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2009 Vol. 29, No. 3
Published: 2009-03-08

231 Livestock depredation by Amur tigers in Hunchun Nature Reserve,Jilin,China
LI Bing,ZHANG Endi,LIU Zhongbao
The Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is endangered in China. Since establishment of the Hunchun Nature Reserve adjacent to Russia and DPR Korea in Jilin Province, in December 2001, the tiger population in this region seems to have increased. Reports of livestock losses are increasing in the reserve. To reduce human-tiger conflicts, we carried out an in-depth analysis of livestock depredation by tigers, based on tiger monitoring data collected from December 2001 to 2007. There were 126 cases in which Amur tigers attacked 204 cattle, horses and dogs between December 2002 and 2007. From 2002 to 2007,livestock losses generally increased, with major increases in 2007. Livestock depredation mainly occurred between April and September. Results suggest no preference for specific domestic animals. Tigers rarely attacked livestock that were less than 1 km from a village, and human disturbance affected utilization of livestock and tiger behavior associated with moving carcasses. An estimated 16 079 kg livestock meat was eaten by tigers, amounting to 76 084 in losses. Attacks occurred more often on southern and eastern aspects,lower altitudes,gentler slopes,greater canopy density, closer to villages and rivers, and farther from roads. Removal of snares in the forest and elimination of new snares is vital to increase ungulate populations, so as to reduce tiger dependence on livestock. Better livestock husbandry techniques and reduction of livestock within Hunchun Reserve can greatly reduce the rate of depredation by tigers. Avoiding disturbance of sites where tigers have already made kills is also likely to reduce rate of killing in some extent.
2009 Vol. 29 (3): 231-238 [Abstract] ( 1782 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1272 KB)  ( 148 )
239 Group patterns of dwarf blue sheep (Pseudois schaeferi)in Zhubalong Nature Reserve,Sichuan Province,China

SHEN Dingjian,WANG Yu,GE Lai,ZENG Guowei,HUANG Yichuan,LI Kaijun,TANG Lun

The dwarf blue sheep (Pseudois schaeferi) is an endangered species only inhabiting upper Jinsha River gorge (Zhubalong, south of Batang),Sichuan Province, China. From July to December 2007 and April to June 2008,we investigated group patterns of dwarf blue sheep by using transect censuses and fixed point observations in Zhubalong Nature Reserve. We observed 34 groups consisting of 217 individuals with a mean group size of 6.4 ± 4.9 in 2007 and 16 groups comprising 135 individuals with a mean group size of 8.4 ± 7.7 in 2008. Sheep groups can be classified into five types: male only (20078.8% of total groups,20086.3% ),female only (2007:2.9%, 2008:0),mixed (2007:70.6%, 2008:81.2% ), mother-offspring (2007:8. 8%,2008:12.5% ),and solitary individual (2007:8.8%, 2008:0). These group types varied in proportion seasonally (P <0.01). These types also differed in distribution (P < 0.01) and in size (P < 0.01). Groups of 2 -10 individuals were predominant (73.5% of all groups in 2007 and 75.0% in 2008). We collected population data from several recent articles (1997,1998,2000,2006) to analyze mean group size and sex ratio dynamics using the ANOVA. The results indicated that group size was highly variable (P < 0.05)and the mean group size was significantly larger in 2007 (P < 0.05)and in 2008 (P < 0.01) than in 2000. The adult:juvenile:lamb ratio were 10026.428.6 in 2007, and 10024.720.4 in 2008. The female : male ratio (10055.7 in 2007 and 10056.6 in 2008) remained stable (P > 0.05). Group patterns of the sheep can be influenced by benefits in group living, biological characteristics, breeding cycle, competition for resources, habitat type and topography, predation risk, and human disturbance, group patterns of the sheep implied a survival strategy.

