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2008 Vol. 28, No. 2
Published: 2008-07-07

109 Microsatellite polymorphisms and population genetic structure of sika deer in China
WU Hua, HU Jie, WAN Qiuhong, FANG Shengguo, LIU Wuhua, ZHANG Shuyan
The sika deer (Cervus nippon) of China is critically endangered in the wild. In order to create effective approaches
for the conservation and management of this species,we investigated genetic diversity and population genetic structure by using 16 polymorphic microsatellite loci based on 122 samples from four populations in China,namely Northeast population, Sichuan population,Jiangxi population and Zhejiang population. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were detected by Fisher's exact tests among the four populations. The results showed that there was a relatively high level of genetic diversity in Chinese sika deer for the total samples,compared to the other endangered species:the mean number of observed alleles per locus was 4,and the average expected heterozygosity values was 0. 559;the mean number of observed alleles per locus of Northeast population were highest (n = 3.688); the expected heterozygosities of the Northeast,Sichuan, Jiangxi and Zhejiang populations were respectively
0. 584, 0.477, 0.585 and 0.589, respectively and where no significant differences was found. Population bottlenecks of the four populations of Chinese sika deer were also tested by step-wise mutation models (SMM), two-phase mutation model (TPM)and infinite allele mutation model (IAM),which indicated that all populations except the Sichuan population had experienced bottlenecks during the recent period. Strong genetic differentiation amongst the four populations was detected both by Fisher’s exact test and by calculating the paired-samples Fst (P <0. 001). Therefore,we advise that the wild populations of Chinese sika deer be protected and managed as four management units.
2008 Vol. 28 (2): 109-116 [Abstract] ( 1603 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (345 KB)  ( 773 )
117 Sequence variation at the swine lymphocyte antigen locus DRB exon 2 in Chinese wild boars (Sus scrofa)
DING Dong,SHEN Feifei,ZHANG Baowei,LI Chongqi,ZHANG Chenling,ZHOU Kaiya,CHANG Qing
In present study,the genetic variances of SLA DRB exon 2 of Chinese wild boar (Sus scrofa) were analyzed, and the effects of selection at the locus in different geographic environments were addressed as well. The sequence analysis showed that the rates of nonsynonymous substitutions per nonsynonymous site was 2.95 times higher than the rates of synonymous substitutions per synonymous sites at the antigen binding sites. The results indicated that balancing selection may have acted on the antigen binding sites in the evolution of Chinese wild boars. The phylogeny analysis based on nucleotide variation revealed that 15 alleles form Chinese wild boars formed one cluster,and there was no trans-species polymorphism. However,the high similarity of amino acids sequence of SLA-DRB* nnu6 and human DRB exon 2 may indicate convergent evolution under same natural selection pressure. The results showed that genetic diversity of SLA DRB exon 2 in S. s. ussuricus was significantly lower than S s moupinensis and S. s.chirodonta, which may indicated a consistent relation ship between SLA diversity and parasite or other factors in different climatic and geographical environment.
2008 Vol. 28 (2): 117-125 [Abstract] ( 1216 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (691 KB)  ( 856 )
126 Screening microsatellite DNA markers and genetic variation analysis of wild
Asian elephant population in Mengyang Nature Reserve

CAI Qingxiu,LIN Liu,PAN Wenjing,LUO Shujin,ZHANG Li
To get the appropriate microsatellite markers,we first screened 31 loci originally developed in the African elephant and five in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximua) using one muscle sample and then test the locus polymorphism and analyze genetic variation by the total 191 faecal elephant samples collected in Mengyang Nature Reserve through 4 - 8 repeat PCR and genotyping. The results showed 14 loci from the 36 can amplify in the target muscle DNA sample and verified to be microsatellite after sequencing. Nine microsatellite loci were optimized for faecal DNA amplification in the targeted Asian elephant population. For Mengyang population,we obtained amplified product from 185 of the total 191 samples (96.9%) and 55 unique genotypes. 3 loci deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and at least 8 loci lacked linkage. The average number of alleles is 3.78 ±1. 72, the average expected and observed heterozygosity and PIC were 0.32 ± 0. 06, 0. 36 ±0.02 and 0.28, respectively,which indicated that these loci were suitable to genetic researches for Asian elephant. The relatively low heterozygosity (0.32 ±0.06) and allele frequencies compared with other populations showed that the genetic variation was low and genetic structure was potentially skewed in the Mengyang population.
