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2005 Vol. 25, No. 3
Published: 2008-07-07

209 Vole Population Fluctuations : Why and When ?
Lowell L. Getz
In this paper I summarize the results and conclusions of a 25-year study of demography of the prairie vole ( Microtus ochrogaster) , and meadow vole (M. pennsylvanicus). The roles of survival and reproduction are evaluated in respect to why population fluctuations occur some years and not others, what initiates a population fluctuation, and what is responsible for the variation in the peak density among population fluctuations. Population fluctuations of both species were erratic in respect to annual occurrence, the time of the peak density of fluctuations within years, and the hight of peak the density a given year. For both species, changes in survival appeared to be responsible for whether a fluctuation occurred a given year and the time of the peak density of a fluctuation. Population density at the beginning of the increase phase and length of the increase were most responsible for variation in peak densities of population fluctuations of both species. Stoppage of growth of populations of M. ochrogaster resulted from decreased survival, whereas stoppage of most population fluctuations of M. pennsylvanicus resulted from decreased reproduction. Variation in mortality associated with initiation of a population fluctuation is presumed to result primarily from the net effect of a consortium of generalist predators, populations of each which are controlled by factors other than vole densities. Accordingly, predation pressure on vole populations a given year is presumed to be unpredictable , resulting in the observed erratic nature of population fluctuations of M. ochrogaster and M. pennsylvanicus.
2005 Vol. 25 (3): 209-218 [Abstract] ( 517 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (223 KB)  ( 101 )
219 An Initial Study on the Mitochondrial DNA Control Region Sequences of False Killer Whales ( Pseudorca crassidens)
ZHANG Ting, YANG Guang, ZHOU Kaiya, WEI Fuwen
Five hundred and thirty three base pairs (bp) of the mitochondrial control region of seven false killer whales ( Pseudorca crassidens) from the Yellow Sea in China were sequenced. Fifty-four variable sites were determined and four haplotypes were identified. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum likelihood and neighbor-joining algorithms divided the haplotypes of false killer whales into two clades showing no sister relationship with each other. No shared haplotypes were found between the two clades. The average nucleotide divergence between the two clades is approximately 7.61 %, much higher than those between Turisops species (5.58 %) and between Delphinus species (1.09 %), which suggested that the two clades represent respective species. Further study is urgently needed.
2005 Vol. 25 (3): 219-223 [Abstract] ( 701 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (170 KB)  ( 73 )
224 Population Genetic Structure of the Yarkand Hare ( Lepus yarkandensis)
LI Zengchao,XIA Lin,YANGQisen,LIANGMengyuan
The Yarkand hare (Lepus yarkandensis) is one of the endemic species of Lepus from China. The genetic structure of its population remains unknown. We sequenced a 529-bp fragment of the mitochondrial control region (D-loop) from 25 samples of three populations in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region (NW China). Among the sequences, 76 sites were polymorphic. 19 haplotypes were defined; haplotype diversity was 0.964 ±0.00596 in population Aksu (AKS), 0.972 ±0.00409 in population Qarkilik (RQ) and 0.643 ±0.0339 in population Shule (SL). These data indicate a high level of genetic diversity in the Yarkand hare. However, significant genetic subdivision and low gene flow were found among the three populations. From mismatch and Fu's Fs test of neutrality, we found that AKS, RQ, and SL populations are relatively stable.

2005 Vol. 25 (3): 224-228 [Abstract] ( 828 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (191 KB)  ( 138 )
229 Habitat Selection by Asian Elephant ( Elephas maximus) in Xishuangbanna,Yunnan,China
The habitat selection of Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus) was studied from August 2003 to August 2004 in Shangyong protected area in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve, Yunnan, China. Village visiting and transect were used to survey the habitat utilization of Asian elephant. The transects were made about 2 km each through the elephant habitat and data were collected on vegetation type, vegetation aboundance, geography parameters (aspect, slope, location etc. ), elevation, population status,
frequency of elephant sightings, and other wildlife sighting were recorded. A total of 109 elephant trace points were tracked. 3S(GIS, GPS, RS) technology was used to analyze the data obtained from field surveys and satellite images. Vanderploge and
Scavia′s selectivity index was used to assess Asian elephant′s selection for the different habitat parameters. The results indicated that Asian elephant preferred to select habitat with an altitude less than 1 000 meters , a slope less than 10°, and locations in valleies, with a north and south orientation. The selected habitats were bamboo-evergreen broadleaf mixed forest , shrub and grassland. Asian elephants preferred dense coverage shrub layer and an arbor layer with lower height, dense canopy and small trunk radius. It was also found that the loss of suitable habitat and the illegal hunting for ivory were two major threats the survival of Asian elephants in Shangyong protected area. How to prevent the habitat loss and fragmentation , and how to efficiently control the poaching will be key tasks to the elephant conservation efforts in Xishuangbanna.
