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2013 Vol. 33, No. 4
Published: 2013-02-27

293 Traits and process of group decision-making in Przewalski’s gazelle(Procapra przewalskii)
YOU Wenyuan,SHI Jianbin,LU Feiying,DONG Shikui,LI Xiaowen,ZHANG Zihui
Group decision-making is one of the important methods to coordinate the behavior of individual animals living in a group in order to achieve the benefits of group-living. However, the types and processes of group decision-making are different among different animals due to their differences in behavior and demands. In this study,we observed the group decision- making processes of a population of group-living Przewalski’s gazelles (Procapra przewalskii)in Hudong-Ketu area around Qinghaihu Lake from March 2010 to March 2012,and the data were analysed by using the method of nonparametric tests. The group decision-making in Przewalski’s gazelle was found to be partially democratic decision-making process,in which a proportion of individuals (> 46. 3% )was required to reach agreement for a group decision.The proportion of the individuals participating in group decision-making processes decreased with group size (for female groups:r = 0. 552,P <0.001;for male groups:r = - 0. 524,P <0.001).The time needed to make a group decision was different among male groups,female groups,and nurture groups (Kruskal - Wallis Test,χ2 =19. 362,df = 2,P < 0. 001),which may have resulted in sexual segregation in Przewalski’s gazelle.This study is a pioneer experiment to explore the mechanism and process of big mammal’s group decision-making in the field,and more studies are needed to investigate group decisionmaking processes and their relation to sexual segregation in animals in the future.
2013 Vol. 33 (4): 293-299 [Abstract] ( 946 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (257 KB)  ( 571 )
300 Release studies on spotted seals (Phoca largha)using satellite telemetry tracking technique
HAN Jiabo,LU Zhichuang,TIAN Jiashen,MA Zhiqiang,WANG Zhaohui,YANG Yong,WANG Qinguo,SONG Xinran,PENG Zhiping
The distribution and movement patterns of spotted seals released to the wild after human care were studied using position transmitting tags based on satellite telemetry techniques. Seven animals were born in captivity,and were trained for survival in the wild. They were released at the age of 2 years in 2010 (n = 3)and 2011 (n = 4). Three further 1 -year-old animals were rescued,and they were released back into the wild in 2011. Signals sent by tracking devices on five captive-born seals lasted for over 30 days. One had moved into the Bohai Sea before its signal disappeared,and the other four seals migrated along the Liaoning coast and west coast of Korea before reaching the vicinity of the Baengnyeong Islands,which are the main summer habitat of spotted seals. One captive-born seal travelled over 1 250 km in 59 days. Only two of the rescued seals had devices that transmitted meaningful results:one moved along the coast of the Shandong peninsula,another travelled into the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea. This study demonstrates that captive-born seals can survive well and perform regular migration in the wild after training,and their whereabouts can be successfully tracked using satellite telemetry.
2013 Vol. 33 (4): 300-307 [Abstract] ( 867 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (2835 KB)  ( 424 )
308 Population status of the Indochinese tiger (Panthera tigris cobetti )and density of the three primary ungulate prey species in Shangyong Nature Reserve,Xishuangbanna,China
FENG Limin,WANG Lifan ,WANG Bin,James LD Smith,ZHANG Li
Limited information exists on the population status of wild Indochinese tigers (Panthera tigris cobetti)in China.This research reports the first field survey on the Indochinese tiger and its prey base in southern Yunnan of China.Pugmark identification was used to estimate the population size of tigers during the survey in Shangyong Nature Reserve of Xishuangbanna, Yunnan province.The pellet-plot counting method was used to estimate the density of three ungulate species,including sambar deer,wild boar and barking deer,which are the major prey species of tigers in the region. Results indicate that at least 3 different individuals,a male and two female Indochinese tigers,occupied Shangyong during the period from 2004 to 2009.Our results also demonstrated that density of ungulates was high in Shangyong Nature Reserve,especially for sambar deer,which is the key prey species for tigers. Population densities were estimated as follows:sambar deer,7. 63 (7.40 ~ 9. 23)individuals/ km2 ;barking deer,17.39 (11.33 ~24. 94)individuals / km2 ;wild boar,10.26 (7.69 ~ 14.51)individuals/ km2 . The total prey biomass in Shangyong was approximately 1 715.74 kg/ km2 . The results suggested that preseerving a healthy prey population is extremely important to the survival and future recovery of tigers in China.