2008 Vol. 28 (2): 126-134 [Abstract] ( 1453 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (476 KB)  ( 775 )
135 Effects of population density on demography and individual corticosterone
level during breeding period in root voles (Microtus oeconomus)
BIAN Jianghui,WU Yan,ZHOU Kangkang
The proximate causation of density-dependence is not clear so far. Social stress may be related to density-dependence.To examine this hypothesis,we experimentally investigated the effects of population density on demography and individual corticosterone levels during the breeding period in root voles (Microtus oeconomus). We established replicate root vole populations at high and low densities in 4 field enclosures (50 m × 30 m)at the Haibei Research Station of Alpine Meadow Ecosystem,the Chinese Academy of Sciences,and tested the effects of population density on recruitment rate, survival rate,and rate of population change,as well as on individuals corticosterone level. The results showed that high density caused a lower rate of recruitment and a rate of population change. Significant linear regression relationship between the rate of population change,the rate of recruitment and founder number respectively were found. However,survival rate of founders or offspring were not different between high and low densities. In addition,under high density conditions root voles exhibited an increase in corticosterone level and spleen index. We conclude that the rate of recruitment and rates of change in population is density-dependent,which is only induced by founder numbers. The density dependence is related to social stress responses of individuals. The social stress may be a proximate causation to induce density dependence in population of root voles.
2008 Vol. 28 (2): 135-143 [Abstract] ( 592 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (520 KB)  ( 562 )
144 Seasonal variation of family group structure of plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae)

QU Jiapeng,YANG Min,LI Wenjing,LI Kexin,ZHANG Yanming,Andrew T. Smith
From May to August of 2005 and 2006,the age structure and sex ratio within family groups of plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae)were studied in Maqin County,Qinghai Province,by mark-recapture method. The result indicated that in May the family groups were composed of adults and first-litters (male:Adult,47% ;Juvenile,53% ; female: Adult, 40% ; Juvenile,60% ), and in August were mainly composed of first-litters (male, 58% ; female, 51%). Composition of plateau pika families averaged 5.1 adults (2.4 males and 2.7 females) and 13.0 juveniles (5.2 males and 7. 8 females) that survived long enough to be caught. There were significant differences in age structure within family groups among different months Individuals of adults and female first-litters in May were significantly larger than those in other months. Individuals of male first-litters in May and June were significantly larger than those in July and August. Individuals of second-litters in June were significantly larger than those in July and August;individuals of male second-litters in July were significantly larger than those in August. Individuals of first-litters in August were significantly larger than those of second-litters. The result also showed that these was no significant difference from 1∶ 1 in sex ratio during whole breeding season,whereas sex ratio of adult in May was significantly higher than that in July and August. It is suggested that plateau pikas living in environmental conditions where it have a long winter time, short breeding seasons,rigorous climate and limited food supply adjust their family group structure to improve reproductive success.
2008 Vol. 28 (2): 144-150 [Abstract] ( 1555 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (403 KB)  ( 674 )
151 Effects of long-term forced exercise training on body mass and serum lep- tin concentrations in Brandt’s voles
LI Yulian,ZHAN Xinmei,LIU Xiuzhen,CHEN Lei,WANG Dehua
Maintaining a stable body weight requires a balance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Exercise, which can increase energy expenditure, is one of the most important factors affecting energy balance for animals. In order to understand the hysiological effects of exercise,we measured changes in body mass,body fat content,food intake, and serum leptin levels in Brandt' voles(Lasiopodomys brandtii) uring 6-weeks of forced exercise training with of treadmill. Food intake was measuerfwith food trials. Body fat mass was measured with the Soxhlet method. Serum leptin concentration was measured with multispecies RIA kit. The results showed that exercise training decreased serum leptin concentrations by 30% compared with controls and no significant effects on body mass and food intake were detected during 6 weeks exercise training. Body fat decreased by 3. 5 grams in exercise trained voles,but was not significantly different from controls. There is a positive relationship between serum leptin concentrations and body fat content in control voles,but not for exercise trained voles. These results suggest that the decrease in serum leptin levels caused by forced long-term excise training is independent on the changes in body mass and body fat content. Brandt’s voles may mobilize body fat and decrease nonexercise energy expenditure rather than to increase food intake to regulate energy balance during forced exercise training.