2005 Vol. 25 (3): 229-236 [Abstract] ( 770 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (281 KB)  ( 211 )
237 Research on Allomothering Behavior of Francois Langur ( Trachypithecus f rancoisi) in Captivity
HU Yanling,HUANG Chengming,QUE Tengcheng,LI Youbang,ZHOU Qihai
Data about allomothering behavior of francois langurs ( Trachypithecus f ranoisi) were collected from March to December, 2002 by means of focal animal sampling and all occurrence recording in Nanning Zoo which include 9 infants and 19 adult females in 5 cages. Embracing, carrying, approaching, grooming and kissing were found to be patterns of allomothering behavior. The frequencies of the allomothering behaviors were 46.19 % for approaching, 24.14 % for embracing and carrying, 20.36 % for kissing and 9.31 % for grooming. The results also indicated that : 1) allomothering behavior was common for infants of several months of age; 2) the intensity of allomothering behavior was closely related to the ages of infant and the experience of non-mother female, which indicated that the less experienced non-mother females were more interested; 3) the frequency of allomothering behavior was closely related to mother's permission. Some mothers refused other female's attempt to take care of their infants. The reason may be related to female's competition; 4) some females could improve their relationships with high ranking females by taking care of the infants.
2005 Vol. 25 (3): 237-241 [Abstract] ( 726 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (101 KB)  ( 141 )
242 Characteristics of Discontinuous Locomotion with Respect to Anti-predator Behavior of Plateau Pikas
ZHANG Yanming, ZHANG Zhibin, WEI Wanghong, CAO Yifan
We measured the frequency of locomotions above-ground and within burrows, as well as the distance of each movement, of plateau pikas ( Ochotona curzoniae) using direct field observations. Locomotion rates and distances differed significantly by sex and age of pikas, as well as by month of the year. Prior to the breeding season, adult male pikas moved significantly more frequently above-ground than did females. Locomotion frequency of adult females was higher during the breeding period than after it. We observed no significant differences in locomotion rates of adults vs. juveniles during the breeding season. Males traveled greater distances during each locomotion than did females early in the breeding season, but no gender difference was observed during other time periods. Among males, distances traveled during each locomotion bout tended to decrease gradually from April to August. In contrast, we observed no discernible seasonal patterns among females. Our results were in accord with predictions that small herbivores living with high predation risk would adopt a discontinuous mode of locomotion and increase their investment in anti-predators behaviors.
2005 Vol. 25 (3): 242-247 [Abstract] ( 900 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (160 KB)  ( 110 )
248 Food Hoarding Behavior of Chinese White-bellied Rat ( Niviventor confucianus)
LU Jiqi, ZHANG Zhibin
Food hoarding is a key adaptation for many species to survive periods of food shortage. The Chinese white-bellied rat ( Niviventor confucianus) is widely distributed in the temperate zone in China, but food hoarding behavior of this species is almost unknown. We investigated food hoarding behavior of white-bellied rats by providing them with wild apricot ( Prunus armeniaca) seeds and Liaodong oak ( Quercus liaotungensis) acorns within enclosures (L ×W ×H = 4 × 3 × 1 m) in the Dongling Mountains (40°00′N , 115°30′E), Mentougou District, Beijing. We found that 1) Chinese white-bellied rats hoarded food in larders, 2) simulated pilfering of stored food stimulated rats to hoard more food items, and 3) Chinese white-bellied rats selected wild apricot seeds for hoarding, and consumed more Liaodong oak acorns in the short term. We discuss possible factors influencing food hoarding behavior in this species.
