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2006 Vol. 26, No. 2
Published: 2008-07-07

105 Migratory and calving behavior of Tibetan antelope population
George B. SCHALLER,KANG Aili,CAI Xinbin,LIU Yanlin
A migratory population of female Tibetan antelope or chiru was studied on its calving ground in the western Kunlun Mountains, Xinjiang in June-July 2005. It was estimated that 4 000-4 500 females were in the 1 200 km2 calving area but most births were concentrated in 350 km2. The habitat at 4 500-5 000 m in elevation had vegetation coverage of less than 5%,principally the dwarf shrub Ceratoides compacta. Young were born 18 June-7 July with a peak 24 June-3 July. Only about 40% of adult females had young, a low fecundity possibly the result of heavy winter snows leading to poor physical condition. Wolf, red fox, and birds of prey killed a few chiru but predators were scarce; most mortality was unrelated to predation. Females arrived at the calving grounds in late May and early June from the west of Tibet, and by early July started their return migration. It remains unclear why chiru migrate to that site. Analysis of chiru food plants showed no marked difference in nutritive values at this season between the calving grounds and the southern range. Escape from predators, parasitic insects, and people with their livestock may all have a role. Based on the study, we suggest that the main calving ground requires strict protection from disturbance, and a large reserve in the region needs to be established.
2006 Vol. 26 (2): 105-113 [Abstract] ( 1102 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (291 KB)  ( 188 )
114 Dynamics of vole populations:an experimental evaluation of the influ- ence of food resources
Lowell L. Getz, Arpat Ozgul, Madan K. Oli, Joyce E. Hofmann, Betty McGuire
We studied responses of populations of Microtus ochrogaster and M. pennsylvanicus in east-central Illinois,USA to supplemental food in intermediate (bluegrass)and low (tallgrass prairie) food habitats. Whereas amplitudes of fluctuation of M . ochrogaster were higher in supplementally fed than in control sites in intermediate food habitat,mean population densities and patterns of fluctuation did not differ between the two sites in either habitat. Mean population densities of M. pennsylvanicus were higher in supplementally fed than in control sites only in low food tallgrass habitat. Supplemental food did not positively influence survival or maturation rates of M. ochrogaster in either habitat;the proportion of eproductively active adult females and adult male body mass were higher only in supplementally fed sites in intermediate food habitat. Supplemental food did not influence any variable of M. pennsylvanicus in bluegrass,nor survival in tallgrass,whereas maturation rates were shortened and proportion reproductively active females,immigration,and male body mass were greater in supplementally fed low food habitat. We conclude that food resources play only a minor role in driving the dynamics of populations of M . ochrogaster and M. pennsylvanicus.
2006 Vol. 26 (2): 114-122 [Abstract] ( 595 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (318 KB)  ( 116 )
123 The phylogenetic analysis of HA gene of tiger influenza A virus and its ex- pression in Baculovirus
GAO Yuwei,XIA Xianzhu,HOU Xiaoqiang,JU Huiyan,WANG Chengyu,WANG Tiecheng,HUANG Geng,ZOU Xiaohuan
The HA gene of tiger influenza A virus (A/ Tiger/ Harbin/01/ 2003)was cloned and analyzed. The genetic analysis of HA gene revealed that the HA gene of the virus had a long complete ORF composed of 1070 nucleotides,coding 568 amino acids. The HA gene had a high homology with the H5 gene of influenza A virus. Moreover the HA gene displayed polybasic amino acids at cleavage site,which indicates a highly pathogenic avian influenza. The HA gene was cloned into baculovirus expression vectors pFastBacⅠ, and the recombinant plasmid of pFastBac-HA was constructed. The plasmid was transformed to DH10 Bac competent cell,and was screened by three antibiotics and blue-white patch. The bacmid-HA then was transfected into the sf 9 insect cells,and the recombinant baculovirus was obtained. The expressed products were detected by Western-blotting,and the results showed that the HA protein was expressed in recombinant baculovirus. Anti-H5N1influenza virus HI antibody (1∶8 - 1∶16) was detected in the mouse immunized with cells infected with recombinant baculovirus,which indicated that the HA recombinant protein was properly expressed.
