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2011 Vol. 31, No. 3
Published: 2011-03-02

219 The genetic diversity of MHC-DQB locus of the spotted seal (Phoca largha)in Liaodong Bay,China
Sequence variation at the second exon of the MHC-DQB locus was investigated on 25 spotted seals (Phoca largha)in Liaodong Bay,China. Of the 141 nucleotides scored,21 variable sites were detected,defining 12 haplotypes, differing by 25.5% at the amino acid level. The nucleotide diversity was from 0.0071 to 0.1064 (average 0.0577),and the base difference was from 1bp to 15 bp (average 8bp). These results showed relatively high genetic diversity in this population compared to other pinniped species.  The high rate of non-synonymous versus synonymous substitution especially in the peptide-binding region (PBR)suggested strong balancing selection for maintaining high MHC diversity at the MHCDQB locus. Eleven individuals holding more than two alleles per individual indicated the duplication of DQB gene.
2011 Vol. 31 (3): 219-225 [Abstract] ( 1621 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (515 KB)  ( 679 )
226 Population dynamics,structure and seasonal distribution pattern of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus)in Shangyong Protected Area,Yunnan,China
This study mainly focused on Asian elephant (Elephas maximus)population dynamics,structure,and seasonal distribution patterns in Shangyong Protected Area,Xishuangbanna,using methods including individual recognition,community-monitoring network,trace-tracking and local interviews. Results showed that:About 68 wild elephants were presentin Shangyong Protected Area. Totally 347 elephants’photos were taken during the 14 - month of research and 53 individuals were recognized based on those photos. The population structure was as follows:Calves (3,5.66% ),Juveniles (11,20.75%),Sub-adults (15,28.30% ),Adults (24,45.28% ). There were only 2 adult males and the sex ratio of adultwas 11∶ 1,which was significantly higher than in other areas. During 1992 to October 2007,32 wild elephants died in Shangyong Protected Area,while 7 individuals were definitely killed by poaching. The core portion of the protected area was the most dangerous for elephants Severe poaching and habitat decreases were major threats to local wild elephants. Wild elephants were distributed differently in the rainy and dry season.Food was the most important factor impacting
elephants’seasonal ranging patterns.
2011 Vol. 31 (3): 226-234 [Abstract] ( 1728 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (5335 KB)  ( 877 )
235 Habitat characteristics of Chinese water deer (Hydropotes inermis) in spring and autumn in Zhoushan Archipelago,Zhejiang Province,China
Seasonal changes of habitat use by Chinese water deer (Hydropotes inermis)were studied in Zhoushan Archipelago, Zhejiang Province,China in March and November 2008. Ten ecological factors,including habitat type,tree cover, shrub cover,grass cover,position on slope (upper,medium,or lower),slope aspect,slope angle,elevation,distances to nearest water and to human disturbance,were measured in 420 sample plots. Discriminant analysis on these ecological factors showed that there was a significant seasonal change in habitat use by the Chinese water deer. The habitat used by the deer in spring and autumn differed significantly in habitat type,tree cover,slope aspect,distances to water and from human disturbance,but not in shrub and grass cover,position on slope,slope angle and elevation. In spring,the Chinese water deer preferred to use broadleaf forest,farmland and slope fields with gentle slopes and low elevations. The animal selected habitats with low coverages of tree,shrub and grass (≤50% ),which were located within a distance of 200 m to the nearest water and a distance of 100 m from human disturbance. In autumn,the deer preferred to use south-facing broadleaf forest,shrub forest,farmland and slope fields with gentle slopes and low elevations. These habitats were usually located
within 600 m to the nearest water,and more than 200 m from human disturbance. The current habitat use of the Chinese water deer in Zhoushan Archipelago is a result of interaction of multiple ecological factors,including significant human disturbance, well-developed secondary arbor forest,dense shrub,and sparse grass. These results provide important information for the management of this endangered species and will improve management of endangered Chinese water deer population.