2005 Vol. 25 (3): 248-253 [Abstract] ( 598 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (115 KB)  ( 98 )
254 The Population Structure and Dynamics of Small Mammals in Set Aside Areas in Western Switzerland
Anwar·Tumur, Jean2Pierre Airoldi, Wolfgang Nentwig, Mahmut·Halik
In this paper in order to assess the effect of set aside to small mammal populations, one year field study using mark and recapture method was performed in set aside fields in Salavaux, Chevroux and Montbrelloz in western Switzerland. There are 3 species were regularly caught in the set asides: the common vole (Microtus arvalis), the white toothed shrew ( Crocidura russula), and the wood mouse ( Apodemus sylvaticus). The common vole was the most numerous species in the three set aside fields. Population size of common voles was different between the set aside, but fluctuations in animal numbers were similar, showing a rapid increase as cover and food abundance increased in the set asides during late spring, leading to peak in midsummer. The age structure differed between males and females, most individuals captured during this study are adults and subadults. There were more subadult males than female and more adult females than males ( x2 = 44.09, df = 10, P < 0.001, N = 203). There was a significant difference in body mass between the sexes among common voles , males were significantly heavier than females ( t-test unequal variances: t = 5.011, df = 162, P < 0.05, N = 213). The sex ratio was very different for the different months, females being more frequently captured than males and there was no similarity between the set asides. The home range size of common voles lied between 350 and 400 m2 ; the individuals move only short distances and there were no significant differences between
males and females.
2005 Vol. 25 (3): 254-260 [Abstract] ( 919 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (157 KB)  ( 122 )
261 Effects of Locally Environmental Warming on Root Vole Population in Winter
SUN Ping, WEI Wanhong, ZHAO Yajun, XU Shixiao,ZHAO Tongbiao, ZHAO Xinquan
To study possible effects of local warming on root vole (Microtus oeconomus) populations during winter, we compared populations of root voles in experimentally-warmed sites (using open top chambers, TOCs) and control sites Experimental sites included experimentally-warmed meadow (EWM), control meadow (CM), experimentally-warmed shrub (EWS), and control shrub (CS). Population densities on EWM and EWS were significantly higher than their respective controls (CK and CS). We found no significant difference in the sex ratio between EWS and CS ( P > 0.05). We found no significant differences ( P > 0.05) for any experimental pairwise comparisons of apparent subsistence rate, mean body mass, or population age structure. We documented individual root voles that had dispersed or migrated from controls to locally-warmed sites. Our results suggest that although local environmental warming produced a significant increase of winter root vole population densities, it had little effect on sex ratio, survival rate, average body mass or population age structure. We suspect that root voles dispersed or migrated from control areas to locally-warmed sites.
2005 Vol. 25 (3): 261-268 [Abstract] ( 686 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (191 KB)  ( 129 )
269 Effect of a Contraceptive Compound on Reproduction of Greater Long-tailed Hamsters ( Tscherskia triton) in Experimental Enclosures
ZHANG Zhibin,WANG Yushan,WANG Shuqing,WANG Fusheng,CAO Xiaoping,ZHANG Jianxu
We tested the effects of a contraceptive compound of levonorgestrel and quinestrol (coded as EP-1) on reproduction of greater long-tailed hamsters in eight experimental enclosures. The test subjects were divided into four groups with two replicates for each group : control group (0 % EP-1), 0.001 % EP-1 group, 0.003 % EP-1 group, and 0.003 % EP-1 group with prebaiting before test. In June of 2001, each enclosure was supplied with 5 male and 5 female adult greater long-tailed hamsters, and with baits. In September, twelve newborn hamsters were captured in both control enclosures. Thus, each female produced an average 2.4 newborn hamsters. Less than four newborn hamsters were captured in each of the six EP-1 treatment enclosures , thus, each female produced an average of 0.4 - 0.8 newborn hamsters. The results indicated that the reproduction of hamsters in enclosures with treatment of EP-1 baits was obviously inhibited. Thus we suggest that in natural conditions, EP-1 would be promising in controlling reproduction of hamsters if they are supplied with enough baits.
2005 Vol. 25 (3): 269-272 [Abstract] ( 783 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (94 KB)  ( 79 )
273 Mammalian Survey of Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve , Sichuan Province
LIU Shaoying, SUN Zhiyu, RAN Jianghong, LIU Yang, FU Jianrong, CAI Yongshou, LEI Kaiming
From 2003 to 2004, the mammal fauna of the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve was surveyed. Six separate surveys were conducted during this period. A summary of these collections showed that there are 78 species mammals in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve. An investigation of the biogeographic origin of this mammal fauna indicates that 50 species belong to the Oriental realm, 25 species belong to the Palaearctic realm, and 3 species are widely distributed. Ten general patterns of distribution were noted among the 78 species of mammal. This reserve's mammals show a very high south-north penetrability and antiquity. Twenty species in this reserve have been identified as nationally protected rare mammals; six of the species are first grade protected rare mammals. In addition, there are many rare small mammals in the reserve, such as the China jumping mouse ( Eozapus setchuanus), Chinese Dormouse ( Chaetocauda sichuanensis) and Bedford's vole ( Proedromys bedfordi). There is a distinct trend for an increasing proportion of Palaearctic mammals and decreasing proportion of Oriental mammals as one ascends from 2 000 - 3 600 m. However, 3 200 - 3 600 m there is an abundance of both Palaearctic and Oriental species. These results show that this mammal fauna is broadly in transition in this area, including at elevations above 3 200 m.