2009 Vol. 29 (3): 239-245 [Abstract] ( 1573 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (278 KB)  ( 151 )
246 Amicable behavior,dominance rank,and the function of socica stability in Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana)Mt Huangshan,China
CHEN Ran,LI Jinhua,ZHU Yong,XIA Dongpo,WANG Xi

Dominance hierarchy which influences male reproductive behavior and social behavior, has often been reported in non-human primates. We examined aspects of dominance hierarchy in the Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) at Mt. Huangshan, China. Six adult males were assigned into 3 groups:the dominant group,medial group and subordinate group, respectively, as representing their dominance rank in the YA2 troop at Mt. Huangshan. Social behavior data were collected using focal animal sampling. Our results showed: (1)The dominant group participated most often in bridging behavior; the frequency of sending and receiving bridging behavior was significantly different among different ranks; (2)The subordinate group participated most often in social mount behavior, the frequency of sending and receiving social mount behavior was significantly different among different ranks;(3)The dominant group received present behavior the most often, while the subordinate group was most likely to present. Frequency of sending present behavior also varied significantly among different ranks, but there was no significant difference in receiving present behavior among the different ranks; and (4) Frequency of shaking tree behavior was significantly different among the different ranks. We speculate that amicable behaviors reflect the social dominance rank and are an important way to sustain social stability.

2009 Vol. 29 (3): 246-251 [Abstract] ( 1618 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (305 KB)  ( 146 )
252 Winter habitat selection of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta tcheliensis) in Taihang Mountains,Jiyuan,China
XIE Dongming,LU Jiqi,Lü Jiuquan

A survey on winter habitat selection of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta tcheliensis) was carried out from November 2007 to February 2008 in Taihang Mountains (35°11N,112°16E ) in Jiyuan, Henan Province, China. 180 plots of 10 m × 10 m were set up and 10 factors were selected to analyze the habitat selection of the macaque. These factors include slope terrain, altitude of the plot, slope position, slope face, slope degree, the distance from water resource, concealment, human disturbance, canopy, and average DBH (diameter breast height). The results showed that, for their activities, the macaque usually chose a certain habitat with characteristics as follows:1)the average tree whose DBH is over 15 cm;2) the distance from human disturbance is less than 2 000 m;3) the distance to water is less than 1 000 m; 4) the gradient of slope ranges from 15° to 40°;5)the altitude of the monkey ranging sites ranged from 1 000 m to 1 300 m;6) the canopy cover was less than 60%. In addition, the macaques preferred south-faced and southwest-faced slopes in winter. The principal component analysis indicated that these five factors will contribute 70.713% of the total variance, while the others might have less impact on habitat selection.

2009 Vol. 29 (3): 252-258 [Abstract] ( 1394 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (260 KB)  ( 161 )
259 Pilot study of Tupaia belangeri from Yunnan Province based on morphometrics of the skulls and mandibles
JIA Ting,LIN AiqingWANG Rui,ZHU Wanlong,XIAO Caihong,LIU Chunyan,MENG Lihua,LIAN Xiao,WANG Zhengkun

The tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) are an endemic group in the Indomalayan Region (Torrid Zone or subtropical zone). The morphological characteristics of the skulls and mandibles of T belangeri in four local ranges (Luquan,Jianchuan, Lijiang and Yunlong) in Yunnan Province were compared using geometric morphometric techniques,principal components analysis, discriminant analysis, thin plate spline and multidimensional scaling analysis. Using principal components analysis and discriminant analysis, it was shown that the morphological characteristics of the lateral cranium and the lateral mandible were more efficient for differentiating animals from Dianzhong Altiplano and Hengduan Mountains region. Using thin plate spline analysis,significant morphological differentiations were shown for both nose bone and molars, which may reflect adaptations to climate and environment. Using multidimensional scaling analysis, it was shown that the morphological characteristics of skulls allowed differentiations between animals from Dianzhong Altiplano and Hengduan Mountains region, that may be related to longitude or latitude of their habitations. In conclusion, the morphological characteristics of the skulls and mandibles of T. belangeri in Dianzhong Altiplano and Hengduan Mountains region can be distinguished at the level of population; this may correlate to the ecological adaptation.