2008 Vol. 28 (2): 151-156 [Abstract] ( 1724 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (310 KB)  ( 612 )
157 Effects of cold exposure on mitochondrial respiration of liver,diaphragm and cardiac muscle in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri)
XIE Jing,WANG Ying,LIAN Xiao,WANG Zhengkun
The state Ⅲ respiratory ability, state Ⅳ respiratory ability, respiration control ratio (RCR),total protein content and mitochondrial protein contents of liver, diaphragm and cardiac muscle in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) were measured during acutely cold exposure for 1 h,4 hs,8 hs,24 hs, and prolonged cold exposure for 7 days,21 days and 28 days. The state Ⅲ respiratory ability, state Ⅳ respiratory ability were measured by oxygen electrodes and the total protein content and mitochondrial protein contents were measured by Lowry method. The liver mitochondrial state Ⅲ and Ⅳ respiratory ability both greatly increased with prolonged cold exposure,132.9% and 124.4% (P < 0.01) respectively increased after 28 d. Compared to the controls, RCR increased by 35.8% and 48 4% (P < 0.05) in the 8 h and 7 d groups and the content of mitochondrial protein also increased by 104. 66% (P <0.01)while the P/O value showed a decreasing trend during the whole cold exposure process, showing a very significant level after 28 d, decreasing by 40.2% (P <0.01). The respiration of the diaphragm muscle mitochondrial state Ⅲ did not change evidently during the cold exposure process, however, the state Ⅳ respiration increased by 54.7% (P<0.01) while RCR decreased by 42.1 % (P<0.05) and the mitochondrial protein increased by 45.2% (P <0.01) only in the 4 h group. The state Ⅲ respiration of the cardiac muscle mitochondria increased by 54.7% (P<0.01) in the 8 h group and the state Ⅳ respiration significantly increased 94.7% by the cold exposure (P <0.01), while RCR decreased by 37.8% (P<0.01) and the content of mitochondrial protein showed a trend that increased at first and decreased later and the 8 h group decreased by 37.8% (P< 0.01), and increased by 25.2% (P < 0.05) after 28 d. The mitochondrial respiration of liver was significantly enhanced during the cold stress incorporating that the increase of proton leakage and there was some adaptive change in the mitochondria respiration of diaphragm muscle and cardiac muscle also, which compensated for the increasing energy requirements to some degree under the cold condition. These were important strategies for Tupaia belangeri to adapt to the cold.
2008 Vol. 28 (2): 157-164 [Abstract] ( 1420 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (422 KB)  ( 710 )
165 Regional distribution and population size fluctuation of wild Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica)in Heilongjiang Province
ZHOU Shaochun,SUN Haiyi,ZHANG Minghai,LU Xiangdong,YANG Jiao,LI Lin
We inspected regional distributions and population sizes of wild Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) by partitioning the monitor regions and identified individuals of wild Amur tiger through measuring front pad widths from 2005 to 2006. The results shown that there were 12 - 14 wild Amur tigers in Heilongjiang Province. The Eastern Wandashan population includes 5 -6 individuals (2 males,2 females and 1 - 2 subadults). The Southern Laoyeling population comprised 3 - 4 individuals (1 - 2 males,1female and 1 subadult). The Northern Laoyeling population had 4 individuals (about 2 males and 2 females). No individuals were monitored in Southern Zhangguangcailing. The distribution regions and population sizes of wild Amur tiger in 2005 - 2006 (12 -14) have changed comparing with those in the past few years. Among the four regions,wild Amur tigers distributed in Northern Laoyeling again. However,no activity was found in Southern Zhanguangcailing region,perhaps there have no population distribution. The population sizes increased slightly in Eastern Wandashan, Southern Laoyeling and Northern Laoyeling, but declined in Southern Zhangguangcailing.
2008 Vol. 28 (2): 165-173 [Abstract] ( 1540 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1239 KB)  ( 887 )
174 Population trends and ecological traits of giant pandas in Foping Nature Reserve based on long-term monitoring data
LIU Xinyu,ZHANG Zejun,ZHENG Xiaoyan,ZHAO Naxun,RUAN Yinqin
Monitoring plays a crucial role in managing natural resources to ensure sustainable use,and has become essential to conserve threatened species or local biodiversity. In China, long-term monitoring of large mammal species has not often been conducted. Foping Nature Reserve, encompassing the highest population density of giant pandas in China, began indexing giant panda population size in the 1990s. We analyzed population trends and ecological traits of giant pandas in the reserve through indirect indices (e. g. ,feces)based on monitoring data collected during 2000 - 2006. The year - round total of traces found on transects was treated as an index of population size,and trace per km as an index of relative abundance. We found a marginal evidence that the population size increased slowly as indexed by feces (t = 1.98, P =0.082). The highest relative abundance within Foping occurred in Sanguanmiao and Xihe districts,and the lowest in Caoping. Indices of panda abundance in Daguping, Longtan and Yueba were intermediate. Elevation of traces found on all transects in summer and autumn was significantly higher than in spring and winter, suggesting seasonal vertical migration along elevational gradient. Feces found disproportionately on gentle slopes with deciduous or mixed deciduous and coniferous forest stands these ecological traits of giant pandas derived from monitoring data were consistent with previous biological reports. Foping Nature Reserve's monitoring technique has the potential to be adopted in other giant panda reserves.