2005 Vol. 25 (3): 273-281 [Abstract] ( 714 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (192 KB)  ( 108 )
282 Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Golden Monkey ( Rhinopithecus roxellana) Insulin-ike Growth Factor Ⅰ Gene
SONG Li, HU Xilian, ZHANG Zhihe, YUE Bisong, SHEN Fujun, MENG Yanfa, ZHAO Bin
The insulin-like growth factor Ⅰ ( IGF-Ⅰ) cDNA of the golden monkey ( Rhinopithecus roxellana) was cloned for the first time from liver tissue by reverse transcription and amplified by PCR using a set of primers that we designed in this study. The amplified cDNA fragment was inserted into the vector pGEM-T. Through transferring, screening, enzymolysis and sequencing, it was demonstrated that this fragment was IGF-Ⅰgene cDNA. It is 521nts in length and contains one open reading frame (ORF), which encodes for a polypeptide containing 153 amino acids. The golden monkey IGF-Ⅰ gene has a high homology with othermammal IGF-Ⅰgenes.
2005 Vol. 25 (3): 282-286 [Abstract] ( 765 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (185 KB)  ( 73 )
287 Screening of the DNA Fingerprint Probes of Greater Long-tailed Hamster( Tscherskia triton)
SONG Mingjing,XU Laixiang,ZHANG Zhibin
We extracted the genomic DNA from liver tissues of Tscherskia triton using isolation of high quality DNA method. Then the DNA template of Tscherskia triton was amplified with a single primer composing ( GTG)5or (CA)8 by using the polymerase
chain reaction (PCR). After agarose gel electrophoresis, fifteen specific amplification fragments were retrieved. Among these specific PCR products, we found that fragment (GTG)5 - 8,(CA)8 - 1b and (CA)8 - 5b showed more positive signals than others in reverse hybridization test with genomic DNA. We designed the DIG labeled probes according to the sequencing result of these three fragments. The DNA fingerprints pattern of the greater long-tailed hamster individuals from different geographic areas hybridized by these probes were individual-specific and population-polymorphic. Moreover in contrast to DNA fingerprints hybridized by conventional probes derived from other sources, such as 33.6 and 33.15, these probes detected medium level of variation in DNA fingerprints, which were easier to score.
2005 Vol. 25 (3): 287-292 [Abstract] ( 582 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (201 KB)  ( 100 )
293 On the Accessory Ejaculation Criterion of Wild Sichuan Snub-nosed Monkeys ( Rhinopithecus roxellana)
ZHAO Dapeng  LI Baoguo
After recording the sexual behavior among the wild Sichuan snob-nosed monkey ( Rhinopithecus roxellana) with digital video cameras from July 2003 to December 2003 in Qinling mountains, we analysed the available image data with“The Observer 610”animal behaviour analysis system which published by NOLDUS company. We found that all the copulations (N = 285) were performed in a dorsa-ventral posture. Both single-clasp copulations (54.57%) and double-clasp copulations (45.43%) were observed in our study. Double-clasp copulation gesture was observed for the first time and this gesture was not found in previous studies in captive populations. In comparison to the data from captive populations, we suggest that the intromission process can be divided into two phases: intromission prophase and the intromission anaphase, which may facilitate the study of copulation behaviors of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys.
2005 Vol. 25 (3): 293-296 [Abstract] ( 635 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (150 KB)  ( 136 )
297 Comparison of Extraction Methods for Urinary and Fecal Steroid Hormones in Sichuan Snub-nosed Monkey ( Rhinopithecus roxellana)
WANG Huiping, GAO Yunfang, ZHANG Xinli, LI Baoguo
To study the efficiency of methods for extracting urinary and fecal steroid hormones in Sichuan snub-nosed monkey ( Rhinopithecus roxellana), three extraction solvents and five extraction methodswere used to extract the hormones in urine and feces, respectively. The recovery rate of extractions was employed for comparison. The results showed that the recovery rates of the urinary testosterone in male monkey, the urinary estradiol and progesterone in female monkey, were 79.27%, 73.39% and 80.28%, respectively, with dichloromethane as extraction solvent. The results were higher than those applying the other two extraction solvents.When fecal testosterone and estradiol in male monkey, fecal testosterone, estradiol and progesterone in female monkeywere extracted by ethanol-heating method, the recovery rateswere71.33%, 85.12%, 67.41%, 79.58% and 77.71%, respectively.Weighed the five methods and ethanol-heating method was the best one. Furthermore, ethanol-heating method was simple and easy to be manipulated. The conclusion could be made that ichloromethane and ethanol-heating method were the efficient extraction solvent and way , respectively , for urinary and fecal steroid hormones in Sichuan snub-nosed monkey.
