Table of Content

    02 March 2010, Volume 30 Issue 2
    A cladistic phylogeny of the Plain long-nosed squirrels (Sciuridae,Dremomys) from the mainland of southeastern Asia based on morphological data
    Li Song
    2010, 30(2):  119-126. 
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    Using Hennig’s cladistic principle,in this study,we analysed and coded 32 cranial and external characters of
    five Dremomys species distributed throughout the mainland of southeastern Asia. With Paup 4. 0b10 cladistic software,the cladistic phylogeny of five Dremomys species were reconstructed. The results indicate that D. pyrrhomerus and D. rufigenis are valid species; D. lokriah is basal to the others,and the second is D. pernyi; the cladistic relationships between D. pyrrhomerus and D. rufigenis are closest,and D. gularis acts as their sister group. Based on these five Dremomys species’cladistic phylogenetic pattern,we also explore the relationships between differentiation and dispersal of species and environmental evolution.
    Nest-building promotes male offspring body weight development and survival in root vole (Microtus oeconomus)
    SUN Ping,XIONG Jianli,ZHU Wenwen,ZHAO Xinquan,WANG Dehua
    2010, 30(2):  127-132. 
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    Wild root voles (Microtus oeconomus) make nests in the field because of the cold winters and the low temperatures in summer nights. When bred in laboratory,most of them continue to make nests. Nevertheless,some root voles do not make nests anymore. To test the hypothesis that nest-building is an important thermoregulatory behavior to promote the high fitness of the parents even in the normal temperature conditions (at 22 ± 2℃ ),two experiments were conducted. PartⅠ:Thirty mating pairs including fifteen nest-building and fifteen non-nest-building,were provided with 5. 3 g of cotton to build a nest,for a period of 30 days. The temperatures in nest-building and non-nest-building groups,in and above nest,with animals or without animals,and the changes of temperature during 60 min periods were investigated. PartⅡ:Twenty-four broods’were used in this experiment. The body weight on natal day and weaning day,and numbers and age in days of infanticides were recorded. The results showed the average temperature in the nest-building group was significantly higher than the non-nest-building group. On the contrary, average temperature above the nest of nest-building group was lower than for the non-nest-building group. Average body weight on natal day was not different between the nest-building group and the non-nest-building group but average body weight on weaning day was significantly different between the nest-building group and the non-nest-building group. There were significant differences in male offsprings’average body weight between the nest-building group and the non-nest-building group from 2 to 14.
    Maternal cradling laterality and neonate nipple preference in the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in Qinling Mountains
    GAO Xiang,GUO Songtao,QI Xiaoguang,HU Yongle,LI Baoguo
    2010, 30(2):  133-138. 
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    In order to understand factors influencing the development of laterality in maternal cradling behavior and neonate nipple preference of Qinling golden monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana), we collected behavioral data using scan sampling from 32 newborn infant - mother pairs. We collected 3 675 samples of neonate nipple preference and 3 661 samples of maternal cradling laterality. We calculated a lateral bias index (LBI) by subtracting the number of left-sided observations (L) from the number of right-sided observations (R)and dividing by the total number of observations,i. e. (R - L / (R +L). We found a left-side group-level preference of maternal cradling in primiparous females (t(6) = - 3. 890,P =0. 008), and a significant left-side nipple group-level preference in infants who were born to primiparous females (t(6) =- 3. 731,P = 0. 010). We found no group-level preference direction among multiparous females,(neonate nipple preference: t(24) = 0. 854,P = 0. 402; maternal cradling laterality: t(24) = 1. 955,P = 0. 062). Moreover,most (8 of 9) females differed in their direction of maternal cradling laterality among successive procreating periods (N1 =8, N2 = 1, P =0. 039). Our results suggest that experience may affect neonate nipple preference and thus affect maternal cradling laterality in this species.
    Singing behavior before and after male replacement in a western black crested gibbon group in Wuliang Mountain,Yunnan
    FAN Pengfei,HUANG Bei,GUAN Zhenghua,JIANG Xuelong
    2010, 30(2):  139-143. 