2008 Vol. 28 (2): 174-179 [Abstract] ( 1159 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (263 KB)  ( 686 )
180 Application research of radio-tracking data on giant panda movements in Wolong Nature Reserve,China
LIU Xuehua,WANG Ting,WANG Pengyan,YANG Jian
It has always been interested that whether the seasonal movement of giant pandas exists and whether these movements are different in various mountains. This research was conducted based on the radio-tracking data of 3 male and 3 female giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in Wolong Nature Reserve (NR)collected between 1981 and 1983. The tracking data were analyzed using geographic information system (GIS)and statistic methods to describe and explain the movement patterns (including seasonal vertical movement and horizontal movement over two consecutive days) of giant pandas in Wolong NR with combining DEM data. The statistic methods of box plot analysis and Mann-Whitney U test were applied for comparison study. Results showed that the giant pandas in Wolong NR moved from a higher elevation range of over 2 800 m above sea level to a lower elevation range of about 2 600 m above sea level in April and returned to the higher elevation range in the end of June. It shows obviously that the giant pandas in Wolong NR had a regular seasonal vertical movement. Horizontally,the giant pandas showed a monthly mean two-consecutive-days moving distances of approximately 550 m. The animals had a largest two-consecutive-days movement in April with a distance of 700 m,and maintained 400 m in summer and autumn. This research also showed that the male and female giant pandas had differences in moving patterns, like moving elevation and the distance between two consecutive days. The elevation change of female pandas’descending was more obvious than males, while their two-consecutive-days moving distance horizontally was significantly shorter than males. It was hoped that our research results would provide scientific supports to the monitoring and conservation of the wild giant panda and its habitat in Wolong NR.
2008 Vol. 28 (2): 180-186 [Abstract] ( 1369 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1343 KB)  ( 868 )
187 Vocalization behaviour of Sichuan sika deer (Cervur nippon sichuanicus) during rut
NING Jizu,GUO Yanshu,ZHENG Huizhen
We studied vocal behavior of Sichuan sika deer (Cervus nippon sichuanicus) in Tiebu Nature Reserve, SichuanProvince, from 20 September to the 15 November 2006. We documented three types of calls:alarm call (in both sexes), roaring (males only)and rutting call (males only). Alarm calls of males had durations of 136 to 187 ms, a frequency range of 271.8 -3910.5 Hz, and the principal frequency was 3244.3 ±79.32 Hz. Alarm calls of females had durations of 257 to 539 ms, a frequency range of 1409.5 – 4474.6 Hz, and the principal frequency was 3534.8 ±89.12 Hz. Duration, minimum frequency, and maximum frequency of male and female alarm calls differed (P < 0.01). But intervals between alarm calls did not (P = 0.624). Roars varied in duration from 1580 to 4972 ms, in frequency form 234.6 to 6171.4 Hz, and the principal frequency was 2264.6 ±166.44 Hz. The principal frequency of roar differed among males (P < 0.01). During a roaring bout, the roar of one stag often aroused an oppositional roar of another stag. Frequency of the roaring was correlated with social rank-classes (primary males,secondary males and single males; P <0.01). Roaring was documented at all times of day, but peaks of roaring bouts occurred during 06:00 - 08:00,17:00 - 19:00,and 01:00 -03:00. We identified four types of rutting calls among stags, associated with displaying, pursuing females, mounting females, and being aroused by females.