2005 Vol. 25 (3): 297-301 [Abstract] ( 653 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (156 KB)  ( 147 )
302 Primary Analysis on Habitat Selection of Yangtze Finless Porpoise in Spring in the Section Between Hukou and Digang
YU Daoping, WANG Jiang, YANG Guang, ZHANG Xian
In springs of 1995 to 2000, plot sampling was carried out to collect information on eight habitat factors including geographic environment and human activities, etc. According to a map of navigation in middle and low Yangtze River (printed in 1995), regular sampling plots, with a circular area of 500 m in diameter and with equal water and terrestrial , were set every five kilometres along the main stream, which included areas used by Yangtze finless porpoise. A total of 1 225 kilometres of survey was conducted 1 247 regular sampling plots were set, of which 66 were utilized by the finless porpoises. The habitat selection of the Yangtze finless porpoises was quantitatively analyzed by Vanderploeg and Scavia selection indices. It was found that the Yangtze finless porpoises prefer cushion waters around large, gooseneck-like, bifurcated water courses, however the selection tended to be random with the decrease of flexuousity and the width to length ratio of the riverway. The feeding grounds of the Yangtze finless porpoises are usually close to sandy areas with reedy swamps where boats traveling upstream, sand excavating, and fishing activities, etc. constitute the potential threats to the finless porpoises. We suggest that the core area of the nature reserve should focus on large bifurcated riverways with cushion waters, and large areas of reedy swamps, where the sand excavating and fishing activities should be prohibited, and the speed of boats traveling upstream must be limitede.
2005 Vol. 25 (3): 302-306 [Abstract] ( 766 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (166 KB)  ( 137 )
309 Bioaccumulation of Trace Elements in a Captive Chinese River Dolphin( Lipotes vexillifer)
YANGJian, LIU Hongbo
The Chinese river dolphin or baiji (Lipotes vexillifer) is the most endangered cetacean found exclusively in the Yangtze River of China. Bioaccumulation of trace elements in the liver, kidney, muscle, intestine, skin, lung, stomach, pancreas, heart, and blood by a captive Chinese river dolphin named QiQi was studied by Agilent ICP-MS 7500 in detail for the first time. QiQi died a natural death in Institute of Hydrobiology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences on July 14th 2002. Tendency of tissue or organ specific accumulation of trace elements was found for copper (Cu) as 77.3 μg/g dry weight, molybdenum (Mo) as 1.66 μg/g dry weight in the liver, zinc (Zn) as 240 μg/g dry weight in the skin, selenium (Se) and cadmium (Cd) as 10.1 and 0.566 μg/g dry weight respectively in the kidney, aluminum (Al) as 27.4 and 23.2 μg/g dry weight respectively in the lung and skin. The tissular distribution pattern and level of Arsenic (As) were ascertained as well. In every tissue or organ As concentration was similar, ranging between 0.152 and 0.274 μg/g dry weight.
2005 Vol. 25 (3): 309-307 [Abstract] ( 460 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (148 KB)  ( 121 )
310 Serologic Investigation of Canine Adenovirus Infection in Tigers
HE Wenqi, XIA Xianzhu, GAO Yuwei, SUN Heting, WANGLigang, LIU Dan, XUE Lin, HUANG Geng
In order to investigate the incidence of canine adenovirus (CAV) infection, sera from a total of 109 unvaccinated tigers from 6 districts of China were examined for antibodies to canine adenovirus type Ⅰ (CAV-1) and canine adenovirus type Ⅱ(CAV-2) by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Antibodies to CAV-1 and CAV-2 were prevalent with positivity rates of 28.4% and 10.1 %, respectively. The results suggested that tigers can be infected by CAV1.
2005 Vol. 25 (3): 310-312 [Abstract] ( 552 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (149 KB)  ( 155 )
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