging behavior, and showed that rhesus macaques exhibited two daily activity peaks; (5) reproductive ecology: rhesus macaques showed a seasonal reproduction pattern, and differed significantly in birth period, and lengths of pregnancy and lactation period between northernmost and southernmost populations. (6) social ecology: the society of rhesus macaques comprised multi-male and multi-female, based on matrilineal relationships. There were strict lineal dominance ranks among adult males and adult females, respectively. (7) behavior and behavioral ecology: researchers observed behaviors of rhesus macaques including calling, facial expression, and fighting. Ethnograms based on PAE (posture, action, environment) coding system have been established, which include 14 postures, 93 acts, 22 environments, and 121 behaviors that were categorized into 13 behavioral types. (8) conservation biology: researchers analyzed the population genetic diversity of rhesus macaques in China and some local areas, and provided support for local population protection. (9) sleeping site selection: a few studies examined sleeping site selection of rhesus macaques, and the results indicated that sleeping site selection was influenced by forest density, sheltering classes, slope gradients and climate. We put forward suggestions and implications for related studies in the near future.
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    Pathological anatomy and death cause of a stranded Risso’s dolphin ( Grampus griseus)
    ZENG Qianhui, AIERKEN Reyilamu, LI Jia, ZHONG Mingding, ZHU Qian, ZHENG Jinsong
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2020, 40 (2): 152-161.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150364
    Abstract2050)      PDF (74699KB)(2996)       Save
    Strandings of Risso’s dolphins( Grampus griseus) on the coastal areas of Chinese mainland are relatively scarce. On July 10th 2019, a live Risso’s dolphin stranded at Shimajiao waters in Xuwen, Zhanjiang City, Guangdong Province and died in a half hour. This paper reports the external morphological characteristics, skeletal measurements, necropsy results, and death cause of this stranded Risso’s dolphin. The dolphin was an adult female with a body length of 252.0 cm and a body weight of about 130.0 kg. Its body condition was poor, with little subcutaneous blubber, but external examination revealed no apparent fatal traumas. The dolphin’s skull was 45.6 cm in length; its vertebra arrangement was C7+T12+L23+Ca24=66, with 12 pairs of ribs and 19 V-bones. Large amounts of sand were found in the respiratory and digestive tracts; Furthermore, two rubber gloves (exceeding 30 cm in size) were present in the forestomach, and there were almost no chyme or feces in the stomachs and intestines, respectively. We infer that the dolphin may not have been able to eat and digest properly due to the stomach functional obstruction caused by the gloves, resulting in excessive depletion of the subcutaneous fat layer, which eventually led to the live stranding of the weakened animal; While stranded, sand entered the respiratory tracts resulting in inadequate breathing and finally death. Our results confirm that the ingestion of marine debris is an immediate threat to marine mammals, especially to cetaceans which mainly prey on cephalopods, and thus at present marine pollution caused by hard degradable waste cannot be ignored anymore.
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    AI recognition of infrared camera image of wild animals based on deep learning: Northeast Tiger and Leopard National Park for example
    GONG Yinan, TAN Mengyu, WANG Zhen, ZHAO Guojing, JIANG Peilin, JIANG Shiming, ZHANG Dingji, GE Jianping, FENG Limin
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2019, 39 (4): 458-465.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150333
    Abstract3679)      PDF (33478KB)(3311)       Save
    Video data of wild animals from infrared cameras always has a large quantity, which takes a lot of work to select and identify. In order to meet the demand of fast automatic identification, this study, using Northeast Tiger and Leopard National Park as an example, is to explore the practicability of using deep learning, convolutional neural networks to automatically identify different animal species, using videos taken by infrared cameras in the wild, under natural conditions. Pictures of each 8 species, captured from the videos from different seasons and of different conditions, consist of the data set. 2074 pictures for train set and 519 for test set. Region of Interest is selected and labeled, the model is YOLO v3 under darknet framework. All pictures are in one data set in the first group of experiment. In the second group, pictures are divided into day(RGB) and night(Grey), and in the third group, divided into day(RGB) and night(Grey) while fine-tuning is used. The mean average precision of our models is from 84.9% to 96.0%, and the models converge. Results show that althoug it is still needed to use better train set to improve the models, using YOLO v3 to identify wild animals automatically is practicable to save manpower and fine-tuning could be an assistance when the train set is small.