2008 Vol. 28 (2): 187-193 [Abstract] ( 1577 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (944 KB)  ( 1400 )
194 Activity rhythm and behavioral time budgets of the captive forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii)in spring
XUE Cheng,MENG Xiuxiang,XU Hongfa,XIAO Yu
Twelve captive adult forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii)(8♀,4♂)around 3-4 years old were observed from February to March, 2006 in the Dongping Musk Deer Farm of the Chongming Island, Shanghai. For observation, the cinematograph (IKENO/ OK - 203ND)with infrared was used for recording a continuous cycle of 24 hours. Focal sampling and all-occurrences recording were used for data sampling of the video recording. A total of 37 different kinds of behaviors were identified and grouped into six behavioral types according by physiology, i.e. resting behavior, feeding behavior, locomotive behavior, social behavior, maintenance behavior and elimination behavior. An ethogram of springtime behavior was then established for the musk deer. Independent-samples t tests and paired-samples t tests were used to analyze the date on time budgets and the frequencies of the six behavioral types. The date were showed as Mean±Std. Deviation. The results showed that the ethogram of forest musk deer revealed species characteristics. Resting behavior was the main behavior of the captive musk deer. The duration of resting behavior was high and the frequency was low. Females spent more time feeding and less time in locomotion than did males. The energy reservations were due to female pregnancy. Double activity peaks were found in daily activity rhythms. The first one happened at dawn (4:00 - 6:00),and the other happened at dusk (17:00 - 19:00). The observations also showed that musk deer were more active at night than in the daytime. The rhythm of feeding behavior had no relation with the time of provided food. The time pattern of feeding also met the high energy requirements of female musk deer in spring. In conclusion, the activity pattern of forest musk deer in the spring was caused by the common impact of short-term energy strategy and wild habit.
2008 Vol. 28 (2): 194-200 [Abstract] ( 1263 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (318 KB)  ( 599 )
201 Geographic variation in giant squirrels Ratufa bicolor (Sciuridae:Ratufinae)from China based on cranial measurable variables
LI Song,YANG Junxing,JIANG Xuelong,WANG Yingxiang
Giant squirrels (Ratufa bicolor) are an endemic group in the Indomalayan Region. Only one species of the giant squirrel occurs in China, and is distributed in Hainan Province, southwestern Guangxi Province, southern, southwestern, western, and northwestern Yunnan Province. Subspecies differentiation of the species used to be determined by their pelage characteristics. In this study, we obtained data on 23 cranial variables from 75 specimens. Principal component analyses, discriminant analysis, and cluster analysis were performed to discuss the validity of each subspecies and their geographic variation. Our results indicated that R. b. gigantea and R. b. hainana are all valid subspecies, the former ranging from southwestern Guangxi Province to southern,southwestern,western,and northwestern Yunnan Province,and the latter occurring in Hainan Province. However, our results did not support R. b. stigmosa as a valid subspecies of R. bicolor.
2008 Vol. 28 (2): 201-206 [Abstract] ( 1409 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (398 KB)  ( 515 )
207 Predicting the number of mammal species from the number of genera and families in China
ZHENG Ziwen,ZHANG Chunlan,HU Huijian,JIANG Zhigang,WANG Zuwang
In order to provide a theoretical basis for predicting the number of species for biodiversity assessments, we used mammalian species checklists at three geographic scales (nature reserves, administrative regions, zoogeographic regions) within China, analyzing numerical relationships between the number of species and the number of genera and families. The numbers of species, genera and families showed similar trends across scales. The number of species was significantly correlated with that of higher taxons (P<0.01).Among four models examined (logarithmic, power, exponential, and linear models),the power model provided the best fit of the relationship between species and genus or family (Species -genus: y= 1. 35 x 0.83, r = 0.993; Species – family :y = 1.93x 0. 51,r = 0. 927,P < 0. 01). Frequency distributions of species within higher taxons were not uniform. The power model provided the best fit (Species – genus :y = 73.60x -1.53,r = 0. 958;Species -family:y =4.54 x -0. 44,r = 0. 786,P < 0.01). We conclude that the number of mammalian species is highly correlated with the number of genera and families in any given area, nd thus can be applied as a surrogate in biodiversity estimation and conservation.