2013 Vol. 33 (4): 308-318 [Abstract] ( 1274 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (2790 KB)  ( 812 )
319 Summer nocturnal activity rhythms and time budgets of the Sino-Mongo- lia beaver (Castor fiber birulai)in Xinjiang,China
LIU Dongzhi,JIANG Zhigang,CHU Hongjun,WONG Howman,ZHANG Fan,CHEN Gang
From July to August in 2011 and 2012,we studied the nocturnal activity rhythms and time budgets of Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber birulai ) in the Bulgan Beaver Nature Reserve of Xinjiang,China. The results indicated that C. f. birulai had obvious periodic activities with activity peaks at dawn and dusk. The beavers spent 69. 5% of their time foraging,24. 5% moving,3.4% grooming,0. 4% on vigilance and 2.2% on the other activities. Pearson’s correlation test indicated that there were positive correlations between movements and vigilance behavior,there also were highly significant negative correlations between foraging behavior and movements,and between grooming and other behaviors,and a significant
negative correlation between foraging and vigilance behavior. The results of Mann-Whitney U test revealed that age did not affect the behaviors of C. f. birulai.
2013 Vol. 33 (4): 319-325 [Abstract] ( 868 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (472 KB)  ( 610 )
333 Effects of plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae)on plant community bio- mass in alpine meadow
YAN Hongyu,ZHANG Yu,ZHAO Jianzhong,XU Qingmin,LI Li,LIU Wei
We studied the variation of plant community characteristics and aboveground biomass in weeds patches and bare patches using sampling in Kobresia humilis meadow in Guoluo autonomous prefecture in habitat with different plateau pika (Ochothona curzoniae)densities in August,2010 and 2011. The results showed that there were no significant differences in total plant coverage,mean height and total aboveground biomass in weeds patches and bare patches in habitats with the same pika densities,between years,but there were significant differences among habitat different pika densities within the same year. Total plant coverage,mean height and total aboveground biomass in low density (LD),middle density (MD) and high density (HD)were significantly lower than those in Control at the 0. 05 level,but there was no obvious regularity among different densities habitat. Plant coverage,mean height and aboveground biomass of sedges,grasses and legumes in weeds patches and bare patches in LD,MD and HD were significantly lower than those in Control at the 0. 05 level,but the legumes disappeared in bare patches. Mean plant height of forbs in weeds patches and bare patches in LD and Control were significantly higher than those in MD and HD at the 0. 05 level;plant coverage and aboveground biomass of forbs were minimum in Control,they increased as the plateau pika density increased. In 2010 and 2011,the proportions of area of weeds patches were 4. 0% ,4.3% ,13.3% and 3. 8% ,4. 3% ,11. 0% in LD,MD and HD,respectively. The proportions of area
of bare patches were respectively 0.2% ,2. 6% ,4.0% and 0.2% ,2.2% ,3.4% ,loss of aboveground biomass were respectively 110. 84 kg/ hm2 ,203.18 kg /hm2 ,431. 58 kg / hm2 and 107.67 kg /hm2 ,189.46 kg /hm2 ,365. 72 kg / hm2 in LD,MD and HD. The relationship of plateau pika density (x) and loss of plant aboveground biomass (y)was a Lncurve.We can conclude that total plant coverage,mean height and total aboveground biomass decreased because of the activities of plateau pika,the plant functional group composition was also changed. The area of weeds patches and bare patches, and the loss of plant aboveground biomass,increased as the plateau pika density increases.
2013 Vol. 33 (4): 333-343 [Abstract] ( 842 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (295 KB)  ( 457 )
344 Thermogenesis and energy metabolism in Eothenomys miletus under varied temperatures
ZHANG Di, ZHOU Qinghong, HE Lijuan, ZHU Wanlong, WANG Zhengkun, YANG Shengchang,GAO Wenrong,MU Yuan,ZHENG Jia
In order to investigate the effect of ambient temperature on phenotypic plasticity of body temperature,body mass and energy metabolism,body temperature,body mass,energy budget,rest metabolic rate (RMR)and non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) were measured for eight weeks at various temperatures. Eothenomys miletus were divided into two
groups. The first group was exposed to warm temperature (30℃ ;12L∶ 12D)for four weeks and then to cold temperature (5℃ ;12L∶12D)for four weeks. The second group was first exposed to cold temperature (5℃ ;12L∶12D)for four weeks and then to warm temperature (30℃ ;12L∶ 12D)for four weeks.The results showed the following:In the first group,body
temperature and body mass increased,whereas energy intake,RMR and NST decreased,the minimum point appeared on 28 d when exposed first to warm temperature;when exposed to the cold temperatures,E. miletus showed opposite trends. In the second group,body temperature and body mass decreased,while energy intake,RMR and NST increased,the maximal point appeared at 28d when exposed first to warm temperature;when exposed to the cold temperatures,E. miletus showed opposite trends. All of the results indicated that temperature may be one of the most significant environmental factors to influence phenotypic plasticity of body mass,energy metabolism and thermogenesis in E. miletus adaptation to variations of temperature.