2006 Vol. 26 (2): 123-128 [Abstract] ( 680 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (539 KB)  ( 117 )
129 Social behavioral repertoires and action patterns of Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana)
YAN Kanghui,SU Yanjie,REN Renmei
We have studied the social behavioral repertoires and their action patterns on Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in two breeding cages at Beijing Raising and Training Center for Endangered Animal,in a semi-natural colony which containing one breeding unit and one all-male unit at Shanghai Wild Animal Park,and in the field by observing wild monkey groups at Shennongjia National Nature Reserve for 16 years,in total 3 000 more contact hours with monkeys. Both focal animal sampling and ad-libitum sampling were used. Fifty-four behavioral repertories and action patterns of the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey were recognized. Nine of the 54 behavioral repertories are non-social behavioral repertoires and the rest were social behavioral repertoires. Eight of the forty-five social behavioral repertories and action patterns observed only in Sichuan snub-nosed monkey or rarely observed in other primates are discussed.
2006 Vol. 26 (2): 129-135 [Abstract] ( 824 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (366 KB)  ( 191 )
136 Relationship between the urinary gonadal hormone variation and sexual behavior and social rank in captive female Francois langur (Trachypithecus francoisi
WANG Song,HUANG Chengming,ZHANG Caichang
From October 2003 to November 2004,early morning urine samples from 4 captive Francois langurs (Trachypithecus francoisi) (3 pregnant,1 in estrus)were collected while observations were made of their behaviors,in order to study relationships between urinary gonadal hormone levels and sexual behavior. Urinary estradiol and progesterone levels were measured using radioimmunoassay. During pregnancy,estradiol ascended gradually;progesterone remained at undectable levels until one month after impregnation. During the middle stage of pregnancy,females continued soliciting sexual activity,but these frequent solicitations did not correlate significantly with gonadal hormone level. During estrus,estradiol reached a peak level prior to ovulation and the frequency of sexual solicitations were positively correlated with estradiol level. Although gonadal hormone level did not correlate significantly (P>0.05)with the social rank of the females,females with higher social rank displayed a tendency of breeding earlier than others.
2006 Vol. 26 (2): 136-143 [Abstract] ( 718 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (447 KB)  ( 164 )
144 Thermoregulatory and thermogenic properties in Eothenomys miletus and Apodemus chevrieri
WANG Hai,YANG Xiaomi,LIU Chunyan,WANG Zhengkun
Eothenomys miletus and Apodemus chevrieri are small mammals inhabiting in Hengduan mountains region. To better understand their physiological and ecological adaptations to this region,we quantified characteristics of their thermoregulation and thermogenesis. Metabolic rates were measured using a closed-circuit respirometer.The thermal neutral zone (TNZ) of Eothenomys miletus was 25-32.5℃ and of Apodemus chevrieri was 25- 30℃. Mean body temperatures were for the 2 species were 35.92±0.37℃ and 36.01±0. 83℃. E. miletus was capable of maintaining a stable body temperature at 20-27. 5℃;the corresponding temperature range for A. chevrieri was 15- 27. 5℃. Basal metabolic rates (BMR) were 3. 76±0.07 ml O2/g.h and 4.58±0.09 mlO2 /g. h, respectively. Average minimum thermal conductance (Cm )was 0. 28±0.005 ml O2 /g.h ℃ and 0.32±0.009 ml O2 /g.h℃,respectively,and their F-values (RMR/ Kleiber predicted RMR) / (C/ Bradley predicted C) were 0.88±0.05 and 1.10±0.05 in their respective TNZs. We postulate that thermogenic characteristics and thermoregulatory styles of these 2 species reflect features of small rodents which have relatively low body temperatures,relatively high BMR,high Cm and can keep their body temperatures stable within relatively narrow ambient temperatures in the Hengduan mountains region. Body temperature,Cm and BMR of A. chevrieri were all higher than those of E. miletus. A. chevrieri was capable of maintaining a stable body temperature over a wider range of ambient temperatures than E. miletus. These differences in their thermogenic characteristics and thermoregulatory styles are closely related to their taxonomic status,life histories,and habitats.