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    We report a case of male replacement in a free - ranging group of western black crested gibbons (Nomascus concolor) from Wuliang Mountain,Yunnan Province. A subadult male in our study group (G3)begin singing solo bouts in March 2005 when he was about 8 years old. Two years later,in March 2007 at an estimated 10 years of age,this male replaced the resident male in a neighboring group (G2). The original,resident male in G2 disappeared 15 days after the new male joined G2. Before the replacement,G2 produced 5 duet bouts between 10 March and 23 March 2007,but the adult female only produced on average 1.7 great calls in each bout,much lower than the number of great calls in each bout produce by G2 during earlier monitoring between March 2003 and March 2004. We assume that the number of great calls reflects the relationship between adult members in a group. We therefore interpret the relationship between the resident male and two adult females in G2 prior to the replacement as unstable. A serious inter-group conflict between G2 and G3 occurred on March 23,2007. The conflict lasted about 2 hours from 07:50 to 09:50,and the resident male in G2 and G3 chased each other in the overlapped area of their home range. The subadult male in G3 did not join the conflict;we observed him singing in a tree 200 m away from the conflict area from 09:00 to 09:15. After the conflict,the subadult male from G3 joined G2 and began calling on March 26. These calls were accompanied by calls from one or more female (s). The original male produced 2 bouts of singing on 28 March and 6 April;no females responded on the first occasion, but we documented 4 great calls on the second. After 6 April,we never heard the calls of the old resident male in G2. However,from 24 March to 6 April,new male produced 13 bouts. On average,the females produced 2.8 great calls in each duet bout. Geissmann (1986)proposed that in order to concentrate learning time,a newly formed pair should spend more time singing than an established one. Our results support his hypothesis. Compared with the singing behavior of G2 between March 2003 and March 2004,the singing frequency of the new group was significantly higher,whereas the mean number of great calls was significant lower after the replacement. After 4 months,adult females still produced fewer great calls during duet bouts,suggesting that the new male and the two females could not coordinate very well and/ or the relationships between them unstable.
    Diurnal behavioral time budgets of the Goitered gazelle across seasons in the Kalamaili Mountain Ungulate Nature Reserve,Xinjiang
    XIA Canjun,XU Wenxuan,QIAO Jianfang,YANG Weikang,LIU Wei
    2010, 30(2):  144-150. 
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    The diurnal behaviors (including foraging,moving,vigilance,resting,and others)of Goitered Gazelles Gazella
    sairensis were observed and the diurnal behavioral time budgets were studied by focal-sampling in the Kalamaili Mountain Nature Reserve from November 2007 to October 2008. A total of 319.5 hours worth of data were collected. The results show that in spring,female spent 67.5% of their time in foraging,2.5% in moving,2.7% in vigilance,25.9% in resting,1.4% others;males (63.5% 、3.4% 、4.3% 、27.5% 、1.3% ). In summer (female:43.7% 、7.7%、5.6%、42.1% 、1.0% ;male:51.9%、1.7%、3.1% 、41.4% 、1.9% ). In fall (female:66.3% 、5.1% 、4.3% 、23.6%、0.7% ;male:68.9% 、6.0% 、4.2%、20.7%、0.3%). In winter (female:68.0% 、5.0% 、7.0% 、19.6%、0.4%;male:29.6% 、20. 6% 、19.2% 、29.3% 、1.3% ). We used Chi-square tests to evaluate differences in the diurnal behaviors of females and males in each season. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the differences of time budgets between females and males in each season. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the difference of time budgets of both female and male among seasons respectively. The results indicated that all behaviors differed (P < 0. 05) for females and males
    across the four seasons. In the spring and summer,the time budgets between female and male were not significantly different (P >0.05),only moving differed (P >0.05)in the fall,and the differences of all behaviors between female and male in winter were extremely significant (P < 0.05). Seasonal influences on the time budgets of both females and males were also significantly different (P < 0.05). The Goitered gazelle adapted to seasonal change or to changes in physiological conditions with different behavior time budget patterns,for example:the temperature,the sex,the moisture content condition,the pregnancy stage,the breast-feeding period and so on,to satisfy energy and the nutrition demands.