2013 Vol. 33 (4): 344-351 [Abstract] ( 744 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (580 KB)  ( 512 )
352 Effects of the contraceptive compound EP - 1 on population growth of dominant desert rodents in Inner Mongolia
HAN Yanjing,ZHANG Xiaodong,CAO Xiaojuan,WU Xiaodong,FU Heping,DAI Qin,ZHAO Cuimei,
Mid-day gerbils (Meriones meridianus),desert hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii)and three-toed jerboa (Dipus sagitta)are the dominant rodents in the Alashan Desert region of Inner Mongolia,China. These species not only have caused huge damage to grassland production,but also been the channel for transmitting human plagues in the above region
when their numbers became excessive. Therefore,the focus was on how to control the growth of their populations. From 2011 to 2012,treatment and control areas were setup. We used EP - 1 (levonorgestrel-quinestrol),the sterility compound, conducting contrast experiments on wild populations of dominant rodent for anti-fertility resulting from a single baiting with EP - 1 in spring in the Alashan Desert,Inner Mongolia. The results show that,in the treatment area,juvenile recruitment significantly declined in 2011,and the proportions of juveniles of desert hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii)fluctuated significantly compared with those in the control area from May to June (P < 0. 05). The proportions of adults of
Mid-day gerbils (Meriones meridianus)and three-toed jerboa (Dipus sagitta)significantly increased from May to August and from June to August,respectively (P < 0. 05),which significantly decreased densities of dominant populations in the treatment area during the first year. In the experimental area,the populations densities of Mid-day gerbils and desert hamsters declined significantly compared with the control area during their two reproduction-peaks (P < 0.05),and the population density of three-toed jerboa also was remarkably decreased from April to May (P < 0.05). In the following year,in the treatment area,the proportions of adults of Mid-day gerbils were significant higher than in the control area from May and July (P < 0. 05),and the annual population density of Mid-day gerbils declined significantly compared with the control area (P < 0. 05). Such results show that EP-1 was a good route for experimenting on how to control the population grow for desert dominant rodents,being especially consistent for controlling Mid-day gerbil population. Hence,population age structure fluctuation during breeding season was the most important factor influencing to population density dynamics.
2013 Vol. 33 (4): 352-360 [Abstract] ( 812 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (279 KB)  ( 823 )
361 Effects of cabergoline in lactating mice on survival and body growth of their pups
SU Qianqian,XIANG Zuofu,QIN Jiao,LIU Quansheng
To select the contraceptive which inhibited reproduction of mice during lactation,we administered different doses of cabergoline in oil to female mice by gastrogavage on days 1,2,and 3 of lactation;we recorded the survival and mortality of pups as well as the body masses of the female mice and their pups. Thus,we could confirm the effects of
cabergoline treatment on lactating mice and the development of their pups during lactation. Results showed that cabergoline treatment had no significant effect on the relative growth rate of mice during lactation. Some pups in the treated group died. The mortality rates were 1.30% 、3.85% 、4. 08% 、7.38% 、21.19% in the groups that were administered with 0 μg /kg,50 μg / kg,100 μg/ kg,200 μg/ kg,and 400 μg / kg doses of cabergoline,respectively. Thus,the mortality of pups and the dose of cabergoline were positively related. We also found that cabergoline could reduce the survival rate of the pups. In particular,the survival rate was significantly reduced to 78. 8% in the group treated with 400 μg/ kg cabergoline compared with that for the control group. The survival rate of other groups were not significantly different from that of the control group. Cabergoline treatment significantly inhibited the development of pups for up to 7 d. Afterward,their development was similar to that of the control group. Thus,cabergoline could decrease the survival rate of pups,inhibit the development of the surviving pups,and probably interfere with the reproductive success of the mice and their pups.