2009 Vol. 29 (3): 259-268 [Abstract] ( 1277 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1703 KB)  ( 178 )
269 Age-structure and reproduction investigation on Niviventer confucianus living on islands at Qiandao Lake in autumn
SUN Bo,BAO Yixin,ZHANG Longlong,ZHAO Qingyang
Niviventer confucianus, the main pest rat at Qiandao Lake,were caught in their preferred woodland habitat on islands in the lake. We captured 123 individuals from September to November,2007,and brought them back to our laboratory where they were marked,measured for morphological characteristics,and then necropsied to determine sex,age and reproductive condition. Specimens were assigned to four age classes on the basis of body length:juvenile group (body length110 mm),sub-adult group (body length from 111 -125 mm),adult group (body length from 126 - 150 mm) and elder-adult group (body length151 mm). Males and females demonstrated no difference in body size and could be classified with the same standard. Most of the rats bred in autumn with a reproductive peak from September to October. Most reproduction occurred in the adult and elder-adult groups. Reproductive condition was significantly influenced by vegetation coverage and human disturbance. The index of reproduction and the average number of embryos were highest in the medium-sized islands (3.45,5.17 ±0. 42) and lowest in the small islands (0.75,4.00 ±1.53), with values from the large islands in between (1.96,4.9 ± 0.35). By contrast, the rates of scrotal testes decreased as the size of island increased, with 68.4% in the small islands,64.7% in the medium islands and 50.0% in the large islands. Although age structure declined in the medium island populations, adults were the main reproductive group, and the population size increased after the reproductive season. The sex ratio (M/ F)of adults was  maladjusted in the small islands. Therefore, the population was stable in the large islands, higher in the medium islands, and fluctuating in the small islands.
2009 Vol. 29 (3): 269-276 [Abstract] ( 1229 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (299 KB)  ( 116 )
277 Effect of random food deprivation and re-feeding on energy metabolism and behavior in mice
ZHAO Zhijun,CAO Jing,WANG Guiying,MA Fei,MENG Xilong

The significance of plasticity in energy metabolism and behavioral patterns in response to variations of food availability was examined in adult male KM mice acclimated to random food deprivation (FD)for 4 weeks,in which animals were fed ad libitum for a randomly assigned 3 days each week,but were deprived of food for the other 4 days, and then refed ad libitum for another 4 weeks. Food intake was measured using the food balance method,and basal metabolic rate (BMR) and nonshivering thermogenesis (NST)were measured using a closed-circuit respirometer. Behavioral observations were made to examine behavioral patterns including activity, feeding, grooming and resting behavior. The data showed that food intake and gastrointestinal mass increased significantly, and BMR and NST decreased significantly in FD mice compared to controls. Moreover, FD mice had a significantly higher percentage of resting behavior and lower activity than control mice. These parameters were all recovered after 4 weeks of ad libitum re-feeding, indicating significant plasticity. These results suggest that animals can compensate for an unpredictable reduction of food availability by engaging in an energetic strategy, including an increase in energy intake related to food intake, and a decrease in energy expenditure associated with BMR, NST and activity, but not including body fat mobilization. Significant plasticity in energy metabolism and behavioral patterns is shown in mice over a short timescale, which plays an important role in adaptations to food shortage in unpredictable environments with relation to food availability.

2009 Vol. 29 (3): 277-285 [Abstract] ( 1627 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (373 KB)  ( 121 )
286 Patterns of aggressive behaviors related to the physiological states of male Cricetulus barabensis
WANG Gang,WANG Chuangan,WANG Zhenlong,XU Laixiang

We examined the body mass and physiological states related to solitary lifestyle and dominant-subordinate relationships in male striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis). Wild adult hamsters were captured from farmland in mountainous areas in southwest of Shandong province and caged singly in the laboratory during the breeding season. The experimental hamsters were subjected to 4 weeks staged dyadic encounters, and the faeces were collected every day for 28 consecutive days by pairing two unfamiliar and weight-matched males in a neutral arena. In order to determine dominant or subordinate status, aggressive behavior, defense, social and nonsocial behaviors were quantified every day. Animals were then necropsied and their physiological and reproductive state assessed. Our results suggested that 1) an increase of body mass could not be depressed by social conflict of male hamsters;2) adrenal gland index of subordinate animals increased significantly; 3) the concentration of faecal GCs was related to the social conflicts time and an individuals social status;4)the dominant individual maintained a high testosterone level, which favored its aggressive behavior and facillitated the dominant status; 5)the cortisol suppressed testosterone secretion within all treatment groups caused the testosterone to fall to the low level. These data show that formation of dominance-subordinate relationships could be determined by aggressive behavior; testosterone level improved the formation of dominance of males, but this was in turn depressed by cortisol level. Organ index data suggested that the HPA axis did not suppress the HPG axis. Subordinate animals were stressed, which benefited survival and reproduction of dominant male hamsters in the field.