    Nutritional contents of winter food and its influences on food choice of Francois’langur at Mayanghe Natur Reserve
    LI Wen,GUO Aiwei,WANG Bin,WU Ankang,LIU Ning,HU Gang
    2010, 30(2):  151-156. 
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    From Dec. 2008 to Feb. 2009,we collected samples of 18 major winter food species and of 13 lesser-used food species of Francois’langur at Mayanghe Nature Reserve. We determined the water,crude protein,crude fiber,and acid detergent fiber (ADF),and calculated the ratio of crude protein and acid detergent (PROT/ ADF)of each sample,and tested the correlation between nutritional data and winter feeding proportion of each sample via Spearman Correlation Rank. Results showed that,except the PROT/ ADF ratio,there were no significant differences between the major and lesser-used species in nutritional contents. Further,there were no significant correlations between the winter feeding proportions of the 18 staple species and their corresponding nutritional contents,suggesting that the food species choice of the langurs in winter was not influenced by the content of water,crude protein,crude fiber,ADF and PROT/ ADF. Except for the content of water,there were no significant differences between food components in other measured components,and no significant correlations
    between winter feeding record and corresponding nutritional contents of each component,indicating that the choice of food components in winter was also not influenced by the content of water,crude protein,crude fiber,ADF and PROT/ADF.
    Relationships between foraging activity of greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) and prey resources
    WANG Jing,WANG Xinhu,JIANG Tinglei,WANG Lei,LU Guanjun,YOU Yuyan,LIU Ying,LI Dan,FENG Jiang
    2010, 30(2):  157-162. 
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    The relationships between forager and prey are significant to understanding foraging behaviour and spatial patterns of populations. Rhinolophus ferrumequinum is an endemic species in Eurasia which has been listed as lower risk and near threatened (LR/ nt species) in IUCN Red List. We first reported the relationships between the foraging activities of greater horseshoe bats and insect resources. We used acoustic surveys to obtain activity frequency of R. ferrumequinum. At the same time,we used light traps,flight intercept traps and sweep nets to capture the insects at every sampling site. The insects were identified to family. We captured R. ferrumequinum with mist nests at the cave entrance when they returned from foraging in order to collect their feces. The diets were ascertained by fecal analysis. We used ANOVA to analyze the differences of bat activity between months. Partial correlation was used to correlate the frequency of bat activity and multiple insect parameters. Bonferroni simultaneous confidence intervals (95% )were calculated to evaluate selection for
    or against prey categories. The results showed that greater horseshoe bats mainly foraged on Lepidoptera and Coleoptera, however,there were some seasonal variations in the diets. The foraging activity was significantly positively correlated with Lepidoptera abundance. Chi-square tests showed that there were significant differences between the diet of greater horseshoe bats and the available insects in the environment. While insect abundance was high in the environment,greater horseshoe bats selectively foraged on Coleoptera,which were quite nutritious for bats.
    Comparison of the Tibetan fox (Vulpes ferrilata) home range size using methods the fixed kernel estimation and the minimum convex polygon
    LIU Xiaoqing,WANG Xiaoming,WANG Zhenghuan,LIU Qunxiu,MA Bo
    2010, 30(2):  163-170. 
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    The minimum convex polygon (MCP)and the fixed kernel estimator (FKE)are the two methods most used for
    home range estimation. However,because of the problems like spatial data dependence and extreme data points,the usage of these two methods is limited. In this paper,we attempted to analyze and compare the results from these two methods, and discuss how to avoid the disadvantages of each method to make the home range estimation more accurate. We documented 352 locations of 7 adult Tibetan foxes (Vulpes ferrilata) in Shiqu County,Sichuan Province and Dulan County,Qinghai Province during 2006 and 2007. Both MCP and FKE were used to calculate the home range. We found:(1)when the utility probability percentage was set ≤95% ,the difference of the home range size calculated by these two methods had no significant difference;(2)although FKE was more robust than MCP,extreme data points influenced the calculation of both the two methods in higher utilization probability percentage (i. e.,85% - 100% ); (3)home range size calculated by FKE was influenced significantly by the setting of smoothing parameter h which could be determined arbitrarily and the least squares cross validation did not always provide the best evaluation of h. We recommended that both of the FKE and 95% MCP should be used in the same home range study. FKE can be the better home range estimator when the autocorrelation of data spatial distribution is not significant. However,95% MCP can be the only choice especially when the comparison of the results from different telemetry studies is needed.
