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2010 Vol. 30, No. 3
Published: 2010-03-02

239 Identification and preliminary analysis of SNPs in the Rhinopithecus bieti mitochondrial control region
ZHAO Liang,LIU Zhijin,REN Baoping,LI Ming
Based on alignment of mtDNA D-Loop 401 bp of Rhinopithecus bieti and comparison with a standard sequence, 30 haplotypes and 52 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified among 157 individuals,and the probability
of exclusion was found to be 0. 938. The phylogeographic patterns and population genetic structure based on SNP analysis were similar to those using mtDNA D-Loop sequence analysis. The results also indicated that SNP marker might be superior to mtDNA and microsatellite markers when studies on conservation genetics,phylogeography and population genetics are conducted using fecal samples. Thus, we suggest that more powerful SNPs should be further identified from complete D-loop or whole mitochondrial genome of R. bieti in the future.
2010 Vol. 30 (3): 239-246 [Abstract] ( 1827 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1093 KB)  ( 542 )
247 Population genetic diversity and structure of Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) in Sichuan Province based on mtDNA control region sequences
XU Huailiang,LI Diyan,CHENG Anchun,YAO Yongfang,NI Qingyong,ZENG Wen,BI Fengjun,YANG Zexia,CHEN Xiaoyue
The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is widely used as a model primate in the laboratory,and wild populations
in China are protected under the wildlife protection act (Class II). In order to improve and develop conservation and
scientific management strategies an understanding of rhesus macaque population structure and genetic diversity within Sichuan,a province in which the species is numerous and widely distributed,is essential. To this end we sequenced the 489 bp mitochondrial D-loop of two hundred and thirty one Rhesus macaque samples collected from eight geographic regions within Sichuan. We found one hundred and ten (22. 49%) sites to be polymorphic and that the genetic diversity within Sichuan is high (mean haplotype diversity (h) = 0, 686, mean nucleotide diversity (π = 0. 01483). Further analysis revealed a significantly divided population within Sichuan (Fst = 0. 70412,P < 0. 05)and relatively low gene flow between the geographic locations sampled. Haplotypes were also found to cluster according to their sample region within the phylogenetic tree constructed,revealing an obvious molecular phylogeographic pattern in Sichuan rhesus macaques. We suggest that this population subdivision is the result of both long-term geographic barriers and human activity.
2010 Vol. 30 (3): 247-255 [Abstract] ( 1924 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (913 KB)  ( 1163 )
256 Sequence diversity of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene and con- trol region in the two subspecies of the Korean field mouse (Apodemus peninsulae)
Hung Sun Koh,Kyung Hee Jang,WANG Jinxing,Bae Keun Lee,Nam Jung Park
In order to both determine the degree of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) divergence in the two subspecies of the
Korean field mouse Apodemus peninsulae (peninsulae from Korea and praetor from northeast China and Inner Mongolia) and confirm the taxonomic status of the Korean subspecies,we sequenced the mtDNA cytochrome b gene and control region of the two subspecies of A. peninsulae from Korea and Mt. Changbai in northeast China. For the cytochrome b gene,we analyzed the sequences from this study with the corresponding haplotypes of the five subspecies of A. peninsulae from Gen-Bank,and four groups were revealed [group 1, A. p. peninsulae from Korea; group 2, A. p. praetor from Mt. Changbai (Northeast China) and Inner Mongolia (China) and A. p. majuculus from Transbaikalia (Russia); group 3, A. p. praetor from Changchun (northeast China), A. p. rufulus from Primorye (Far-east Russia), and A. p. giliacus from Sakhalin (Far-east Russia)and Hokkaido (Japan); and group 4, A. p. praetor from Hailin (northeast China)]. In the control region, A. p. peninsulae from Korea was also different from A. p. praetor from Northeast China. First of all, the groups 1,2, and 3 of this study appeared to be coincident with the clades K,S,and R in Serizawa et al (2002), respectively, and it was confirmed that A. p. peninsulae from Korea (group 1,clade K) is distinct in its mtDNA sequences. Moreover,we found that the specimens of A. p. praetor were grouped together with the specimens of different subspecies in groups 2 (clade S) and 3 (clade R) in this cytochrome b study. We suggest that the maternal inheritance of mtDNA and intra-specific hybridization between specimens of two adjacent subspecies in the contact zone of their subspecies border caused the incongruence between the groupings of A. p. praetor based on these cytochrome b sequences and the present classification of A. p. praetor on the basis of morphological characters. Therefore,we propose not to use the cytochrome b data alone for the
designation of subspecies in A. peninsulae. Further analyses should be performed with morphometric and nuclear DNA characters from additional specimens from East Asia for the subspecies designation of A. p praetor, which shows nucleotide sequence diversity. Finally,we also found that in the cytochrome b gene,the Korean field mouse from Korea differed from A.speciosus from GenBank with the average distance of 16. 93%. Jones and Johnson (1965) noted the morphological difference of the Korean field mouse from Korea, and we concluded that the Korean field mouse from Korea,with morphological and genetic distinctiveness,is an endemic subspecies of A. p. peninsulae.