2009 Vol. 29 (3): 286-293 [Abstract] ( 1345 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (611 KB)  ( 155 )
294 Seasonal variations of visceral organ mass and gut length in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus)
ZHANG Zhiqiang,WANG Dehua
Both visceral organ mass and digestive tract length show phenotypic plasticity in small mammals,which in turn
is related to their living environmental conditions. To further understand the seasonal adaptive strategy for wild Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus),we measured the sexual and seasonal variations of the body mass,masses of visceral organs and digestive organs,as well as the length of each portion of the gut from July 2004 to May 2005 at Taipusiqi County, Nei Mongol,China. All specimens were measured 1 - 3 days after they were live-trapped. Both body mass and body length for male gerbils were higher than those of females,but average liver mass for male gerbils was lower than that of females, and no sexual variation was found for other organ masses. For both the sexes,body mass and heart mass was highest in winter, and lowest in summer. For male gerbils,liver mass was higher in summer,and lowest in spring and winter,but no seasonal variation was found in female gerbils. The average testes mass was highest in spring. The mass of both the caecum and small intestine was higher in autumn than in spring,but no seasonal differences were found among other seasons. Average mass of both the stomach and large intestine did not show any seasonal variation. The length of small intestine was longest in winter and shortest in summer. The length of the caecum was shortest in spring,and the length of the arge intestine was longest in spring and shortest in summer. The plastic variations of body mass,and the respective masses of heart,digestive organs and other visceral organs,as well as the lengths of digestive organs,may play important roles in the adaptation of Mongolian gerbils to changing environments.
2009 Vol. 29 (3): 294-301 [Abstract] ( 1341 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (261 KB)  ( 101 )
302 Thermoregulation and evaporative water loss in Apodemus draco from the Hengduan Mountains region
LI Xiaoting,WANG Rui,WANG Bei,MENG Lihua,LIU Chunyan,WANG Zhengkun
In order to understand the physiological and ecological adaptations of Apodemus draco to the Hengduan Mountains region,the characteristics of their metabolic rates,thermal conductance,body temperatures (Tb ) and evaporative water loss were measured at a temperature range of -5℃ - 35℃. The thermal neutral zone (TNZ) of Apodemus draco was 20℃ -30℃, and the mean body temperature was 37.22 ± 0.32℃. Apodemus draco was capable of maintaining a stable body temperature at 20℃ -30℃ of ambient temperatures. Basal metabolic rate (BMR),the maximal nonshivering thermogenesis (NST),the range of nonshivering thermogenesis (Percentage of NST and BMR),and average minimum thermal conductance (Cm ) was 3.17 ±0.08 ml O2 / g· h,5.99 ±0.58 ml O2 / g· h,2.52,0.16 ± 0.02 ml O2/ g· h ℃ respectively. F-values (RMR/ Kleiber predicted RMR)/ (C/ Bradley predicted C) of Apodemus draco was 1.58 ±0.10 in their respective TNZs. Evaporative water loss in Apodemus draco increased when the temperature increased,the maximal evaporative water loss was 0.10 ±0.02 mg H2 O/ g· h in 35℃. These results may reflect the characteristics which have relatively higher BMR,lower body temperature,minimum thermal conductance corresponding expected values,wider TNZ,lower low critical temperature,high maximal and high fluctuations of NST. Evaporative water loss plays a role in temperature regulation. These characteristics are closely related to the species’life history,and habitats,and represents its adaptive strategy to the Hengduan Mountains region.
2009 Vol. 29 (3): 302-309 [Abstract] ( 1304 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (327 KB)  ( 103 )
310 A preliminary study on the population genetic structure of snow leopard (Unica unica) in Qinghai Province utilizing fecal DNA
ZHANG Yuguang,HE Li,DUO Hairui,LI Diqiang,JIN Kun
The snow leopard (Uncia uncia) is a globally endangered and threatened species,and studies on their population