2006 Vol. 26 (2): 144-151 [Abstract] ( 693 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (381 KB)  ( 359 )
152 Habitat selection of takin (Budorcas taxicolor)in Cibagou Nature Re- serve of Tibet,China
WU Pengju,ZHANG Endi
In recent decades most studies of takin (Budorcas taxicolor)have been conducted in Shaanxi,Sichuan and Yunnan. Relatively little work has been focused on habitat selection of takin and especially,that of the species in Tibet. From December 2001 to August 2002,we conducted a study on habitat selection of takin in Cibagou Nature Reserve, which lies in Zayu county,southeastern Tibet. Cibagou is characteristized by high mountains and deep valleys. We randomly placed fourteen transects oriented perpendicularly to elevation contours within the Cibagou valley. Within transects,we set a total of 187 sample plots (10 m×10 m)every 250 m from the bottom to the upper. At each plot,we quantified 10 variables (including vegetation and other quantitative factors). Plots were checked for fresh tracks of takin in winter,spring and summer. Vanderloeg coefficients and the Scavia indices were used to evaluate takin habitat selection. Takin used 44 plots in winter,39 in spring,and 20 in summer. Takin actively selected for Rhododendron-coniferousforest,Fargesia-coniferous forests and Theropencedrymion in winter,Fargesia-coniferous forests and Theropencedrymion in
spring,and Alpine meadow-shrubs and Rhododendron-coniferous forests in summer. Vanderloeg coefficients and Scavia indices confirmed these seasonal differences. Discriminant analysis of nine quantitative factors didn't show the significant difference between winter and spring,despite the significant differences among bamboo density,elevation and slope degree between the two seasons;the differences between spring and summer,winter and summer were highly significant in the analysis, and bamboo density,shelter,canopy cover,tree density,and especially elevation,also took on significant seasonal difference. Based on the comparison of researches on takin habitat between in Cibagou and elsewhere,we suggest that food might play a key role on vertical migration of takin,whereas salt might also influence takin movements in summer.
2006 Vol. 26 (2): 152-158 [Abstract] ( 783 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (351 KB)  ( 99 )
159 Social behavior of male Brandt,s vole under different group conditions
ZHANG Jianjun,SHI Dazhao
We tested the hypothesis that agonistic behavior between male Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii) should increase and amicable behavior should decrease when male voles are competing for female voles. Three different groupings of voles were observed in the laboratory. Grouping 1- two males;grouping 2- two males with one non-estrous female; Grouping 3- two males with one estrous female. The results were (1)For both dominant and subordinate males the frequency of sniffing behavior was highest in grouping 1,then in grouping 2 and lowest in grouping 3. (2)The dominant male attacked the subordinate male most frequently in grouping 1,then in grouping 2 and least frequently in grouping 3. (3) The frequency of jumping behavior and self-grooming behavior of males was the same in all groups. (4)Amicable behavior was highest in grouping 2,then in grouping 3 and lowest in grouping 1. Hence,contrary to the hypothesis agonistic behavior decreased and amicable behavior increased when male voles were competing for female voles.
2006 Vol. 26 (2): 159-163 [Abstract] ( 811 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (420 KB)  ( 126 )
164 Construction of cDNA library from testis of Elaphodus cephalophus and cloning of P1 protamine gene
ZANG Wen,TANG Wenwen,PANG Hong,CAO Xiangrong,DAI Junyong,ZANG Xiran,XU Chunmao,Wang Qiang,HU Jun
To construct a cDNA library of tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus) testis,the total RNA was extracted using TRIzol reagent and the first-strand cDNA was synthesized by using the SMART (switching mechanism at 5’end of RNA transcript) technique. The double-strand cDNA was amplified by LD-PCR (Long-distance-PCR) and then digested by sfi I restriction enzyme. Following cDNA fractionation through CHROMASPIN-400 column,fragments over 500 bp were collected and ligated with λTriplEx2 vector. The recombinants were packaged in vitro using Packagene Lambda DNA Packaging extract. The primary cDNA library contains 5.52×105 independent clones,90.8% of which are recombinant,the titer of the amplified library is 1.05×109 pfu/ ml and the average length of exogenous inserts is 1.01 kb. Testis-specific genes of
tufted deer were isolated after the phage clones were randomly selected and sequenced. the full-length cDNA with both 5’and 3’untranslated regions of a testis-specific gene,P1 protamine,was obtained from the cDNA library (GenBank accession
number:DQ299383). Sequence analysis showed that this 431 bp long cDNA spans an open reading frame from nucleotide 95 to 250,encoding a 51-aminoacid long protein It is the first time that the P1 protamine gene of tufted deer has been cloned. These results show that the cDNA library is eligible and is useful for screening and cloning other testis-specific genes of tufted deer.