2010 Vol. 30 (3): 256-263 [Abstract] ( 1904 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (345 KB)  ( 578 )
264 Selection of short-nosed fruit bat (Cynopterus sphinx) on different con- centrations of banana juice
ZENG Yu,ZHANG Xinwen,ZHU Guangjian,HONG Tiyu,YANG Jian,ZHANG Guangliang,GONG Yanyan,ZHANG Libiao
We studied the olfactory sensitivity of the short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx (Megachiroptera:Pteropodidae),
by selecting six adult individuals and testing their response to differing concentrations of banana juice and controls.
Experiments were conducted indoors on 5 continuous nights. We used banana juice at different concentrations (diluted with water)as the baits (100%, 50%, 25% and 12. 5% ), and used overripe banana juice (OR)and water (W)as controls. Standardized volumes (120 g)of each of the four concentrations of banana juice and two control selections (OR and W) were randomly placed in containers and bats were allowed free access to all for a period of 11. 5 night-time hours. Frequency of visits,amount consumed,and visiting duration were all highest for 100% banana juice. Short-nosed fruit bats appear able to distinguish different concentrations of fruit. We hypothesize that they prefer to select ripe fruits in the field.
2010 Vol. 30 (3): 264-269 [Abstract] ( 1805 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (296 KB)  ( 457 )
270 Hoarding and consumption on seeds of Pittosporopsis kerrii and Lithocarpus truncates by Buff-breasted rat (Rattus flavipectus)
TONG Lei,LU Jiqi
The Xishuangbanna area in SW China is regarded as a region of interest by biologists and also as a hotspot for
biodiversity conservation. This area is mainly tropical rain forest and is located in a biogeographical transitional zone between tropical SE Asia and temperate East Asia,The Buff-breasted rat (Rattus flavipectus) is widely distributed in the tropical rain forest in the Xishuangbanna area. We investigated seed hoarding and consumption by Rattus flavipectus by providing them with seeds of Pittosporopsis kerrii and Lithocarpus truncates in four semi-natural enclosures (L × W ×H =10 m ×10 m × 1. 5 m) in the Menglun area of Xishuangbanna (101°15′ E,21°55′N), Yunnan Province. SPSS for Windows (version 16. 0) was employed in data analysis. The results showed that:1)Rattus flavipectus hoarded food only in larder form; 2) on the second day, 20. 8% seeds of Pittosporopsis kerrii and 39. 2% seeds of Lithocarpus truncates were larder hoarded and this difference was significant (Wilcoxon test,second day:Z = - 1.990, P = 0.047); 4. 2% seeds of Pittosporopsis kerrii and 0. 8% seeds of Lithocarpus truncates were consumed in situ,and again the difference was significant (Wilcoxon test,second day: Z = - 1. 604,P = 0. 109); 3) simulated pilfering of stored food enhanced food hoarding behavior by the rats,increasing hoarding of the more preferred seeds of Lithocarpus truncates (Wilcoxon test,Z = - 2.654,P = 0. 008 ). Our results indicated that seed size and coat thickness could affect decision making in food hoarding and consumption by rodents.