and genetic structure has been hampered due to their rugged and remote habitat. Molecular methods incorporating noninvasive sampling of wildlife populations via the collection of scats have provided a new chance for understanding the mysterious snow leopard. In this study a total of 106 scat samples were collected in the dominant distribution areas of Zongjia Township (ZJ) and Nuomuhong Township (NMH)in Dulan County and Suojia Township (SJ)in Zhiduo County,Qinghai Province. DNA was directly extracted from the scats and the mtDNA Cyt b gene fragment was amplified using PCR. 78 scats were successfully amplified and sequenced. Sequences were aligned with the GenBank by BLAST software,and 21 of the scats were identified utilizing DNA as snow leopards (11,5 and 5 in ZJ,NMH and SJ,respectively. According to the analysis of Clustal W and DNASP software,4 haplotypes and 7 diversity sites were found in the 21 snow leopard scat DNA,and their haplotype diversity was 0.384 and nucleotide diversity was 0.35%. The genetic distance and nucleotide divergence among the 3 snow leopard
populations was 0.002 -0.005 and 0.200 -1.273,respectively. Therefore,the results showed that the snow leopard has high variation in the mt DNA Cyt b gene and significant genetic distance among the three sampling sites.
2009 Vol. 29 (3): 310-315 [Abstract] ( 1512 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (316 KB)  ( 175 )
316 Construction of prokaryotic expression vector:Inducing expression and purification of recombined plateau pika leptin
DENG Zhilian,YANG Jie,ZHAO Xinquan
Leptin,the production of the ob gene,plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Plateau
pika (Ochotona curzoniae) leptin is closed to cold tolerance. In this study,we establish an effective method for expression of recombinant pika leptin in Escherichia coli. The gene sequence encoding pika leptin was obtained by PCR from the plateau pika cDNA library and the PCR product was cloned into pET30a(+ )by DNA recombination techniques. After DNA sequencing, the confirmed recombinant clone pET30a(+ )/ ppleptin was transformed into BL21(DE3)for expression under the induction of IPTG. Due to the expressed protein,the insoluble inclusion body must be separated,denaturated and purified with a Ni sepharose column. The sequencing results of pET30a(+ )/ ppleptin vector demonstrated that the insert of the pika leptin gene was the same as that of pika gene in GeneBank. At the same time the recombinant protein was identified by SDS - PAGE,and the results revealed that there was a new band of protein around 16KD;this protein was purified successfully. Our results showed that the prokaryotic expression system of pika leptin has been successfully constructed and the purified recombinant protein provides a basis for further research of plateau pika leptin.
2009 Vol. 29 (3): 316-320 [Abstract] ( 1181 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (305 KB)  ( 164 )
321 Spectrum analysis of the echolocation calls of a new record species Vespertilio sinensis (Peters,1880) from Jilin Province,China
WANG Jing,TIUNOV Mikhail P,JIANG Tinglei,XU Lijie,ZHANG Zhenzhen,SHEN Cen,FENG Jiang
Eleven bats were collected from the eaves and walls in Sheling town in Changchun City of Jilin Province. Based
on the characteristics of morphology,skull,teeth and baculum,the species was identified as Vespertilio sinensis and it was first recorded in Jilin Province. Although widely distributed in the provinces around Jilin Province,the north of Korea and Far East of Russia,the echolocation calls of this species has rarely been examined. In this study,we recorded the echolocation calls of this species while the bats flew out from the eaves. The calls during flight were short,broadband,steep FM signals,with the energy concentrated in the first harmonic. The starting,peak and ending frequencies were 83.66 ±2.08 kHz,34.54 ± 0.88 kHz and 24.78 ± 0.41 kHz,respectively. The duration was 2.63 ±0.27 ms,and bandwidth was 58.84 ±2.10 kHz. The echolocation calls of this species in Jilin were significantly different from those of the same species in Hokkaido, Japan,which produced long,gentle FM / QCF signals. The reason for the difference was probably due to geographical segregation of populations.
2009 Vol. 29 (3): 321-325 [Abstract] ( 1452 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (680 KB)  ( 194 )
326 Preliminary report on the diet and social structure of gray snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus brelichi) at Yangaoping,Guizhou,China
NIE Shuaiguo,XIANG Zuofu,LI Ming
From August 2007 to June 2008,the diet and social structure of a group of gray snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus brelichi) were studied at Yangaoping in Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve,Guizhou. The results revealed that the gray snub-nosed monkey mainly fed on leaves,buds,fruits and flowers,accounting for 33.5%, 29.1%, 24.3%, and 6.9% of their diet,respectively. Besides those main food items,bark,calyxes and insects were also recorded. The social unit of the species is multi-female,single-male units,and these social units (or families)often ranged and rested together in large,semi-cohesive bands. At least one all-male unit,which was composed of 2 - 5 adult and sub-adult males was found on the periphery of the bands. The adult sex ratio (male vs female,excepting the all-male group)was 1∶2.5. These bands displayed a temporary fission-fusion phenomenon. In summer and autumn the bands form large aggregations of over 400 animals,but in winter the bands split up temporarily into several small groups with 50 - 200 animals.