    Comparison of skull morphology among Chinese white-bellied rat (Niviventer confucianus) populations from five mountains in China
    FAN Zhi,ZHANG Zejun,WEI Wei,LIAO Yongmei,SUN Yiran,ZHANG Mingchun,MU Huaqiang,HU Jinchu
    2010, 30(2):  171-176. 
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    Population divergence is a crucial step in speciation,and studies on patterns of intraspecific variation based on
    morphological traits can be helpful to uncover and further understand microevolutionary processes. In this research,we made a comprehensive comparison on skulls of Chinese white-bellied rat (Niviventer confucianus)populations among five mountains in middle and western China. The results indicated that skull variables among these populations are significantly different. In addition,discriminant function analyses further uncovered that Chinese white-bellied rat populations in the Qinling Mountains and Sichuan mountains have diverged completely in their skull morphology. Except for those between the Qionglai and Xiangling populations,skulls between the rest of the populations in Sichuan have diverged significantly,as well 69.1% of skulls were correctly classified to their source mountains,and variables including median palatal length and upper diastema length contributed most to their divergence,implying that the divergence in skulls morphology among the five populations perhaps primarily resulted from their food habits. Our results also illustrate that more caution should be taken to establish and discriminate intra-specific taxonomy units (such as subspecies)for small mammals which occupy a large geographical range.
    Comparison of estrogen receptor expression in hypothalamus of young and senile Macaques (Macaca mulatta)
    CHEN Zhengli,LUO Qihui,ZENG Wen,CHENG Anchun
    2010, 30(2):  177-181. 
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    The expression of estrogen receptor (ER) in the hypothalamus of Macaques (Macaca mulatta) was studied by
    using inmunohistochemical SABC. We found that the ER immuno-positive neurons were mainly distributed in periventricular gray matter,nucleus ventromedialis,nucleus paraventricularis,nucleus arcuate of the hypothalamus,and the labeled ER were mainly found in the nucleus and cytoplasma. Compared with young Macaques,the expression intensity and number of ER positive neurons in each of the hypothalamic nuclei in the senile Macaques (n = 4)were significantly or extremely significant lower than those in the young ones (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). These results suggest that the expression of ER in the senile Macaques is significant lower than that in the young Macaques,which may be caused by estrogen-hunger.
    Effect of food restriction and normal feeding after food restriction on physiological indicators of Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus)
    WEN Yilei,NIU Hongxing
    2010, 30(2):  182-187. 
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    Food restriction has been shown to affect endocrine and nutritional indices of small rodents,but it is not known
    how normal feeding after food restriction affects recovery of these physiological responses. In this study,we investigated the effect of food restriction and normal feeding after food restriction on fatness index and some protein or hormone levels in the blood of laboratory Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Experimental male adult gerbils were divided into three groups:food restriction group (FR),normal feeding after food restriction group (NFFR)and control group (C). Animals in the control group consumed food freely throughout the 8 weeks. Animals of FR group consumed food freely for the first 4 weeks,then consumed food equivalent to 70% of their normal needs for the last 4 weeks. Animals of NFFR group consumed food equivalent to 70% of their normal needs for the first 4 weeks,then consumed food freely in the last 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment,we measured some physiological indicators such as the fatness index,the serum ALB protein level,
    the total protein level,the serum T3 level,the serum T4 level,the testosterone level,and the cortisol level of the three groups. Our results showed that food restriction significantly reduced the body mass,fatness index and the thyroid hormone T4 level,but significantly increased the cortisol level of the male Mongolian gerbils. Food restriction-induced responses of the above physiological indices were recovered to normal levels in normal feeding after re-feeding of the food restriction group,but the blood ALB protein concentrations of Mongolian gerbils were significantly reduced. It is worth while to further explore the endocrine responses of small rodents to normal feeding after food restriction.
    Effect of fur removal on energy budget in lactating KM mice supporting additional pups
    ZHAO Zhijun
    2010, 30(2):  188-194. 