2010 Vol. 30 (3): 270-277 [Abstract] ( 2033 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (344 KB)  ( 533 )
278 Phallic morphology of six species of Soricid shrew
TU Feiyun,LIU Shaoying,LIU Yang,SUN Zhiyu,ZHU Tianhui
The features of phallic morphology are powerful tools in understanding the phylogenetics of relationships in many
mammalian species,especially sibling species. However,the traits of phallic morphology within the Soricidae remain poorly known. In this study, phallic morphological features from thirty-one penis specimens representing six species within the Soricidae were investigated and sketched. The results showed that the baculum of these penis specimens was absent as shown by examination of tissue sections. The urethra was dorsal to the corpus cavernosum which partially surrounds it,and no single corpus spongiosum urethra was present. The spermaducts were surrounded by the cavernous body of penis,and two branches of the spermaducts were conjoined in the distal part of the penes in these six species. A lingulate structure might be regarded as a unique feature within Blarinella quadraticauda,which was treated as a taxonomic criterion to identify this species. Within Sorex (Sorex bedfordiae,S. cylindricauda,S. excelsus), the boundary line of the glans penes was hardly observed. In contrast, the boundary line of glans penes was observed significantly within Blarinella(B. quadraticauda), Anourosorex (Anourosorex squamipes) and Crocidura (Crocidura attenuata).
2010 Vol. 30 (3): 278-282 [Abstract] ( 1994 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (514 KB)  ( 494 )
283 Seasonal changes in body temperature and organs of Amur hedgehog (Erinaceus amurensis) during nonhibernation period
GAO Ling,GUO Bingran,WANG Zhenlong,JIANG Le,LIU Dan,LONG Di
Both body temperature and organs of heterothermic animals such as Amur hedgehog(Erinaceus amurensis) show phenotypic plasticity,which is in turn related to their environmental living conditions. To further understand the seasonal adaptive strategy for Amur hedgehog,we measured the sexual and seasonal variations in body temperature and of masses of reproduction-related organs of Amur hedgehogs trapped alive in mountainous areas in Southeast Shandong Province,with a goal of comprehending adaptation of this animal to seasonal ambiance. The results showed that:1)body temperatures in both male and female were highest in summer,and were significantly positively correlated with ambient temperature;2)the relative fatness in both genders were highest in spring,and lowest in fall;3)for females,the uterine mass was highest in spring,while lowest in fall;for males,testis mass was highest in spring,and lowest in fall;epididymis mass was highest in summer,and lowest in fall;the spleen mass in both the sexes were highest in fall,and lowest in summer;for females,adrenal was highest in spring,and lowest in fall,while for males it was highest in fall,and lowest in summer;there was no significant difference between genders in both adrenal and spleen mass;and 4)the heart rate of females was higher than that of males,but no significant seasonal differences were observed;all the waves of electrocardiogram did not show sexual difference,but there were significant differences among spring,summer and fall. There were no sexual differences but,significant seasonal differences in physiological parameters,and the duration of QRS complex and T wave were longest in fall,S - T interval was the opposite. As a heterothermic animal,the body temperature range of Amur hedgehog was larger than that for rodents,but both of them showed the same patterns in seasonal change of reproductive related organs. The heart rate of Amur hedgehog was not correlated with body temperature during the non-hibernation period,and cardiac function was little influenced by seasonal change as inferred from electrocardiogram. The plasticity of body temperature,relative fatness,masses of spleen,testis and epididymis,and uterus may play important roles in the adaptation of Amur hedgehog to changable environments.