2011 Vol. 31 (3): 235-243 [Abstract] ( 1778 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (3164 KB)  ( 612 )
244 Dispersal behaviour of the lesser flat-headed bat,Tylonycteris pachypus (Chiroptera:Vespertilionidae)
We investigated offspring dispersal in the lesser flat-headed bat,Tylonycteris pachypus (Chiroptera:Vespertilionidae)in both Longzhou and Ningming counties,Guangxi,China,from 2002 to 2007,by marking and recapturing. A total of 669 individuals (316 adults and 353 juveniles,293 males and 376 females)were marked,and 139 of them (20. 8% )were subsequently recaptured. The results showed that both male and female offspring dispersed away from their natal roosts before maturity. The dispersal rates of juvenile males
(82. 2% )and juvenile females (66.7% )were not significantly different (P > 0.05). The dispersal rates of adult males (76.5% )and adult females (58.5% ,P > 0. 05),also were not significantly different,but when we combined the data from adults and juveniles,the dispersal rate for males (80.7% )was higher than that for females (62.3% ,P < 0.01). In addition,we found that juvenile males dispersed farther than did same-aged females (males:787. 5 ± 26.980 m,n = 37;females:517. 4 ± 25.308 m,n = 24;P < 0. 01). Among 61 dispersing offspring,only one male (0.7% )dispersed from one natal bamboo forest to another,while most dispersed within their natal bamboo forest.
2011 Vol. 31 (3): 244-250 [Abstract] ( 1372 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (265 KB)  ( 597 )
251 Variations in home range of Callosciurus erythraeus during different breeding periods
Studies of home range during the breeding season are important to understanding animal community relations, population dynamics,and reproductive strategies. We carried out research on variations in home range of Red-bellied squirrels (Callosciurus erythraeus)in a planted forest during March-December 2009,March-September 2010 in Hongya County,Sichuan Province. We employed the minimum convex polygon (MCP)method. The results indicated that:(1) The average size of male home ranges was 1.34 ± 0.34 hm2 ,which was significantly larger than the size of female home ranges (0.60 ± 0.08 hm2 )throughout the breeding season; (2)In the estrous period,male squirrels expanded their home ranges,possibly to increase female encounter rate,and thus increase mating numbers. However,the female home ranges remained steady and decreased significantly during pregnancy and the offspring raising period,which could be explained by the females’trade-off between energy intake and predation risk to increase the survival rate of offspring;(3) Throughout the breeding season,the home ranges overlapped between males,but not between females. The overlap of
home ranges between males and females could only be detected in the estrous period,indicating that females showed strong
territoriality in the breeding season.
2011 Vol. 31 (3): 251-256 [Abstract] ( 2101 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (265 KB)  ( 1433 )
257 Effects of food supply and burrow density on mortality of the plateau pika(Ochotona curzoniae)in winter
The influence of food supply and burrow density on mortality of the plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae)in winter was measured in a 2 ×2 factorial experiment within a fenced field. In order to test the direct and indirect influence of the quality of habitat upon the mortality of plateau pika in winter,the minimum viable counting method was applied to calculate the population of plateau pikas before and after winter,and through measuring food supply and burrow density we could analyze their effects upon the mortality of plateau pika. The results showed the morality without food supplementation and with low burrow density was up to 71 % ,but only 47 % with food supplementation and high burrow density. Mortality was 60 % with food supplements and low burrow density,and 53 % without food supplements and high burrow density. Furthermore,the mortality of females was lower than that of males in all conditions. The conclusion was the greater food supply and lower burrow density can significantly decrease the mortality of plateau pika in winter,but the interaction effect of the two factors has not been detected in the research.
2011 Vol. 31 (3): 257-264 [Abstract] ( 1316 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (534 KB)  ( 624 )
265 Effects of seed productivity on dispersal of nuts of Quercus variabilis by rodents
To learn the effects of seed productivity on nut dispersal of Cork oak (Quercus variabilis)by rodents,we investigated the seed rain of Cork oak in 2008 and 2009,in the State-owned Yugong Forest Farm in Jiyuan,Henan Province, China. After the end of seed rain,tagged nuts of Cork oak were artificially released in secondary forest in the study area. The results showed that:1)Apodemus peninsulae,Niviventer confucianus,and Sciurotamias davidianus were the main rodent species predating nuts of Cork oak. Although success in trapping of the rodents was higher in 2009 (10% )than that in 2008 (2% ),the difference between two years was not significant;2)the seed productivity and constitution of the seed rain of Cork oak varied significantly between years:intact nuts were in the majority in 2008,while there were more aborted seeds in 2009;3)the median survival time of released nuts in 2008 and 2009 were 22.7 d and 8. 8 d,respectively,which indicated that high seed productivity decreased nut dispersal rate;4)the mean transport distance of nuts of Cork oak was significantly shorter in 2008 than that in 2009;and the transport distances of the two years were almost all concentrated within 9 m;5)rodents tended to scatter-hoard more nuts of Cork oak in 2008 than that in 2009. Our results indicated that mast seeding increased the possibility of nuts escaping from predating,and thus benefit plant regeneration due to predator satiation