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    The aim of this study was to understand the factors limiting maximum sustainable energy intake and metabolic
    rate (SusEI/ MR)during lactation. Maternal body mass,food intake,litter size and litter mass throughout lactation and basal metabolic rate (BMR)and thermal conductance during late lactation were measured in dorsally shaved KM mice supporting additional pups. BMR within the thermal neural zone of this species was determined using a closed-circuit respirometer. The present results showed that there were no significant effects of litter size on the maternal body mass,food intake, thermal conductance,BMR and litter mass during lactation. Shaved mothers had 13. 8% higher asymptotic food intake (P< 0. 001),18.1% higher BMR (P < 0.01)and 30.8% higher thermal conductance (P < 0.01)than did non-shaved controls. However,fur-removal had no significant impact on maternal body mass,litter size and litter mass. Litter size was significantly positively correlated with litter mass,but negatively correlated with mean pup body mass at weaning. There were also positive correlations between BMR and maternal body mass and litter mass. It suggested that SusEI/MR during lactation was constrained in KM mice. Fur-removal significantly increased the capacity to dissipate heat,but had no effect on reproductive output. The current study provided support for the “peripheral limitation hypothesis”but argued against the “heat dissipation limitation hypothesis”.
    The metabolic thermogenesis and thermoregulation of Lesser white- toothed shrew (Crocidura suaveolens)
    WANG Ziying,GUAN Shujun,YANG Ming,PENG Xia,ZHAO Yan
    2010, 30(2):  195-199. 
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    To investigate the characteristics of metabolic thermogenesis and thermoregulation in small mammals,the restingmetabolic rate (RMR)of Lesser white-toothed shrew (Crocidura suaveolens)was measured at 5 -30℃ using a closed circuit respirometer. Our results showed that: Lesser white-toothed shrew could keep a stable body temperature of 36.55 ±0.38℃ at ambient temperatures (Ta )between 17.5 -25℃. The thermal neutral zone (TNZ) was 20 - 25℃. Mean basal metabolic rate BMR was 5.46 ±0.23 (mLO2 / g· h). The lowest BMR was 4.84 ± 0.39 (mLO2 / g· h) at Ta 25℃. The thermal conductance (C)within a temperature range of 5 - 25℃ was stable. Within a temperature range of 5 - 25℃ ,the shrews had a low heat conduction with an average result of 0.42 ± 0.01 mLO2 /(g·h·℃ ). In conclusion,Lesser whitetoothed shrews had a higher BMR,a moderate thermal conductance,a lower body temperature and a wide range of TNZ as characteristics of thermogensis and thermoregulation. These characteristics closely related to the small size,nocturnal and
    invertebrate-eating habits.
    Paternity determination by seven microsatellite loci for the captive hog deer
    YU Jianqiu,WANG Qiang,LIU Xuanzhen,DENG Jiabo,ZHAO Bo,NIU Lili,LIAN Hong,RUAN Xiangdong
    2010, 30(2):  200-204. 
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    The hog deer (Axis porcinus) is a Class 1 National Key Protected Species in China;the species has been extirpated within China. China has a captive population of only about 30,of which the Chengdu Zoo has 22. It is critical for captive management within China to identify paternity relationships and establish the pedigree of the hog deer population in the Chengdu Zoo. We used 7 microsatellites to genotype 22 live and 5 dead hog deer individuals from the Chengdu Zoo;we identified potential 13 paternal relationships for animals in which maternity was already known. The exclusion method defined 8 of the 13 father - offspring pairs. The likelihood method determined the remaining 5 pairs with a confidence level of 95% . Combining the result of this paternity test with the breeding records of the Chengdu Zoo,we constructed the genetic pedigree for this hog deer population. Our result will serve as an important reference for the future artificial breeding strategy and management of the captive hog deer population in China.
    Habitat characteristics and use by Reeves’muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi) in the Zhoushan Archipelago,Zhejiang Province,China
    ZHANG Longlong,BAO Yixin,SUN Bo,SHEN Liangliang,WEI Dezhong
    2010, 30(2):  205-211. 