2010 Vol. 30 (3): 283-290 [Abstract] ( 2256 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (294 KB)  ( 1092 )
291 Effects of high-fiber food on food intake and digestibility in the lesser rice-field rat (Rattus losea)
LIU Quansheng,FENG Zhiyong,GONG Pengbo,QIN Jiao,GAO Zhixiang,HUANG Xiaoli,YAO Dandan,YAN Shixiang
The digestive physiological characteristics and strategy of an animal can determine their trophic niche. To examine
the digestive response of Rattus losea to high-fiber food,food intake,fecal output,and corresponding energy parameters were measured after 10 days and 20 days of high-fiber food consumption. There was no significant change in food intake, but fecal output significantly increased and apparent digestibility decreased significantly after feeding on high-fiber food for 10 days. On day 20,apparent digestibility was lower still,but digestible energy was similar to controls due to a significant increase in food intake. Body weight on day 10 of rats fed the high-fiber diet decreased significantly from their initial weight,but did not decline further on day 20. The results show that R losea adapted to a high-fiber diet by increasing food consumption and reducing apparent digestibility,as is observed in strict-herbivorous rodent species. However, R. losea adapted to high-fiber foods more slowly than strict-herbivorous rodents. This response led to a reduction in body weight and hence,overall energy demands,and may be one strategy to used by R. losea to adapt to and survive on low-quality food.
2010 Vol. 30 (3): 291-296 [Abstract] ( 1544 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (293 KB)  ( 542 )
297 Effects of plant phenolic compound on the growth and organ development of Reed voles (Microtus fortis)
HE Lan,LI Junnian,YANG Dongmei,TAO Shuanglun
The effects of plant phenolic compound on growth and organ development of Reed voles (Microtus fortis) were
studied by adding plant phenolic compound to diets at concentrations of 0% (control),3% ,or 6% . When dietary protein was at 10% ,masses of individuals fed 3% and 6% phenolic compound diets decreased by 16.4% and 32.1% after 30 d treatments (P < 0.05),and 16.3% and 35.4% after 60 d treatments (P < 0.05),compared to the control group. The liver index of voles fed 6% phenolic compound diets increased to 6.8% and 6.2% after 30 d and 60 d treatments,respectively, and the kidney indices of voles fed 6% phenolic compound diets increased to 25.5% and 19.7% after 30 d and 60 d treatments,respectively. When the protein level was 20% ,masses of individuals fed 6% phenolic compound diets decreased by 26.7% and 27.1% after 30 d and 60 d treatments,respectively (P < 0 05). Relative kidney weights of voles fed 6% phenolic compound diets increased by 10 0% and 11 0% after 30 d and 60 d treatments,respectively (P <0.05). In summer,plant phenolic compound may influence growth and organ development of small herbivorous mammals.
2010 Vol. 30 (3): 297-303 [Abstract] ( 1742 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (280 KB)  ( 603 )
304 Effects of food restriction on energy metabolism and organs morphology in Apodemus chevrieri
LIU Pengfei,CAI Jinhong,ZHU Wanlong,LIU Chunyan,MENG Lihua,WANG Zhengkun
We investigated adaptive responses to dietary restriction in Apodemus cheveri inhabiting the Hengduan Mountain
region by comparing body mass,body temperature,basal metabolic rate (BMR) and non-shivering thermogenesis (NST), liver wet mass,and morphological parameters of the digestive tract in groups that received either 130% or 70% of daily energy requirements (DER). Compared with the 130% DER group,the 70% DER group was 4.40%, 23.6%, 38.6% and 20.3% lower in body mass,body temperature,BMR,and NST,respectively after 28 days treatment. Liver wet mass of the 70% DER group was lower than that for the 130% DER animals. In contrast,small intestine length and contents mass in the 70% DER group was significantly higher relative to 130% DER. Under the food restricted conditions A. chevrieri apply physiological adjustments in response to low food environments by reducing body mass,body temperature,liver wet mass, energy metabolism,and adaptive changes in digestive organs to meet the stress of reduced energy resources.