2011 Vol. 31 (3): 265-271 [Abstract] ( 1243 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (378 KB)  ( 667 )
272 The differences of c-Fos expression in Hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus)olfactory bulb during hibernation and non-hibernation
To investigate the relationships of c-Fos,olfaction and hibernation,immunohistochemistry is used to test the seasonal differences in c-Fos expression in each level of hedgehog olfactory bulb. The experimental process was as follows: six wild hedgehogs of each season in good shape were selected,and then anaesthetized and perfused,the olfactory bulbs were fixed and peeled,and finally make paraffin-embedded sections were cut. The cut sections were imaged and measured by immunohistochemistry and photos were taken. The photos were loaded into Motic Images Advanced 3. 2,to measure the expression ratio of c-Fos in each level of hedgehog olfactory bulb of each season. Statistics of expression ratio were analyzed in GraphPad Prism4. Microsoft Excel software was used to plot the data. Strong expression of c-Fos protein was found in each level among adult hedgehog olfactory bulb,while staining is not found in negative controls. The results showed that seasonal differences were obviously displayed. The general trend was:expression ratio of c-Fos protein was lowest in winter while highest in fall. 1)The expression of c-Fos in each level of hedgehog olfactory bulb in winter were significantly lower than that of in summer and fall (P <0.01);2)The expression of c-Fos in the external plexiform layer,mitral cell layer
and granule cell layer in winter were significantly lower than that in summer (P <0.01). In the olfactory nerve layer,the olfactory glomerular layer and the ependymal layer,the expression of c-Fos also was lower than that in summer (P <0.05);3)Compared with winter,c-fos was significantly up-regulated at first in spring in the olfactory glomerular layer, the mitral cell layer and the granule cell layer (P <0. 01),while there were no differences among the olfactory nerve layer, the external plexiform layer,or the ependymal layer (P ﹥ 0.05);4)Compared with fall,the expression of c-Fos in the olfactory nerve layer in spring increased significantly while no differences when compared expression in summer. In the rest level of hedgehog’s olfactory bulb,the expression of c-Fos in fall is significantly higher than that in spring and summer. Strong expression of c-Fos protein in hedgehog’s olfactory bulb indicates that c-Fos protein may play an significant
role in transferring hedgehog’s olfactory messages. Significant seasonal differences of c-Fos expression show that there is correlation between hedgehog olfactory bulb activity and its hibernation.
2011 Vol. 31 (3): 272-277 [Abstract] ( 1460 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (997 KB)  ( 935 )
278 The effect of tannic acid on the gonad hormones in plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae)and root voles (Microtus oeconomus)
Plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae)and root voles (Microtus oeconomus)are herbivorous mammals inhabiting in the highest plateau of the world,the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau They feed on plants that contain many kinds of secondary metabolites. Our study objectives were to verify that secondary metabolites in their diets have some effects on the hormones related to their reproductive behaviors,and to explore the co-evolution between the animals and their forage for both species. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH),plasma androgen and estrogen for both species was assayed after subjects were administrated tannic acid at dosages of 0,5,10,20 mg /kg BW for 1,3,or 5 days. Tannic acid increased plasma androgen and estrogen in both of pikas and root voles. We observed no significant change of GnRH in either species. This suggests that tannic acid plays a role in sexual maturation and benefits reproductive behaviors.
2011 Vol. 31 (3): 278-283 [Abstract] ( 1343 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (356 KB)  ( 569 )
284 Sex and seasonal differences and energetic cost of phytohemagglutinin responses in wild Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus)
To evaluate the season and gender differences,as well as the cost of mounting phytohemagglutinin (PHA)challenged immune response,we measured the variations of body mass and resting metabolic rate (RMR)before and after 24 h and 48 h by injections of PHA and PBS in male and female Mongolian gerbils in different seasons,as well as the changes of increased foot mass and the total number of white blood cell counts (WBCs)at the end of the experiment. The results showed that 1)Increased foot mass (% )was significantly increased in PHA - challenged group than control gerbils in either gender in either season. The total number of WBCs was higher in summer than winter. 2)Body mass was higher in winter than summer,and males were higher than females,but no different at different time points within PHA - challenged and control gerbils. 3)RMR was higher in winter than summer,and males were higher than females,but no different at different time points within PHA - challenged and control gerbils. We conclude that the PHA responses show significant seasonal differences in wild Mongolian gerbils,but fail to find marked sexual differences and energetic costs,suggesting
that such short enhancement of immune functions may be related with wide fluctuations of environmental conditions (ambient
temperature and food availability)and animal’s reproductive cycle.