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    Advances and prospects of gut microbiome in wild mammals
    DING Yun, WU Qi, HU Yibo, WANG Xiao, NIE Yonggang, WU Xiaoping, WEI Fuwen
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2017, 37 (4): 399-406.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201704010
    Abstract2456)      PDF (1388KB)(3524)       Save
    The symbiotic gut microbes of animals interact with hosts in nutrition metabolism, immunity, diseases and so on. In wildlife, studies on the metagenomics have become a hotspot in conservation biology in recent years. In this paper, we summarize the latest advancements in gut microbes of wild mammals, which focused on diet adaptation, health, coevolution of host and microbiome, and so on. These researches can provide insight into the future studies and a new theoretical basis and means for the maintenance of wild animals’ survival and health.
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    Comparative Space Use Patterns of Wild Giant Pandas and Livestock
    ZHOU Shiqiang, Vanessa HULL, ZHANG Jindong, HUANG Jinyan, LIU Dian, HUANG Yan, LI Desheng, ZHANG Hemin
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2016, 36 (2): 138-151.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201602002
    Abstract2242)      PDF (2409KB)(3455)       Save
    Habitat use describes how wildlife utilize natural resources, and their activity patterns, and has great influence on the genetic exchange between local populations and their viability. Between 2010 and 2012, we collected habitat data and GPS data from giant pandas and livestock—domestic horses at the Hetaoping section of Wolong National Nature Reserve and surrounding areas by using GPS collar tracking technology. Afterwards, we selected GPS data from a representative 3 pandas and 3 horses and calculated the terrain, home range, daily movement distance and number of core areas by applying analyses such as digital elevation model (DEM) and animal movement module. Finally, we analyzed and tested whether there were significant differences between the habitat use of giant pandas and of livestock. The results showed that there were significant differences in habitat use between giant pandas and livestock in terms of altitude, slope and aspect of the terrain, home range, daily movement distance and number of core areas both seasonally and yearly. For giant pandas, habitat use changed between Fargesia robusta, Yushania brevipaniculata and Bashania faberi bamboo forests according to season and food abundance (bamboo shoots, bamboo stems, bamboo leaves), and exhibited a random dispersal pattern across a large activity range (altitude range, home range), short daily movement distance, large number of core areas and high variation between individuals and months. For livestock, depending on the original release site and disturbance level, habitat use exhibited a different pattern. However, compared with that of giant pandas, horses featured small home ranges, long daily movement distance, small number of core areas, and low variation between individual groups and months. These two divergent habitat use patterns put distinctive levels of pressure on local natural resources: the one adopted by giant pandas is beneficial for the recovery of bamboo resources and the sustainable development of the ecosystem; on the contrary, the one adopted by livestock will cause deterioration of the bamboo resources and destruction to the integrity of the ecosystem. Consequently, it is urgent for Wolong National Nature Reserve to reinforce the management of domestic grazing animals, and coordinate economic development of local communities with biodiversity conservation.
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    Camera-trapping survey on the mammal diversity in the Laohegou Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province
    LI Sheng, WANG Dajun, BU Hongliang, LIU Xiaogeng, JIN Tong
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2016, 36 (3): 282-.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201603004
    Abstract2250)      PDF (1610KB)(3568)       Save
    The biological inventory within the established protected areas is the fundamental of biodiversity research and monitoring at both regional and national levels, and camera-trapping has been considered one of the most efficient tools for inventory of mammal community. Laohegou Nature Reserve is located in northern Minshan Mountains, Sichuan Province, and within the core area across the distribution of the iconic conservation species, giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca. Prior to its establishment in 2012, little is known about the mammal fauna in this area. From 2011 to 2014, we conducted a camera-trapping survey to census the mammals of Laohegou by dividing the reserve into 1 km x 1 km survey blocks. With an extensive survey effort of 9,188 camera-days, we detected and identified 24 wild mammal species and 1 domestic mammal species belonging to 7 orders and 18 families. Other unidentified animals were primarily small-bodied mammals of Chiroptera, Insectivora and Rodentia. Carnivora (9 species) was the most diversity taxon, followed by Artiodactyla (7 species) and Rodentia (6 species). Artiodactyla was the order with the highest detections (43.97%), followed by Rodentia (25.61%) and Carnivora (22.44%), all three taxa summed up to 92.02% of all detections. Three mammal species are evaluated as Endangered by IUCN Red List, 3 species as Vulnerable and 3 species as Near Threatened. Four species are listed as Class I state key protected wild animals in China and 5 species as Class II. This study was the first systematic inventory on the large mammals of Laohegou Nature Reserve. The results provide us valuable information of the community structure, spatial distribution and relative abundance, which will serve as a baseline and foundation for future research and conservation management.