2010 Vol. 30 (3): 304-309 [Abstract] ( 1767 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (330 KB)  ( 626 )
310 Histological observations on ovaries of adult female red pandas (Ailurus fulgens)
XIU Yunfang
Twenty-four ovaries were collected from twelve adult female red pandas died of non-reproductive system diseases
at different stages of estrous cycles from 2000 to 2009. The ovaries were fixed in 10% formalin,and tissue slices were made using standard histological techniques and stained with HE. All slices were observed under optical microscopes. Results showed that (1) Primordial follicles,primary follicles and secondary follicles exist simultaneously in all ovaries of different stages of estrous cycles. Typical mature follicles and oocytes are not observed in the ovaries during the estrous stage. (2) There are more primary follicles than primordial follicles and most of primary follicles and secondary follicles are artresic in all ovaries. (3) Before follicular antrum formed, oocytes and follicles are developed synchronously,while in antral follicles,the development of follicles is faster than that of oocytes.(4) Large amounts of interstitial gland cells are observed obviously in ovaries at different estrous stages. (5) Well-developed corpus luteum is present in both the ovaries of pregnant and non-pregnant animals during diestrus period. (6) Zona peliucida is developed when oocytes are surrounded by single layer of cubical granulosa cells. Conclusions:(1)Follicular atresia occurs mainly in the primary follicle stage and only a few primary follicles can be developed to be secondary follicles. (2) Development of oocytes and follicles exhibits biphasic
growth trend. (3) Ovary interstitial gland cells are well developed in all stages of the estrous cycle. (4) Durations
of corpus luteum in pregnant animals are similar to those in non-pregnant animals,confirming the existence of pseudo-pregnancy of the animals.
2010 Vol. 30 (3): 310-316 [Abstract] ( 1825 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1960 KB)  ( 533 )
317 A molecular identification and rapid recognition approach for the sex determination of wild wapiti by feces pellet morphology
ZHANG Minghai,TIAN Xinmin,LI Yi
The DNA sex of wild wapiti was determined by PCR amplification of the SRY genes of 76 feces samples. Among
of them,49 samples were identified as male,and the others as female. All fecal pellets presented one of two shapes:bullet-like and jujube-stone like. The bullet-like fecal pellets displayed a short thick form with a low length/ width ratio. Thejujube-stone like ones displayed a thin long form with high length/ width ratio. Using these shapes,the 76 samples were divided into two groups:51 bullet-like and 25 jujube-stone like feces. All the samples were clustered by the ratio of averaged length and width,and then the discrimination equation was established. The statistical results showed that the consistent degree of sex determination by fecal statistic index and DNA method was 79. 71% ,while morphological method and real sex was 90. 56% . So,the bullet-like pellets are from male wapiti,and the jujube-stone like ones from females. Our results show that wapiti sex can be directly determined by its pellet shape in the wild. At the same time,the discrimination equation could be used as associated method.
2010 Vol. 30 (3): 317-321 [Abstract] ( 1700 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (470 KB)  ( 623 )
322 The diversity of polygynous social systems among multi-level societies in non-human primates
QI Xiaoguang,ZHANG Peng,LI Baoguo,Kunio Watanabe
Multi-level societies comprise social systems in which individual relationships are implemented at two or more
levels within the community. These societies are the most complicated social structures in non-human primates. Only Hamadryas and Gelada baboons,as well as snub-nosed monkeys possess these characteristics. The fundamental social unit for all these species is the one-male unit (OMU). The basic social structure shows similarities with other colobine monkeys, however,each unit is not independent,but rather these OMUs aggregate to form troops composed of hundreds of animals. The mechanism behind the stable formation of such organizations has been widely discussed. Studies of hamadryas and gelada baboons have shown that they clearly differ in terms of individual social relationships and dynamics. Understanding the diversity of polygynous social systems within multi-level societies could greatly help us clarify the relationship between primate social evolution and environmental adaptation. To date,information regarding the social organization of snubnosed monkeys living in multi-level societies remains insufficient to draw any strong conclusions. Here we briefly review matrilineal and non-matrilineal polygynous systems,focusing on differences in individual dispersal,patterns of residential male replacement,OMU succession,female kin-bonds,and reproductive strategies among species living in multi-level societies. This review is intended to provide background to current research and to inspire further research on snub-nosed monkeys,as well as to guide conservation work concerning these endangered primate species.