2013 Vol. 33 (4): 361-366 [Abstract] ( 821 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (255 KB)  ( 416 )
367 A review of the effects of parental deprivation on mammalian offspring behavior and neuroendocrine properties
Parental investment is an important factor in the early social environment of offspring,and profoundly and persistently influences a broad range of developmental trajectories. Changes in parental investment can result from parental absence such as via maternal,paternal or early deprivation. Here,we review and summarize the effects of parental absence on the development of emotion,cognition,social behavior and neuroendocrine patterns in parentally-deprived offspring. Specifically,we examine the impact on aggression,pair bonding and parental care at adulthood. It is clear that several significant questions regarding the effects of parental absence remain,and these are summarized. These studies provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of abnormal behavior and inform the scientific management of wild animals and those housed in laboratories
2013 Vol. 33 (4): 367-376 [Abstract] ( 892 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (361 KB)  ( 792 )
377 Role of aquaporins in kindneys in adaptation to arid environment in yarkand hares (Lepus yarcandensis)
ZHANG Jianping ,LI Shuwei,YU Weijiang
We measured the expression of aquaporin (AQP)1 -3 in kidneys of yarkand hares (Lepus yarcandensis )to understand the role of AQPs in adaptation to drought environment. We used H. E staining methods for detecting the histological structure of kidneys,and immunohistochemistry and western blotting for detecting expression of AQP1 - 3 in kidneys,
and also compared the results with those from domestic rabbits. Results showed that AQP1 is localized in capillary endothelial cell cytoplasm in glomeruli,and continued uninterrupted from proximal straight tubules into descending thin limbs in the outer medulla. AQP2 is observed in epithelial cells membrane in collecting ducts. AQP3 is localized in connecting tubules of the cortex and the outer medulla and epithelial cell basal membrane in collecting ducts. The expression of AQP1 -3 in kidneys is greater and the protein content is higher in yarkand hares than in domestic rabbits. These results indicate that the yarkand hare has increased the expression of aquaporins in kidneys,strengthened renal reabsorption of water and the ability for concentrating the urine,improving the ability for adaptation to arid environment.
2013 Vol. 33 (4): 377-382 [Abstract] ( 876 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1878 KB)  ( 665 )
383 The population genetic structure and subspecies of Myodes rufocanus in Northeast China
JIN Jianli,LIU Zhu,TIAN Xinmin,YANG Chunwen,JIN Zhimin
Using partial sequences of mtDNA control region,we sought genetic diversity,population genetic structure and subspecies classification in 5 populations of Myodes rufocanus from Northeast China and Hokkaido,Japan. After sequencing a 616 bp segment of control region,we detected 45 haplotypes based on 57 variable sites among 55 individuals. Our results revealed that high-level haplotype diversity and slightly less nucleotide diversity occurred in these populations. AMOVA analysis showed that high-level genetic differentiation happened between populations due to 64.70% genetic diversity and Fst ranging from 0. 240 to 0. 814. In a phylogenetic analysis,the haplotypes from Northeast China split into two groups:Daxing’anling-Xiaoxing’anling-Wandashan and Hailin-Dahailin. This suggested that we can separate the populations from Northeast China into two subspecies,M . r. irkutensis and M. r. Changbaishanensis respectively corresponding with the former and latter areas.
2013 Vol. 33 (4): 383-388 [Abstract] ( 779 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (587 KB)  ( 542 )
389 First record of Typhlomys cinereus in Guangdong Province
CONG Haiyan,LIU Zexin,WANG Yumei,WANG Xueguang,Masaharu MOTOKAWA,Masashi HARADA,ZHOU Quan,WU Yi,LI Yuchun
We collected a specimen of Chinese Pygmy Dormouse (Typhlomys cinereus)from Nanling Nature Reserve in Guangdong Province in August 2012,analyzed the specimen’s morphological and skull indices,and compared them with the published data for other T. cinereus subspecies located throughout China. The skull of our specimen had four pairs of palatal holes:among them,the two posterior pairs merged together to form two large and long holes,and the posterior edge of the nasals was located vertically below the frontopremaxillary suture. Based on these two unique characteristics,we identified the specimen as the subspecies T. c. daloushanensis. This is the first time this species has been recorded in Guangdong Province.
2013 Vol. 33 (4): 389-392 [Abstract] ( 1001 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (3216 KB)  ( 359 )
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