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    We studied seasonal changes of habitat characteristics and use by Reeves’muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi)in the
    Zhoushan Archipelago,Zhejiang Province,China from March to November 2008. We established 228 sample plots using fresh traces as the indicator. Ten ecological factors that we presumed affect deer habitat use were measured:vegetation type,percent tree cover,percent shrub cover,percent grass cover,slope,aspect,position on slope,elevation,distance to water,and distance to human disturbance. We found that Muntiacus reevesi lived mainly in hills,occasionally feeding in sloping fields and farmlands. In spring,muntjacs used broadleaf forest,shrub forest,farmland and sloping fields at low elevation, with low percentages of shrub and tree cover (<50%). The habitats were normally located at middle and low positions on slopes with a human disturbance distance less than 150m. In autumn,muntjacs used broadleaf forest and sloping field at low elevation with 75% -100% of tree cover and less than 50% shrub cover. These habitats were located at middle and upper positions on slopes with a distance of more than 400 m from the nearest water and human disturbance. Reeves’
    muntjacs in the Zhoushan Archipelago are limited by human disturbance,the scarcity of water and food,and limited space.
    cDNA cloning and comparative analysis of Sjogren’s syndrome/ sclero- derma autoantigen 1 (SSSCA1) gene of the giant panda
    HOUYiling,ZHANG Tian,HOU Wanru
    2010, 30(2):  212-217. 
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    Scleroderma is a connective tissue disease characterized by the fibrosisization of skin and internal organs. In
    this study,the genomic sequence and cDNA of Sjogren’s syndrome/ scleroderma autoantigen 1 (SSSCA1)gene of the giant panda was cloned successfully using RT - PCR. The cDNA fragment cloned was 642 bp in length,and contained an open reading frame (ORF)of 600 bp encoding 199 amino acids. The genomic sequence was 1 262 bp,containing four exons and three introns. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that this protein was composed of 199 amino acids and its estimated molecular weight was 21. 53841 kDa with a pI of 5.14. Three different patterns of functional sites were found: one protein kinase C phosphorylation site,five casein kinase Ⅱ phosphorylation sites,and three N-myristoylation sites. The SSSCA1 gene of the giant panda were highly homologous to those of some other mammals.
    Oral zedoary oil inhibited sexual behavior and the expression of estradiol receptor in brain nuclei of female mandarin vole (Microtus mandarinus)
    HE Fengqin,WANG Bo
    2010, 30(2):  218-222. 
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    In order to investigate the effect of zedoary glucose injection on reproductive behavior in female mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus),behavior focal sampling and immunohistochemistry methods were used to examine the relationships between behavior changes of female mandarin voles and estrogen receptor α immunoreactive neurons (ERα-IRs)in the ovary and in relevant brain regions after being fed with rabbit chow that was mixed with concentrations of 30 mg /kg zedoary glucose injection. Healthy adult female voles were divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group was fed with the mixed chow and carrot,and control group was fed with rabbit chow and carrot. Behaviors of the adult female voles were observed after being fed for 30 days. The numbers of litters of these adult female voles after mating with adult
    male voles was recorded,and meanwhile the number of ERα-IRs in the relevant brain regions was detected. The results showed that:during the period of intraspecies female-male interactions in a cage,the female voles in the experimental group displayed more escape behaviors,defensive behaviors,and hostile attacks than did those in the control group. In addition, the number of litters born to the female voles in the experimental group was significantly less than to the control group,and the incubation period of females in the experimental group was significantly prolonged. However,ERα-IR were not significantly different in the ovaries of the female voles in the experimental and control groups,and the number of ERα-IRs in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST),the medial amygdaloid nucleus (ME),the medial preoptic area (MPO)and the ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH),in the experimental group were significantly less than those in the control group. There was no difference in the arcuate nucleus (ACR). In summary,zedoary glucose injection might affect reproductive behavior of female mandarin voles through changes in the number of the estrogen receptors α (ERα)in relevant
    brain regions.
    Trace elements and nutrients of Bashania fargesii in the Qinling Mountains
    SUN Yiran,ZHANG Zejun,LI Linhui,LIU Xinyu,WEI Fuwen,MA Yisheng,WEI Wei,LIAO Fang,HE Shaowen
    2010, 30(2):  223-228. 