2010 Vol. 30 (3): 322-338 [Abstract] ( 2217 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (2328 KB)  ( 866 )
339 A review on the progress in mammalian phylogenomics
ZHOU Xuming,YANG Guang
Mammals are a group of highly evolved animals and play a dominant role in global ecology. Mammalian systematics has been a pioneering field in current molecular systematics. With more and more genome sequencing completed, mammalian phylogeny and evolution is now driven by the force from modern comparative genomic analysis. In this paper, we reviewed an inter-ordinal mammalian phylogeny from previous studies,which are vesolved phylogenetic relationships of mammals based on whole genomic sequences,rare genomic changes,and chromosome painting. A phylogenetic tree for 19 orders was presented and some potential problems and future perspectives of phylogenomics were also addressed.
2010 Vol. 30 (3): 339-345 [Abstract] ( 1922 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (368 KB)  ( 979 )
346 Food habitats of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in the Junggar Basin Desert
LIN Xuanlong,WU Kefan,SHI Lei
We analyzed diets of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in the Junggar Basin desert, Xinjjiang Uygur Autonomous Region,
China,during 2002 -2008, by fecal analysis and compared differences in diet composition between pup rearing (April 15 - August 14; n =108) and dispersal (August 15 - December 14; n =279) seasons. Foxes consumed a total of 16 food items including small mammals (Lepus capensis, Meriones spp., Rhombomys opimus,Cricetulus migratorius, Mus musculus, Allactaga elater), Passeriformes,Coleoptera,Orthoprera,Eremias velox and plantss Meriones spp. and Rhombomys opimus were the most important food items throughout both periods,accounting for 41. 0% and 16. 5% by percentage and 48. 2% and 19.7% percent frequency of occurrence in fecal samples, respectively. Red fox food niche breadth was narrow (Bsta = 0. 23). Based on contingency-table analysis,diets differed between the two periods (Pearson’s χ2 test, P= 0. 001 < 0. 01; Likelihood Ratio χ2 test, P = 0. 001 < 0. 01).
2010 Vol. 30 (3): 346-350 [Abstract] ( 1908 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (198 KB)  ( 826 )
351 Identification and characterization of microsatellite markers via cross- species amplification from Francois’langur (Trachypithecus francoisi)
SUN Tao,WANG Boshi,LIU Zhijin,QUE Tengcheng,HUANG Chengming,ZHOU Qihai,LI Ming
Analysis of the population genetic structure and reproductive strategies of various primate species has been facilitated by cross-species amplification. We screened 138 human-derived markers to assess their utility in Francois’ langur (Trachypithecus francoisi). Of the 138 loci,twenty-three produced reliable results and exhibited moderate levels of polymorphism. The number of alleles per locus ranged from three to nine among 28 individuals,and average observed and expected heterozygosities were 0. 50 and 0. 62, respectively. Seven loci showed significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. There were null alleles at nine loci,but no linkage disequilibrium between loci was detected. These loci could be useful in the population genetic study of this species.
2010 Vol. 30 (3): 351-353 [Abstract] ( 1645 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (102 KB)  ( 521 )
354 The recovered carcass of a dugong (Dugong dugon) in Yelin Bay of Wenchang City,Hainan Province and its cause of death
WANG Lijun,XING Zhigang,WANG Jichao,LIANG Wei,HONG Meiling,SHI Haitao
A dead dugong (Dugong dugon)was found in the Yelin Bay of Dongjiao Town,Wenchang City,Hainan Province
on June 22,2008. Since sea grass resources are abundant in Yelin Bay and Gaolong Bay,the emergence of dugong
carcass can suggested that this species distributes in the coastal waters of Hainan in some degree. Through examining its external body and internal anatomy condition,it was discovered that the dugong had a large area of bruising of the skin,and fractured ribs and vertebrae. These injuries are characteristic of damage due to some type of machine and the cause of death of this dugong was probably due to collision with a boat.
2010 Vol. 30 (3): 354-356 [Abstract] ( 1818 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (187 KB)  ( 710 )
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