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1999 Vol. 19, No. 3
Published: 2008-07-07

 
161 STUDIES ON ANATOMY OF THE SPINAL CORD AND HISTOLOGY OF C6,T8, Lc2 OF THE INDO-PACIFIC HUMP-BACKED DOLPHIN
WU Baosun,ZHOU Kaiya,CAO Yuqing
The spinal cord of an adult female of Indo-Pacific hump-backed dolphin Sousa chinensis ) were studied macro- and microscopically. Samples for microscopic observations were taken from C6, T8 and Lc2, frozen sections of 20~40μm thick were stained with 1% thionine or argyrophil method. The spinal cord formula was C8-T12-L10-Ca4 (or Lc14). The length of the spinal cord was 27.48% of the bodylength and the weight of the spinal cord was 3.88% of the brain weight. The arachnoid trabeculae were extremely developed and assumed thin silk floss. The pia mater brought blood vessels invaginated along with furrows and crevices into thespinal cord proper. Irregular periphery spaces of vessels containing lymphocytesand cerebral fluid were observed in the gray matter and white matter. The nervecells and capillaries were immersed in the cerebral fluid and therefore the formerwere refered to cerebrospinal fluid-containing neurons. The gray matter of C6, T8and Lc2 was divided into 10 layers according to the Rexed's Principle of the laminarcytoarchitecture pattern of the spinal cord. The cytoarchitecture of each of the layers and the corresponding nucleus were described. Special cell groups, i. e. lateral cervical nucleus, lateral thoracic nucleus and lateral lumbocaudal nucleus in the lateral funicle, dorsal funiculus nucleus in the dorsal funicle, scattered cells in the ventral funicle, were observed in the white matter.
1999 Vol. 19 (3): 161-168 [Abstract] ( 639 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (168 KB)  ( 121 )
169 PRELIMINARY OBSERVATION ON THE PHENOMENA OF SOLITARY INDIVIDUALS IN GOLDEN TAKIN (BUDORCAS TAXICOLOR BEDFORDI) IN QINLING MOUTAIN RANGES
ZENG Zhigao,SONG Yanling
Golden takin (Budorcastaxicolorbedfordi) naturally appearsingroups, but a few individuals of them can be observed as solitary ones. Fifty individuals of solitary takins were tallied from March to November 1996, which werecounted 4.59% ofthe totaltakins observed in the field.Takins ofany sexes andages could be a solitary one, adult males both of old age or in a strong body condition, adult females, sub-adults in both sexes, and even calves were found alone. Solitary ones were more 1ikely to beseen in summer when takins were in heat. Majority of the solitary takins observed in the breeding season was adult males, but solitary adult females could also be found. Both of them were in a very good bodycondition. It was hardly to find group formed only by males in Qinling mountainranges, while it wasseenquiteoften in the subspeciesofTibetan takin (B. t .tibetana). We strongly suggested that some adult males in a good body condition would likely be alone in breeding season when they moved between groups andtry to get moremating opportunities. They would be aggregated in groups again after the breeding season was over. Animals which were ill or weak might be leftalone if they could not keep up with groups when they made a move of feeding or escaping. Solitary takin could be found in any season and in any kinds of habitat. Most solitary ones in old age were often found in areas of lower elevation. Twomales were collared in the study area(M1 and M2). M2 wasold and alone. Ml was strong and associated in a group. Time budget of the two radio-collared takins inJuly indicated that active rate of M1 and M2 was not significantly different in the 24 hours period, butit was differentat night for the two takins.Active signals could be received at day and night for M1, but M2 was very active in the day time andalmost spent allthe time onresting at night.
1999 Vol. 19 (3): 169-175 [Abstract] ( 469 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (208 KB)  ( 140 )
176 DENNING SELECTION BY RED FOX DURING IHE BREEDING PERIOD IN NORTHEASTERN INNER MONGOLIA
ZHANG Honghai,ZHANG Minghai,WANG Xiuhui,WANG Wen,ZHANG Li,GAO Zhongxin
The denning selection by red fox (Vulpes vulpes) during breeding period were studied in the northeastern Inner Mongolia during May 1995.By using the cluster analysis, the results shown that the ultimate factors which exerted notable influence on the denning selection by red fox was water source. The proximate factors were slope aspect, slope position and slope degree. Influence of human disturbance sheltering class, and direction of den entrance on dennin g selection by red fox during this period were exerted indistinctively. The optimal denning selection by red fox during breeding period were a)slope aspect: sunny or half sunny half shady; b) slope position: lower; c) slope degree: 5º-25º; d)distance from water source:500- 1000 m.