2008 Vol. 28 (2): 207-211 [Abstract] ( 1365 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (243 KB)  ( 495 )
212 Serological evaluation of the efficacy of the multivalent canine distemper attenuated live vaccines on giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)
WANG Chengdong, YANG Songtao, WU Kaibo, GAO Yuwei, ZANG Zhihe, LUO Li, WANG Whengyu, WANG Tiecheng, YAN Yubao, HU Juan,YANG Zhi, LAN Jinchao
33 giant pandas consisted of different ages and sexes were vaccinated with a multivalent canine distemper attenuated live vaccines specialized for dogs according to a routine protocol. Blood samples were collected from each of the 33 individuals piror to vaccination and at 2 weeks,1 month,3 months,6 months,9 months and 11 months post-vaccination. Serological viral neutralization titers (VN) to CDV were determined by viral neutralization tests as well as recording the health data of all individuals throughout the vaccinal year. The results indicated:1)No side effects related to vaccination were observed, and this type of multivalent canine distemper attenuated live vaccines was safe for use in giant pandas. 2) 13 of 33 giant pandas including old ones,adult and sub-adult ones had existing pre-vaccination VN titers (≥1∶4). 3) Of the 4 old pandas,2 produced very low level of VN titers (≤1∶8)while the other 2 failed to produce post-vaccination VN titers (< 1∶4). 4) 9 of 15 adult giant pandas failed to produce post-vaccination VN titers, only 6 of 15 adult giant pandas produced very low level of post-vaccination VN titers (≤1∶2). 5) 8 of 9 sub-adult giant pandas produced very low levels of post-vaccination VN titers (≤1∶22),1 of 9 sub-adult giant pandas failed to produce VN titers (<1∶4). 6) All of 5 infant pandas produced post-vaccination VN titers that peaked from a range of 2 W to 1 M post-vaccination, and both the level and duration of these VN titers in infant pandas were significant higher or longer than those in old, adult and sub-adult pandas (P <0.05). Although 1 infant one had ever produced the highest level of VN titers (1∶127), all of the VN titers in 5 infant pandas had dropped dramatically (1∶16) in 3 months. It was concluded that these types of multivalent attenuated canine distemper live vaccines specialized for dogs in inadequate to stimulate giant panda to produce protective VN titers against CDV using to this routine protocol.
2008 Vol. 28 (2): 212-216 [Abstract] ( 1578 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (180 KB)  ( 574 )
217 Genetic variations of haemagglutinin protein gene of canine distemper virus isolated from breeding fox and raccoon dog
ZENG Xiangwei,LIU Lanlan,HUA Yuping
Haemagglutinin (H) protein genes of six CDV strains isolated from fox and raccoon dog between 2004 and 2006 were amplified by RT-PCR, and then were cloned and sequenced. Their sequences were also compared with those of 34 CDV reference strains in Genbank. The results show that the ORF of H genes of six strains are all composed of 1 824 nucleotides, encoding a polypeptide of 607 amino acid residues. Deletion and insertion were not found in the H genes of the six isolates. Phylogenetic tree based on nucleotide sequences of H genes from six isolates and 34 reference strains show all these strains are classified into six majority genetic lineages, designated Asia - 1, Asia - 2, America - 1, America - 2, Europe, Arctic. HL isolate has high homology with Italy strain 194/97 and Danmark strain Green, and belongs to Arctic genetic lineage. The other five isolates have high homology with Japan strains HAMA,UENO,Tanu96 and China strains TN, GP, and belong to Asia -1 genetic lineage, this shows a certain extent geographical relativity. The six isolates have lower homology with vaccins strains Onderstepoor and Convac, it shows that virus variation may be one of important reasons for prevalence of CD in vaccinated animals.
2008 Vol. 28 (2): 217-220 [Abstract] ( 1150 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (195 KB)  ( 773 )
221 The musk production of captive alpine musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster)from Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm of Gansu Province,China
KANG Fagong,LIU Zhixiao,CHEN Jiangguo,WANG Chenghua,LIANG Liang,XU Zhong,DENG Kaidong
The annual musk production of captive alpine musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) in Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm (E103°50′ - 104°10′,N35°38′ - 58′), Gansu, from 1996 to 2007,were analyzed in this paper. The results showed that: (1)The average musk production from 507 individuals was 8. 8 g, with the highest 22. 6 g and lowest 1. 0 g; (2)The musk production of 76. 9% individuals was within the range of 5 - 15 g; (3)The average musk production from 1.5 year group was the highest 10.3 g among all age groups, which might have resulted from the well-breeding to the young;(4)The distribution of the annual musk production since 1998 appeared to be a typical wave-shaped curve;(5) The average musk production (8.8 g) was lower than those reported by the other farms, and the main cause was probably the unbalanced rations, and (6) The annual average musk production (above 12 g) and harvest times (above 7 times) of a few individuals were relatively high, and it was suggested that the breeding program of musk deer should be emphasized in the future.
2008 Vol. 28 (2): 221-224 [Abstract] ( 1659 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (199 KB)  ( 604 )
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