2011 Vol. 31 (3): 284-290 [Abstract] ( 1387 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (311 KB)  ( 991 )
291 Seasonal changes of energy metabolism in Tupaia belangeri
Seasonal adjustments in body mass and thermogenesis are important for the survival of small mammals. To study the seasonal adjustments in physiology and ecology in Tupaia belangeri,we observed the seasonal variation (winter and summer)in basal metabolic rate (BMR),non-shivering thermogenesis (NST),body temperature,body mass,evaporative water loss (EWL)by measuring oxygen consumption and energy intake,digested energy,metabolizable energy,digestibility and assimilation rate by means of feeding trials in Tupaia belangeri. In addition,we measured the length,mass of each digestive tract organ with normal morphological and histological methods. Body temperature,body mass,thermogenesis of basal metabolism,NST and EWL in Tupaia belangeri were 37. 9℃ ±
0.14℃ ,126.1 ± 2.1 g,42. 94 ±2.65 J/ g·h,54. 97 ±2. 14 J/ g·h,5. 69 ± 0. 33 J/ g·h in winter and 38.5℃ ±0.27℃ ,106. 9 ± 5. 1 g,28. 69 ±3. 06 J/ g·h,47. 43 ±2. 45 J/ g·h,7.12 ± 0. 57 J / g·h in summer. Differences between body mass,thermogenesis of basal metabolism and NST
were significantly different between seasons,being higher in winter than in summer. Energy intakes,digested energy,metabolizable
energy in Tupaia belangeri are significantly higher in winter than in summer. The lengths and weights of small intestine in Tupaia belangeri increased at low ambient temperature,and with poor food quantity. These results suggest that Tupaia belangeri adapt winter cold stress by increasing body mass,thermogenesis,energy intake,digested energy,metabolizable energy and overcome winter thermoregulatory challenges by decreasing evaporative water loss which can reduce energy loss. Metabolic heat production and physiological adjustments of gastrointestinal tract play an important role in their seasonal adaptation
2011 Vol. 31 (3): 291-298 [Abstract] ( 1189 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (363 KB)  ( 982 )
299 Effects of Parasitic Eimerians (Eimeria cryptobarretti and E. klondikensis)on mortality of plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae)
Eimeria,one of several genera of protozoans in the phylum Apicomplexa referred to as coccidian,is highly host specific. Infection with coccidia seriously impairs the growth and survival of hosts. Coccidia,thus,potentially are excellent agents for biological control of rodents. We studied effect of coccidia on mortality of plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae). Pikas were given 6 000 × 104 / mL,600 ×104 / mL,60 ×104 / mL,6 × 104 / mL and 0. 6 × 104 / mL oocysts each of Eimeria cryptobarretti and E. klondikensis for adults,or 600 × 104 / mL,60 × 104 / mL,6 × 104 / mL of each for sub-adults,by stomach intubation. The prepatent period of adult death was 8 days. The mortality rate among infected pikas was dependent on the initial quantity of oocysts administered. Infection with 600 × 104 / mL oocysts caused most adults to die. In addition,a majority of sub-adults also died after 4 days when they were infected with 60 × 104 / mL oocysts. Not significant difference in mortality was found between males and females. The group infected with 60 ×104 / mL oocysts produced more oocysts than other groups. Our results suggest that it is possible that coccidia,as agents of biological rodent control,could reduce the damages of pika to grassland.
2011 Vol. 31 (3): 299-305 [Abstract] ( 1222 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (399 KB)  ( 744 )
306 The distribution and population dynamics of Franois’langur over the past two decades in Guizhou,China and threats to its survival
We reviewed data from published literature and unpublished governmental reports,along with the latest data from our own surveys and monitoring conducted in Guizhou,to summarize the dynamics in distribution and population,and threats to the Francois’langur (Trachypithecus francoisi)in Guizhou Province. We also provide pertinent conservation suggestions. During the past two decades,the wild population of this endangered langur increased ten to 20 percent from about 1 000 (109 groups)in 1990s to around 1 160 - 1 200 (132 - 137 groups)by 2010. In contrast,during that same period, this species has been extirpated from five of its original distribution sites in Guizhou and has become restricted to only five isolated sites (Dashahe,Baiqing,Mayanghe,Kuankuoshui and Yezhong),with a total area about 912 km2 . These five sites contain about 62% of the total wild population of Francois’langur (1 800 -2 000),and represent the last remaining stronghold of this species and thus,should be given the first conservation priority. Hunting pressure is slight with only three records taking place in the past 20 years. The main threat to the survival of the langur in Guizhou is habitat loss and
degradation in the forms of land cultivated for crops and tobacco planting firewood collection for cooking,heating,and tobacco drying along with expanding goat grazing.