1999 Vol. 19 (3): 176-195 [Abstract] ( 607 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (151 KB)  ( 74 )
196 POPULATION ECOLOGYOF RATTUS NITIDUSIN IN THE WESTERN SICHUAN PLAIN Ⅲ. REPRODUCTION
ZENG Zongyong,YANG Yueminm,LUO Mingshu,LIANG Junshu
The extremely flexible reproductive tactics of Rattus nitidus facilitate juvenile survival and enable this species of rodent to maintain remarkably stable populationdespite predictably periodical and frequent fluctuations in its agricultural environment. Mark-recapture, trap-dissection and captive feeding in semi-natural condition provide data on proportions of the male and female individuals in reproductive condition, the number of litters per year, litter size, recruitment and development of juveniles for a population of R. nitidus in the Western Sichuan Plain from 1989 through 1995. Reproductive tactics are characterized by greater proportion of the males in reproductive condition (mean 0.491 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.451 and 0.534),smaller proportion of the pregnant females (mean 0.227 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.213 and 0.301), higher and relatively stable reproductive effort (4 litters per year, and an average of 8.245 (0.452 young per litter), slow growth and maturation of female young (about 4 months from birth to sexual maturity), and synchronizing recruitment of juveniles following ripening of wheat (in spring) and rice(in tall).This combination of reproductive tactics enables R..nitidus to confine reproduction mainly to favorable period, with the result that although adults of both sexes showed a loss of body mass associated with reproduction, body mass can recover to the level before reproduction quickly after breeding. Atthe same time we analyzed and compared the litter size ofR..nitidus with other studies onregional variations of reproduction parameters of rodents in China. Our critical examination of the data presented by some other authors shows that they do not provide sufficient support for the over-simplified generalization of "latitudinal increase in litter size” for all of rodents in China. Every population has its own optimal litter size. But the optimal litter size does not necessarily increase with latitude. While studying life-history traits like litter size on large scales, we prefer the diversity of life-history traits to over-simplified generalizations of a single life-history trait like litter size.
1999 Vol. 19 (3): 196-202 [Abstract] ( 546 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (199 KB)  ( 121 )
197 KARYOTYPES AND B CHROMOSOME OF GREATER LONG-TAILED HAMSTER (CRICETULUS TRITON)
WANG Jinxing,ZHAO Xiaofan,DENG Yi,QI Hongying,LIU Yao,ZHANG Zhihong,Koh Hung Sun,SHAN Xiangnian
The karyotypes of greater long-tailed hamster (Cricetulus triton) from Jinan, Mt. Tai, Shandong Province, Mts. Changbai, Jilin Province and Xi’an Shaanxi Province in China were observed by conventional and banding technique. The diploid chromosome number and karyotype are identicalin the samples of Jinan, Mts. Changbai and Xi’an, i.e,. 2n=28, and the karyotype consists of 11 pairs of telocentric and 2 pairs of metacentric chromosomes.X chromosome is subtelocentric and Y metacentric. Diploid number of the samplefrom Mt.Tai is 28-29, one extra unpaired chromosome existed in the observed metaphases by 67. 5%. It is B chromosome which is the smallest telocentric in the complement. A chromosomes of the sample were identical with that of samples from Jinan, Xi’an and Mts. Changbai. The G-banded,C-banded, and silver stained karyotypes have been observed, nodifference was found among samples from tour localities. The origin of B chromosome wasdiscussed in the paper.