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    Research progress in conservation biology of endangered mammals in China
    Wei Fuwen
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2016, 36 (3): 255-.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201603001
    Abstract4324)      PDF (1562KB)(4767)       Save
    Research progress achieved by Chinese scientists in conservation biology of endangered mammals (e.g. Carnivores, primates, ungulates and cetaceans) from 2010-2015 was reviewed. These researches are mainly related to different branches of the conservation biology, such as evolutionary biology, ecology, behavior, physiology, genetics, genomics and meta-genomics, as well as policy and practices. The remarkable research achievements have been made in Conservation Biology of endangered mammals in China, especially for giant pandas and golden monkeys. Evidence from multidisciplinary researches indicated that the giant panda is not an evolutionary cul-de-sac, remaining evolutionary potential. Although the panda is facing environmental problems such as habitat fragmentations, its population is growing and available habitat is expanding. It turned out that its Red List Category could be downlisted from
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    Behavior coding and ethogram of the sambar ( Rusa unicolor) in field environment
    ZHANG Jindong, LI Yujie, HUANG Jinyan, BAI Wenke, ZHOU Shiqiang, LI Yinghong, ZHOU Caiquan
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2018, 38 (1): 1-11.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150118
    Abstract2012)      PDF (5977KB)(3435)       Save
    Establishing behavioral ethograms is the foundation of animal behavioral studies. We constructed the ethogram of sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) using the PAE (Posture, Act and Environment) code system and datasets from infrared cameras in Wolong Nature Reserve during January 2015 to June 2016. Using data from videos and pictures captured by infrared cameras, we identified and recorded 7 types of postures, 63 acts and 74 behaviors. We also compared frequency of each type of behavior across different sex, age and season; and analyzed the relationship between sambar deer behaviors and environmental characteristics. The ethogram can provide basic information for studying behavioral ecology of sambar deer. It is also important for conservation planning and management of sambar deer. The techniques and methods can be applied to behavioral studies for other animals which are difficult to observe directly in the field.
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    A preliminary study on the development of muskrat's musk gland and the isolation of glandular cells
    LI Chenguang, AN Peipei, WANG Datao, ZHAO Quanmin, LI Chunyi
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2020, 40 (2): 175-182.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150352
    Abstract1987)      PDF (79680KB)(2803)       Save
    Muskrat ( Ondatra zibethicus)musk is known as the best natural substitute for musk from musk deer. Muskrat musk is produced by the scent glands of the male muskrat reproductive system in spring. The glandular cells and stroma (supporting) cells are the key cells for secretion of muskrat musk. This study investigated the development stages of muskrat scent glands through the techniques of histomorphology, immunohistochemical staining and immunofluorescence. Histological and immunohistochemical staining showed that the scent glands were rich in small, rounded acini (secretory units) at the initial stage, where both the androgen level and number of the secretory cells in the scent glands were at a minimum. Coincident with the development of the scent glands, the acini became gradually bigger, and the androgen level and number of the secretory cells increased, reaching a maximum in two months. By the end of the developmental stage, the acini were atrophied and replaced by connective tissue. We further isolated and characterized the secretory
    cells and supporting cells. We believe that our results have laid the foundation for constructing an in vitro system for the production of musk, which would help mitigate the short supply of musk in the market.
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    Effects of different-context peer reinforcing and oxytocin treatment on cocaine CPP in female mandarin voles
    WANG Jianli, MA Yongping, TAI Fadao, YU Peng
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2016, 36 (4): 404-412.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201604004
    Abstract1514)      PDF (1039KB)(3086)       Save
    Peer interaction is a substantial natural reward and influences the susceptibility to engage in drug use. Oxytocin (OT) regulates social behavior, thereby enhancing the reward value of social interaction. However, it remains unclear whether different-context peer interaction combined with OT exert different contributions to the rewarding effects of cocaine. Using female mandarin voles ( Microtus mandarinus), a monogamous rodent with complex nonsexual social behavior, we first examined the conditioned place preference (CPP) and its persistence when subject voles were conditioned with cocaine (20 mg/kg) alone or conditioned with cocaine versus different peers (e.g. familiar female, unfamiliar female and unfamiliar male). Second, the CPP was examined when subjects received peripheral OT (1mg/kg) treatment and different context peer conditioning. We found that female voles maintained long-lasting cocaine preferences for over three weeks when conditioned with cocaine alone. The persistence time of cocaine CPP was shortened when simultaneously conditioned to a familiar female peer, while it was inhibited when simultaneously conditioned to an unfamiliar female or a male peer. The subject voles that received OT inhibited or reversed cocaine CPP when conditioned with familiar or unfamiliar males, respectively. These results indicate that different-context peer reinforcing differentially affects rewarding effects of cocaine. OT facilitates reward value of peer reinforcing, thereby contributing to attenuating cocaine preference and this effect varies with peer context.