2006 Vol. 26 (2): 164-170 [Abstract] ( 684 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (448 KB)  ( 125 )
171 The ultrastructure of wapiti (Cervus elaphus)oocytes in vitro cultivation and fertilization
QI Yanping,LI Heping,CUI Kai
The aim was to study the role of ultrastructural changes of wapiti oocytes before and after cultivation and fertilization in vitro. The oocytes were collected by aspiration and deep cut methods from deer that had been injected with FSH, for superovulation. The oocytes were selected from different developmental stages and their ultrastructure was observed under the Transmission Electron Microscope. Cultivation and fertilization in M199 was carried out at 38.5℃ under a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in the air. The results revealed that before the oocytes were cultivated in vitro,the cumulus cells surrounded them tightly;long thin microvilli were on their surface and deep into the zona pellucida. There were a lot of organelles in the area of the cortex and the centre of the cells. After the oocytes were cultivated in vitro,the link between cumulus cells and oocytes became loose,the microvilli lying on the oocytes surface shortened and thickened,the first polar body had no nucleus,the cortical granules were distributed in layers in the cortex area,and the organelles were distributed evenly in the cytoplasm. When the oocytes were fertilized in vitro,the microvilli on their surface became erect, the second polar body had a nucleus,and in the cytoplasm of the oocytes there were abundant organelles which were mainly distributed in the centre of the cells.
2006 Vol. 26 (2): 171-175 [Abstract] ( 682 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1378 KB)  ( 123 )
176 Feasibility of blood clotting response (BCR)to discriminate the warfarin- resistant and susceptible Rattus norvegicus (Berk)
SUN Yi,GUO Tianyu,DONG Tianyi,ZHAO Tongyan
To determine the feasibility of a blood clotting response (BCR) method for monitoring the resistance of commensal rodents, Rattus norvegicus were sampled from suburbs of Beijing and discriminated into resistant and susceptible individuals by non-alternative feed test appraised by World Health Organization. When administered with a discrimination dose of Warfarin (12 mg / kg body weight),both resistant and susceptible R. norvegicus in dividuals decreased their percentage clotting activity (PCA) the following day. While PCA of resistant individuals only decreased to 17% of normal level and soon increased to normal level within 2-3 days. In contrast the PCA of susceptible individuals decreased dramatically and no subsequent increase was observed. As a whole population,the distribution pattern of PCA four days of post-treatment R. norvegicus also changes form one peak type of pre-treatment population into double peaks type,one peak stands for resistant individuals and the other for resistance individuals. The peak of the resistant covers PCA range from 0 to 3. 16 and that of susceptible individuals PCA ranges from 17 to 100. In the same time,PCA four days post-treatment also was found to be related to survival of R. norvegicus and can predict survival in subsequent feed test which indicate the consistency of BCR
method and non-alternative feed test in monitoring the resistance of R. norvegicus Therefore, PCA = 17 (INR = 5. 0) should be a threshold in determining responders to discriminate the resistant and susceptible rodent. So BCR might be an applicable method to monitor the resistance against anticoagulant rodenticides of commensal rodents.
2006 Vol. 26 (2): 176-182 [Abstract] ( 583 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (364 KB)  ( 375 )
183 Human-large mammals conflicts:A new challenge of wildlife conservation
CAI Jing,JIANG Zhigang
Human-mammals conflict has become a problem worldwide. It not only brings damage to those people who live near the wildlife,but also causes problems to the conservation for wildlife. Main species causing problems include the wildelephants in Africa and Asia,the deer in North America and most of the large and median sized carnivores worldwide. The factors causing human and large mammals conflicts include the human population increases,wildlife habitat losses,change of land use pattern and wildlife population growth after effective implementation of conservation measures. Quite often several factors are involved in the human-large mammals conflicts. To resolve this problem,the government should enhance the management of large mammals and try to reduce the damage caused by those wild animals. On the other hand,the government
should care the indigenous communities that are near the nature reserves and to help to develop the local economy while raising conservation awareness in the indigenous communities.
2006 Vol. 26 (2): 183-190 [Abstract] ( 504 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (357 KB)  ( 216 )
191 Review on breeding biology of Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis)
HAO Yujiang,WANG Ding,ZHANG Xianfeng
There are three Neophocaena phocaenoides subspecies recognized in Chinese waters:South China Sea population,N.p. phocaenoides;Yellow Sea population,N. p. sunameri;and Yangtze population,N. p. asiaeorientalis. The Yangtze population,or Yangtze finless porpoise,is the most endangered subspecies that only inhabits in the Yangtze River and its adjacent lake systems. It is a unique freshwater and relatively isolated population of the Neophocaena. The wild population of the Yangtze finless porpoise has decreased drastically in last two decades because it also inescapably suffers the impacts of the deterioration of the Yangtze environment as the Baiji (Lipotes vexillifer) does,such as construction of hydropower facilities,overmuch and illegal fishing,busy water traffic,and heavily water pollution etc. It is no doubt that it is very important to protect and rehabilitate the natural Yangtze habitats. However,it seems that there is no chance for improvement of the Yangtze environment in the foreseeable future. Therefore,it is a practical measure to protect the animal from extinction by ex-situ conservation in a long run. Captive breeding is seen as one of essential practices of the ex-situ conservation for this animal. Obviously,the necessary knowledge on breeding biology plays a key role for successful captive breeding. To better understand the data on reproductive biology of the Yangtze finless porpoise,the previous works on the reproduction of the animal in recent 30 years are reviewed. And the present research status is expounded in terms of ecology,physiology,ethology,anatomy and histology. Some contradictions and controversial conclusions in previous studies are discussed in this paper. Furthermore,some important issues and urgent research points are also discussed to try to shed a light in further studies on breeding biology,and it is also hoped to provide a base for breeding program of this animal in captivity.