1999 Vol. 19 (3): 197-203 [Abstract] ( 487 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1922 KB)  ( 110 )
204 EFFECT OF REMOVAL ON AGE STRUCTURE AND REPRODUCTION OF PLATEAU ZOKOR POPULATION IN ALPINE MEADOW
ZHANG Yanming
Two populations of plateau zokor one was removed part and another was not in alpine meadow were studied by comparison in Haibei, Qinghai province from May 1995 to October 1996. The natural population density was significantly higher than that of remnant's. 470 zokors were captured from two populations in 1996. There was significant difference in age structure between two population in May(X2=9.97, P<0.05), moreover, strongly significant difference in July and October, respectively (X2=15.134, X2=15.612, P<0. 01). Adu1t I of remnant in May occupied 53.45% was strongly higher than that ofnatural's that occupied 29.694%. However, adult IIofremnant only occupied 34.48% waslower than that of natural's(48.44%) in same period. Age classes of natural population were relatively stable in different season, but remnant's were not. The total of juvenile and subadult in remnant occupied 35.06% was higher than that in natural(22.00%) in July. There was significant difference in age structure between two populations in October. Adult of remnant occupied 51.35% was significantly different with naturals (23.01%). Olders and Oldests only occupied 9.62% was significant lower than that of natural's (23. 08%). The body length and weightin allage classes were notsignificantly different. But the body weight of male showed significantly positive correlation with age class.The female pregnancy rate of adult I of remnant population was higher than that of natural's, the litter size of remnant population was 3.32,that of natural's was2.85.The significant difference was not found.
1999 Vol. 19 (3): 204-211 [Abstract] ( 450 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (153 KB)  ( 134 )
212 INFLUENCE OF COVER ON HABITAT UTILIZATION OF PLATEAU PIKA (OCHOTONA CURZONIAE)
BIAN Jianghui, JING Zengchun, FAN Naichang, ZHOU Wenyang
The influence of cover on habitat utilization of plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) were studied. The work was carried out at the bird-island area of Qinghai province, the People's Republic of China from May to August1994. The cover was manipulated by placement of small boards in the area where the pika inhabited in. Habitat utilization was responsive to change in the cover treatments. The pika either increased burrow utilization and decreased microhabitat utilization, or shifted into a safe microhabitat that was not treated with the boards. On the other hand, foraging behaviors were also affected by the treatments. The time spent on feeding was significantly decreased, however, the time spent on vigilance was significantly increased. In addition, feeding rang was shrunk by feeding close to the hole of the burrow as possible. These results suggest that the cover is not a refuge, but only a source of indirect predation risk for the pika. The pika possenses the ability to assess the risk of be preyed upon. The behavioral change in habitat utilization in fact .is a behavioral decision made b y the pika based on trade off energy gain against risk of predation. Predation risk is not only an important factor that they decide where to feed, but also an important foraging cost.
1999 Vol. 19 (3): 212-220 [Abstract] ( 514 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (208 KB)  ( 130 )
221 HARMFUL DEGREE AND ECONOMIC THRESHOLD OF MANDARIN VOLE (MICROTUS MANDARINUS) IN AGRICULTURE AREA ON LOESS PLATEAU IN THE WEST OF HENAN
HUANG Huimin,WANG Tingzheng
Mmdarin vole is one species of primary destructive rodents in agriculture area in the west of Henan. The population density and the harmful degree of Mmdarin vole at Chengcun Country in Lingbao city of Henan province were studied from August 1993 to March 1995,and got the economic threshold of its prevention. Four harmful degrees were stipulated and got the threshold for wheat x=133.9 for soybean x=181.1,At this density of Mandarin vole, prevention must be started in order to get a good economic result.
1999 Vol. 19 (3): 221-226 [Abstract] ( 808 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (140 KB)  ( 145 )
227 LYING-OUT BEHAVIOUR IN FAWNS AND VIGILANCE IN DAMS OF THE CHINESE WATER DEER UNDER SEMI-NATURAL CONDITION
ZHANG Endi
1999 Vol. 19 (3): 227-230 [Abstract] ( 470 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (165 KB)  ( 95 )
231 ARCHITECTURE AND FUNCTION OF BADGER (MELES MELES) SETTS IN BASIN OF YI SHU, AND SI SHUI IN CHINA
YE Xiaodi,MA Yong,WANG Hairun,Dong Anyu
1999 Vol. 19 (3): 231-232 [Abstract] ( 411 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (121 KB)  ( 104 )
233 THE CAPTIVE BREEDING OF CHINESE LEOPARD(PANTHERA PARDUS)
ZHANG Zhihe,LU Wenqi,WANG Xingliang,WANG Chengdong,HOU Rong,SONG Yunfang,HE GuangXin
1999 Vol. 19 (3): 233-236 [Abstract] ( 465 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (129 KB)  ( 108 )
237 STUDY ON THE CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF FAT OIL IN FAT OF MYOSPALAX BAILEYI
ZHANG Xiaofeng  ZHANGBaochen
1999 Vol. 19 (3): 237-239 [Abstract] ( 407 ) HTML (1 KB)  PDF (125 KB)  ( 119 )
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