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    The analysis on activity rhythms of several ungulates in extreme arid desert region based on infrared camera data
    LI Jianliang, LI Jiaqi, WANG Liang, PEI Pengzu, MA Donghui, ZHUO Mengya, BAO Xinkang
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2020, 40 (2): 120-128.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150319
    Abstract850)      PDF (2545KB)(3186)       Save
    In recent years, the method of camera-trapping has been widely used not only in the investigating on wild animal species diversity, amount and distribution, but also in the research of animal activity rhythm and behavior. We established 60 trapping stations in Gansu Anxi Extreme Arid Desert National Nature Reserve according to kilometer grid method, and did a survey effort of 14657 camera trapping days from September 2017 to September 2018. A total of 1892 independent valid photos of five desert ungulates had been collected for analyzing their activity rhythms. The results show that:(1) In the study area, the total relative abundance index of the five desert ungulates reached to 129.08, and the indices of Blue sheep ( Pseudois nayaur) (43.87) and Ibex ( Capra ibex) (42.98) were higher than the ones of Argali ( Ovis ammon) (25.38), Chigetai (Equus hemionus) (15.62) and Gazelle ( Gazella subgutturosa) (1.23). (2) The annual activity rhythms of the five ungulates were consistent, i.e. two activity peaks in a year. Their activities reached the maximum in June, and the second peak was in November or December. (3) The daily appearance of Chigetai at the water-drinking site reached the peak during 22:00-24:00, and the activity peak of Gazelle was during 12:00-14:00 in spring and summer. (4) The diurnal activity rhythm of the Ibex and the Blue sheep were bimodal in every season, and the second
    activity peaks of the Ibex were later in dusk than the Blue sheep. Diurnal activity rhythm of the Argali were also bimodal in winter and spring, but had three activity peaks in summer and autumn. Of these three ungulates, the first activity peak was advanced and the last peak was delayed in summer. (5) The night-time relative abundance of Ibex was higher than other ungulates. The activity rhythm of the desert ungulates were influenced not only by the life cycle, behavior and sunshine rhythm, but also by their different habitats.
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    Studies on spatial memory of rodents with different food hoarding strategies using Morris water maze
    ZHANG Dongyuan, LI Yuan, LI Jia, ZHANG Yihao, YI Xianfeng, WANG Zhenyu
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2018, 38 (4): 377-383.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150149
    Abstract1818)      PDF (1334KB)(3006)       Save
    The food strategies of rodents (e.g., scatter- or larder-hoarding) are related to their spatial memory; however, we lack quantitative experiments on these relationships. It is known that Apodemus peninsulae mainly scatter-hoard but also larder-hoard a few food items, but A. agrarius, Niviventer confucianus and Mus musculus only larder-hoard. In this study, the spatial memory of the four rodent species with different hoarding strategies was evaluated using a Morris water maze in order to illustrate the relationships between spatial memory and hoarding behavior. The results showed that the latency period of the four rodent species decreased significantly across the 5-day navigation experiment. The latent period was shortest in A. peninsulae but longest in M. musculus, followed by A. agrarius and N. confucianus. In the space exploration experiment, the frequency of crossing the platform in A. peninsulae, A. agrarius and N. confucianus was significantly higher than that of Mus musculus. The order of both time ratio and distance ratio in the target quadrant was: A. peninsulae > A. agrarius > N. niviventer > M. musculus, despite no significant difference. The results indicate that the spatial memory of A. peninsulae with scatter-hoarding behavior may be stronger than that of the other rodent species with larder-hoarding behavior, suggesting that the food storage strategy of rodent species is closely related to spatial memory.