2006 Vol. 26 (2): 191-200 [Abstract] ( 662 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (380 KB)  ( 180 )
201 Seasonal changes in habitat use of black muntjac (Muntiacus crinifrons) in Zhejiang
ZHENG Xiang,BAO Yixin,GE Baoming,ZHENG Rongquan
We studied seasonal habitat use of black muntjacs in the Jiulong Mountain and Gutian Mountain Nature Reserves in Zhejiang Province,April 2002 - December 2003 based on indirect sign (e. g. ,tracks,feces). We assumed that abundance of sign functioned as a surrogate for intensity of use. During the 20-month sampling period,we quantified 11 ecological factors in 141 sample plots. Black muntjac vegetation use varied significantly with season. Variation in muntjac use of vegetation types were primarily related to seasonal changes of food resources and concealment conditions. During spring,
autumn and winter,muntjacs mostly used middle and lower portions of mountainsides,whereas they used upper portions of mountains during summer. Varying seasonal use of elevation most likely accounted for slope effects. We found no evidence
of seasonal variation in muntjac use of slope,aspect,rock exposure,distance from water or level of human disturbance.
2006 Vol. 26 (2): 201-205 [Abstract] ( 680 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (297 KB)  ( 145 )
206 Preliminary observations on mucous excretion in the giant panda
LIU Xuanzhen,LI Mingxi,ZHANG Zhihe,YU Jianqiu,HUANG Xiangming
462 episodes of mucous excretion and associated behavioral changes were documented for 25 giant pandas that were at the Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding. The purpose of this preliminary study was to lay the foundation for understanding the phenomenon of mucous production,and to investigate measures which may be related the frequency of mucous excretion. Indicators included the period of abdominal discomfort associated with mucous excretion (mean = 2.5±2.3 h);the interval from first refusal to consume bamboo and concentrated feed until mucous excretion episode (mean = 1.8±2.2 h);the interval from first refusal until return of appetite (mean = 1.9±2.3 h);the interval from mucous excretion until intake of concentrated feed and bamboo (means = 29.8±94.7 min and 33.8±105.8 min,respectively); the interval between mucous excretion episodes (mean= 18.9±24.0 days);mucous characteristics and weight of mucous averaged 1.7±0.7 and 77.8±47.7 g,respectively.Results indicated that the phenomenon of mucus excretion in the giant panda causes significant disruption to daily activity patterns. Animals that excreted mucous more frequently (15 days or less,between bouts)showed significantly more lethargy (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05),abdominal discomfort (P < 0.05),length of time of refusal to eat bamboo (P <0.055),and higher mucous weight,than animals that excreted mucous less frequently. Higher frequency of mucous excretion was directly associated with inhibited growth,reproduction and health status in the giant pandas studied.
2006 Vol. 26 (2): 206-210 [Abstract] ( 1005 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (274 KB)  ( 122 )
211 A new record of Rickett,s big-footed bat Myotis ricketti in Hainan Island
LI Yuchun,WU Yi,CHEN Zhong
Although the distribution of Rickett's big-footed bat (Myotis ricketti Thomas,1894) had been widely reported from Heilongjiang to Hong Kong,no distribution in Hainan Island is reported. The authors collected 27 specimens of Rickett's big-footed bat from Mt. Diaoluoshan and Huoshankou of Hainan Island in 2004,showing that Rickett's big-footed bat is widely distributed from Heilongjiang to Hainan Island,ranging from the northernmost to the southernmost parts in China. The measurements of specimens are less than those of the specimen collected from the mainland of China,and the authors
consider it may be necessary to study subspecies differentiation of the Hainan Island population.
2006 Vol. 26 (2): 211-212 [Abstract] ( 597 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (211 KB)  ( 119 )
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