2009 Vol. 29 (3): 326-331 [Abstract] ( 1239 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (772 KB)  ( 153 )
332 Morphological and functional of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) dentition from the Qinling Mountains
LIU Shuangyun,CHEN Yongjin,ZHANG Min,LIU Xinyu
Different dental morphological features,including the occlusal surface,interproximal surface,buccal surface and
lingual surface,were described by observing the 155 non-isolated teeth in maxillary specimens from giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) from the Qinling Mountains. The correlation between dental features and diet was discussed based on the measurement of dental crown width,dental crown thickness,dental crown height,dental cervical width,dental cervical thickness,dental root length and dental length,in parallel with a study on the feeding ecology of giant pandas. Dental unity of morphology and function of wild giant pandas was also described. The correlation between dental anatomy and physiology was further analyzed. The results showed that during the evolutionary process,as a special stock of carnivore,the giant panda’s food was highly specialized. Its dental morphological features are significantly different from those of other carnivores and have their own peculiarities. The incisor has a trend of degradation and double dentition. It has lost the dental morphological features of other carnivores. The canine is strong and forms a cone. Its crown height is twice the height than the molar’s crown. The premolar and the molar have complex dental morphology. Their occlusal surface has many crista. The cingulum
is well-developed. The broad and uneven occlusal surfaces are similar to those of omnivorous and herbivorous animals. Changes in the food structure affect the dental masticatory function in different ways,resulting in the adaptive performance in the dental morphology. Morphological characteristics of these teeth meet the needs of masticatory function,which is closely related to its oral physiological functions. The results of this study provide the anatomical basis for the prevention and treatment of dental disease of giant pandas,as well as having very important ecological significance.
2009 Vol. 29 (3): 332-337 [Abstract] ( 1997 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (733 KB)  ( 183 )
338 Study on the endocrine cells in the digestive tract of the Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) using immunohistochemical methods
LIU Xiangjiang,YANG Jun,ZHANG Lei,ZHANG Lei
Immunohistochemical techniques incorporating the streptavidin peroxidase method were used to study the morphological structure and the distribution density of 5 - hydroxytryptamine (5 - HT),Somatostatin (SS),Gastrin (Gas), Glucagon (Glu),Pancreatic Polypeptide (PP)and Substance P (SP)in the digestive tract of the Arctic fox (Alopex
). The results indicated that the shape of endocrine cells in the digestive tract were of many forms: round, ellipse or spindle shape. The endocrine cells were mainly located between the epithelia of the gastric gland, intestine and intestinal gland. The distributive density of 5 - HT immunoreactive cells were the maximum in the colon,medium in the rectum and jejunum,and the least in the fundus,duodenum,ileum,and pylorus. They were not found in the esophagus,cardia or cecum. SS positive cells were located in the pylorus mostly,but were not detected in the esophagus,cardia and cecum. Gas positive cells were the most in the duodenum,while they were not found in the esophagus,cardia,colon ,rectum and cecum. Glu positive cells were distributed in the pylorus,fundus and jejunum,but were not found in other parts of digestive tract. PP positive cells were the most in the jejunum,the second-most in frequency in the colon and rectum,while they were not found in the other parts. SP positive cells were mainly distributed in the pylorus,while fewer were found in the colon, and they were not found in other parts. The location of 5 - HT positive cells were mostly distributed in the colon. SS, Gas,Glu and SP positive cells were mostly distributed in the pylorus,and PP positive cells were mostly distributed in the jejunum.
2009 Vol. 29 (3): 338-342 [Abstract] ( 1506 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (916 KB)  ( 82 )
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