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    Being widely distributed in the Qinling Mountains,Bashania fargesii is the primary food source for giant pandas
    (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) during winter and spring. To understand the relationship between panda food habits and nutrients in the bamboo,we collected samples of leaves,branches and stems across seasons and ages in Foping Nature Reserve,Shaanxi Province,China. Each category of samples was collected at the same site,with three replicates,and weighing 200 to 500 gram. Seven trace elements (Zn,Cu,Fe,Mn,Ca,Mg,K)were analyzed by the atomic absorption spectrophometric method. Crude protein was determined following Macro-Kjelhahl procudure,and crude fat was measured with Soxhlet procedure. The results indicated that contents of Mn,Ca,Mg in the leaves and Cu,Zn,Fe in the branches were respectively higher than those in the other parts on bamboo. Compared with those in the branches and stems,contents of crude protein and crude fat in the leaves were significantly higher. In addition,contents of trace elements and nutrients in the bamboos varied across seasons and ages. Leaves are the most nutritious among different parts of bamboo. Food habits exhibited
    by giant pandas were closely related to nutrition quality of leaves in the bamboo.
    Effects of the male sterile preparation (MSP-1 ) on plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) sperm
    WU Youxi,LIU Shaoying,ZHONG Nina,ZHAO Jie,ZHA Ke,ZHANG Ming
    2010, 30(2):  229-233. 
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    To investigate the effects of the Male Sterile Preparation (MSP-1),an alcoholic male chemosterilant,on sperm
    count and sperm motility of the male plateau pika,40 adult male plateau pikas were randomly divided into 4 groups (n =10/ group) that received 0,20,40 or 60 mg/ kg bw of MSP-1 (ig). The weight of body, testis, epididymis and the count, motility, malformation rate of sperm were analyzed after 19 days. The body,testis and epididymis weights were not significantly different (P > 0.05) at any dose levels when compared with the control group. Sperm count,motility and survival rate were significantly decreased in the treated groups compared with the control group. The sperm deformity rates in the 40 mg /kg and 20 mg /kg groups were higher in than the control group. The sperm deformity rates in the 60 mg/ kg group were significantly higher than in the control group with a significant difference (P < 0.01). MSP-1 was produced sterility in
    plateau pika by reducing sperm count,motility,and increasing the rate of sperm deformity
    Morphology of down hair of the Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii)
    LIU Wei,HUA Yan,MA Yue,CHENG Zhibin,ZHANG Wei
    2010, 30(2):  234-238. 
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    Down hairs were sampled from twenty two winter skins of the Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii). For each individual,5 down hairs were collected from each sampling site including vertex,scruff,mid-back, buttock, mid-belly,tail, forelimb and hindlimb and subjected to morphological examination. Morphological indices of the hairs were measured, including hair curled length,hair uncurled length,hair diameter,scale height,scale width,longitudinal scale density,and then crimp ratio and scale aspect ratio were calculated The results indicated that scales throughout the hair shaft were coronal type, like overlay of cups. The hair diameter in all sampling sites was between 11.69 ± 1.25 μm and 12.41 ±0.79 μm. Both the curled length and uncurled length of the hairs on vertex,scruff,mid-back,buttock and midbelly were significantly longer than on tail and limbs (P < 0.05). Crimp ratio varied between 11.62 ± 2.78% and 19.79 ±3.22% ,and crimp ratio on vertex was significantly higher than on other sites (P < 0.05). Scale height varied between 20.55 ±4.79 μm and 25.58 ±5.86 μm,and scale height on limbs was significantly lower than on other sites (P < 0.05);Scale widths ranged from 10.09 ± 1.49 μm to 11.33 ±1. 98 μm amongst all sampling sites. Scale widths on vertex and hind limb were significantly lower than on other sites (P < 0.05);Scale aspect ratio varied between 2.15 ± 0.60 and 2.56 ± 0.81,where the ratio on mid-back were significantly higher than on other sites (P < 0.05);The longitudinal scale density ranged from 38 ± 3 scales/ mm to 46 ±9 scales/ mm,where the tail was significantly higher than other sites except hind limb (P <0.05). Morphological characteristics of down hairs of Tibetan antelope and their differentiation in different body sites are to meet the different functional requirements.