2011 Vol. 31 (3): 306-311 [Abstract] ( 1450 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (286 KB)  ( 694 )
312 Establishment and application of PCR for diagnose Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae of Argali (Ovis ammon)
To detect infection of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (MO)of Argali (Ovis ammon),we designed a pair of specific primers to amplify a 406 bp fragment of the 16S rRNA gene of MO. After analysis of the optimization reaction condition, e. g. ,the specificity and sensitivity for PCR of the MO gene,anneal temperature,concentration of Taq DNA polymerase and that of the primers,the sensitivity of PCR was found to be 0.4075 ng genome DNA for MO. A 406 bp fragment was amplified from standard strain of MO Y98,and another was an isolated strain of MO from the secretion of ill argali. To confirm specificity,strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. Capri (MMC),E. coli (EC)and Staphylococcus aureus (SA),were not able to be detected by this method. These results indicate that this test might be used to identify MO without culture or isolation. In this study,34 nasal secretions were tested by PCR and a culture-dependent method respectively.
MO was isolated from specimens of four of the animals,and 11 specimens were PCR positive. Similarly,31 serum samples of the animals were tested by antibody detection kit,and 10 seropositive animals detected. The positive rate of the three methods was 32.35% ,11.76% and 32. 26% respectively. These results show that compared to conventional methods and with related kit,the PCR method has significant economical and practical advantages. The PCR test permits ready identification of MO for diagnostic and epidemiologic study. It indicates that the PCR method is a powerful tool for identification of MO of Argali (Ovis ammon).
2011 Vol. 31 (3): 312-316 [Abstract] ( 1089 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1091 KB)  ( 644 )
317 New records of shrew gymnure (Neotetracus sinensis)and Chinese mole shrew (Anourosorex squamipes)from Guangdong Province
In September 2009,one specimen of shrew gymnure (Neotetracus sinensis)and nine specimens of Chinese mole shrew (Anourosorex squamipes)were collected from Shikengkong,Nanling Nature Reserve in Guangdong Province.These are the first records of these two species from Guangdong Province.Measurements for the single female specimen of N. sinensis are:body weight (BW)35.4 g,head and body length (HBL)126.0 mm,tail length (TL)78. 0 mm,hindfoot length (HFL)24. 6 mm,ear length 17.3 mm,condyloincisive length (CIL)34.3 mm,and the dental formula is3.1.3.3 / =40. For A. squamipes,measurements (mean ± SD)of male specimens (n = 4)are BW 17. 0 ± 2.3 g,HBL 93. 9 ± 3.8 mm,TL 12.1 ± 1.3 mm,HFL 13.5 ± 0.3 mm,and CIL 24.6 ± 0.5 mm;those of female specimens (n=5)are BW 19.9 ± 4.0 g,HBL 97.8 ± 7.0 mm,TL 11.8 ± 0.9 mm,HFL 13. 4 ± 0.5 mm,and CIL 24. 9 ± 0.5 mm.The dental formula is =26 for both male and female specimens.
2011 Vol. 31 (3): 317-319 [Abstract] ( 1398 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1178 KB)  ( 944 )
320 Partial albino bats of Miniopterus pusillus and Hipposideros pomona found in Guangdong Province
During August to November 2009,we captured five males Miniopterus pusillus (Chiroptera:Vespertilionidae) with partial albinism on their ventral neck in a irrigation works cave around suburb of Zengchen City,and one female Hipposideros pomona(Chiroptera:Hipposideridae)with partial albinism on its head and back neck in a bomb shelter in Conghua City,both in Guangdong Province. We measured the forearm length,ear length,ear width,hind-foot length,tibia length, tail length and body mass of the albino individuals,and found that the parameters of albinisms were all in the range of normal individuals. In this paper,we reported the partial albinism of M. pusillus and H. pomona.
2011 Vol. 31 (3): 320-322 [Abstract] ( 1278 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (2688 KB)  ( 915 )
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