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    Anti-fertility effect of levonorgestrel-quinestrol on the reproductive organs of male Apodemus draco and male Apodemus agrarius
    CHEN Xiaoning, CHEN Yajuan, ZHANG Bo, HOU Xiang, WANG Jing, HAN Ning, JIN Tiezhi, CHANG Gang
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2016, 36 (1): 95-103.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201601011
    Abstract1759)      PDF (56869KB)(2798)       Save
    In order to explore the effect of levonorgestrel-quinestrol (EP-1) on the reproductive systems of male Apodemus draco and Apodemus agrarius, individuals of the two species of mice were divided into three groups: 30mg/kg single-dose group, 30mg/kg multiple-dose group and control group. These mice were dissected 15 days or 45 days after the initial treatment and changes of testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, sperm density, testosterone and testicular tissue morphology were assessed. The results show that, 15 days after treatments, the weights of testis, epididymis and seminal vesicle were significantly lower than those of the control group; the sperm density and testosterone levels decreased significantly; and the structure of seminiferous tubule was damaged. At 45 days after treatment, physiological indicators of each treated group continued to decline. However, compared with the physiological indicators at the 15th day, the differences were not significant at the day 45. The differences between the single-dose group and multiple-dose group were not significant. The results of this study showed that EP-1 has significant anti-fertility effect on the reproductive systems of male Apodemus draco and Apodemus agrarius, but there were no significant differences between single-dose groups and multiple-dose groups.
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    Preliminary survey for the biodiversity of mammal and bird using camera traps in the west slope of mid-section Mt. Gaoligong
    Chen Yixin, Xiao Zhishu, Li Ming, Wang Xinwen, He Chenxiang, He Guiping, Li Haishu, Shi Shunjin, Xiang Zuofu
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2016, 36 (3): 302-.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201603006
    Abstract2328)      PDF (42311KB)(3342)       Save
    Mt. Gaoligong, situated along the China-Myanmar borderis, is one of the biodiversity hotspots in the world. However, we have limited knowledge about the fauna diversity in this area due to complex terrain, and dense vegetation. During November 2013 to September 2015, we had investigated the biodiversity of mammals and birds by deploying 30 infrared camera traps in the west slope of mid-section of Mt. Gaoligong at Pianma, Yunnan, China. We established 41 different camera sites with 9,503 camera-trapping days and obtained 808 independent images. We identified 21 mammals and 24 birds, belonging to 10 orders, 21 families and 38 genera. We also identified Rhinopithecus strykeri, a recently discovered non-human primate species in the mid-section of Mt. Gaoligong. Primates, Carnivora, Artiodactyla, Passeriformes, Galliformes and Rodentia were the most abundant orders and widely distributed in the study area. Based on the detailed time records from seven most abundant species, the results were shown that: (1) Macaca assamensis, R. strykeriand Ithaginis cruentus had similar daily activity pattern with one peak in the morning and another in the afternoon;(2) the activity pattern of Dremomys lokriahand Myophonus caeruleus peaked at noon, but D. lokriah had another peak at dusk; and (3)Martes flavigula and Sus scrofa exhibited nocturnality, but S. scrofa were more active at night. This survey provide basic and valuable information for current status of mammal and bird diversity at Mt. Gaoligong, which are essential for wildlife monitoring and biodiversity conservation for this area.
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    Research progress of bat biology and conservation strategies in China
    JIANG Tinglei, ZHAO Huabin, HE Biao, ZHANG Libiao, LUO Jinhong, LIU Ying, SUN Keping, YU Wenhua, WU Yi, FENG Jiang
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2020, 40 (6): 539-559.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150430
    Abstract2602)      PDF (3009KB)(3188)       Save
    Since the end of 2019, the global pandemic of COVID-19 has attracted much attention on bats (Chiroptera), and even people are frequently frowned upon when talking about bats. Bats are extremely diverse in ecology and taxonomy, accounting for ~20% of mammalian diversity worldwide. Bats play an important role in pest control, seed transmission, plant pollination, offering a great economic benefit to human society. Moreover, bats bear important scientific research value in health and longevity, biomimetic, language evolution, and more. There are more than 140 species of bats in China, ranking China one of the top countries in terms of bat species diversity of the world. In recent decades, Chinese researchers have made great progresses in diverse fields such as bat taxonomy, ecology, ethology, evolutionary biology, neurobiology, and viral pathogens in China. However, researches focusing on ecosystem services and conservation of bats were very scarce. Due to logging and plants harvesting, over-hunting, habitat destruction, urbanization, agricultural activities, climate change, and so forth, bats in China are largely threatened: 51% of bat species have been listed as Near Threatened or above (Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable). We argue that successful bat conservation in China must first strengthen basic research, particularly in assessing the population status and trends of bat species and establishing a monitoring network for bat diversity. Additionally, a combination of conservation efforts, including the protection of bat habitats,
    construction of artificial bat habitats, improvement of relevant laws and regulations, and enhancement of public education on bats, are vital to ensuring sustainable bat populations in China.
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